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## Characterizing pairwise intercontact patterns in delay tolerant networks (2007)

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Venue: | in Proc ACM Autonomics |

Citations: | 36 - 4 self |

### Citations

3283 |
An introduction to probability theory and its applications Vol II.
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- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ving the paradox in the exponential case is given by a classical result by Bernstein which states that any completely monotone PDF can be obtained as the mixture of exponential PDF’s (see for example =-=[8]-=-). Let’s examine how this translates in our case. Let Θ be the aggregate inter-contact time for all pairs of nodes. Let’s write K = n(n−1)/2 and renumber the pairwise inter-contacts Tk from 1 to K. We... |

3108 | Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, in: Mobile Computing,
- Johnson, Maltz
- 1996
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Citation Context ...cheduled meeting times [12]. Focus then turned to the sort of randomness in meeting times encountered in mobile ad-hoc networks [10, 23], and characterised in mobility models such as Random Way-Point =-=[13]-=-, and Random Walk [6]. These models yield homogeneous patterns, where all nodes share a single inter-contact time distribution. Spyropoulos et al. model mobility of nodes as independent random walks o... |

953 | A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets,”
- Fall
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l cases and show analytically how the aggregation of pairwise inter-contacts may lead to aggregate inter-contacts with power laws of various degrees. 1. INTRODUCTION In delay tolerant networks (DTNs) =-=[7]-=- nodes are typically mobile and have wireless networking capabilities. They are able to communicate with each other only when they are within transmission range. The network suffers from frequent conn... |

718 | Reality mining: sensing complex social systems.
- Eagle, Pentland
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... This results in a homogeneous DTN (a network where the mobility of nodes results in all pairwise inter-contacts to follow exactly the same law). More recent work has analysed experimental data sets =-=[11, 3, 5]-=- that record actual inter-contact patterns that occurred between people in a number of different environments. Chaintreau et al. [3], from observations on those data sets, proposed to model the sequen... |

621 | Routing in a delay tolerant network,”
- Jain, Fall, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cases and show analytically how the aggregation of pairwise inter-contacts may lead to aggregate inter-contacts with power laws of various degrees. Initial DTN work focused on scheduled meeting times =-=[12]-=-. Focus then turned to the sort of randomness in meeting times encountered in mobile ad-hoc networks [10, 23], and characterised in mobility models such as Random Way-Point [13], and Random Walk [6]. ... |

415 | A brief history of generative models for power laws and lognormal distributions.
- Mitzenmacher
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f log-normals as they do not lead as easily as exponentials to simple closed form formulas. Montroll and Shlesinger [20] show that a geometric mixture of log-normals yields a power-law, and Reed [22] =-=[19]-=- show that stopping a log-normal multiplicative growth at a random exponential time yields a power-law distribution. None of these results deal with aggregate estimates nor do they apply directly. In ... |

370 |
Investigations on the theory of the Brownian movement (Dover,
- Einstein
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [12]. Focus then turned to the sort of randomness in meeting times encountered in mobile ad-hoc networks [10, 23], and characterised in mobility models such as Random Way-Point [13], and Random Walk =-=[6]-=-. These models yield homogeneous patterns, where all nodes share a single inter-contact time distribution. Spyropoulos et al. model mobility of nodes as independent random walks on a torus, and use it... |

322 | The changing usage of a mature campus-wide wireless network.
- Henderson, Kotz, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... This results in a homogeneous DTN (a network where the mobility of nodes results in all pairwise inter-contacts to follow exactly the same law). More recent work has analysed experimental data sets =-=[11, 3, 5]-=- that record actual inter-contact patterns that occurred between people in a number of different environments. Chaintreau et al. [3], from observations on those data sets, proposed to model the sequen... |

257 | Impact of human mobility on the design of opportunistic forwarding algorithms,” in
- Chaintreau, Hui, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es at a given time. Examples from the recent literature include the DieselNet project [26], which features communication devices deployed in a regional bus system, and Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) =-=[3]-=-, which are formed by devices that people carry every day, such as cell phones, PDAs, and music players. In contexts such as these, end-to-end paths can exist temporarily, or may sometimes never exist... |

195 | Power law and exponential decay of inter contact times between mobile devices.
- Karagiannis, Boudec, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...haintreau et al. [3], from observations on those data sets, proposed to model the sequence of contacts as a discrete renewal process, and study powerlaw distributed inter-contacts. Karagiannis et al. =-=[15]-=- analyse the mobility traces and explain the observed exponential tail behavior of inter-contact times with a simple random walk on a two dimensional torus followed by all nodes in the network. In thi... |

137 | Practical routing in delay-tolerant networks."
- Jones
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h the Dartmouth data is not from a DTN network, we use it because it is perhaps the richest data set publicly available that tracks users in a campus setting, and because of its quality. Jones et al. =-=[14]-=-, Leguay et al. [18], and Chaintreau et al. [3] have recently used these traces in a similar way. A few judicious assumptions are required to adapt the Dartmouth data for DTN studies. First, we only c... |

131 | Single-copy routing in intermittently connected mobile networks.
- Spyropoulous, Psounis, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s share a single inter-contact time distribution. Spyropoulos et al. model mobility of nodes as independent random walks on a torus, and use it to analyse the performance of different routing schemes =-=[25]-=-. Their model considers all pairs of nodes to follow the same law, with the same parameters. This results in a homogeneous DTN (a network where the mobility of nodes results in all pairwise inter-cont... |

110 | Evaluating mobility pattern space routing for DTNs.
- Leguay
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is not from a DTN network, we use it because it is perhaps the richest data set publicly available that tracks users in a campus setting, and because of its quality. Jones et al. [14], Leguay et al. =-=[18]-=-, and Chaintreau et al. [3] have recently used these traces in a similar way. A few judicious assumptions are required to adapt the Dartmouth data for DTN studies. First, we only consider the subset o... |

106 | A Community based Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Network Research,
- Musolesi, Mascolo
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) and Random Way-Point [13] have been very popular [10, 23]. More recent work has extended these initial models with proposals to better match patterns observed in real mobility data. Musolesi et al. =-=[21]-=- propose a model in which the movements of nodes are driven by social relationships. Bohacek [16] designed a mobility model of individuals in urban settings based on a recent US Bureau of Labor Statis... |

96 | Evaluating Location Predictors with Extensive Wi-Fi Mobility Data,
- Song, Kotz
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [1]. Dartmouth data This connectivity data set has been inferred from traces collected in the Wi-Fi access network of Dartmouth College [11]. The traces that we use were pre-processed by Song et al. =-=[24]-=- for their prior work on mobility prediction. They track users’ sessions in the wireless network, noting the time at which nodes associate and dissociate from access points. Although the Dartmouth dat... |

92 | Delay Tolerant Mobile Networks (DTMNs): Controlled Flooding Schemes in Sparse Mobile Networks”,
- Harras, Almeroth, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntacts with power laws of various degrees. Initial DTN work focused on scheduled meeting times [12]. Focus then turned to the sort of randomness in meeting times encountered in mobile ad-hoc networks =-=[10, 23]-=-, and characterised in mobility models such as Random Way-Point [13], and Random Walk [6]. These models yield homogeneous patterns, where all nodes share a single inter-contact time distribution. Spyr... |

51 | Building Realistic Mobility Models from Coarse-Grained Traces,”
- Yoon, Noble, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tes). Note that defining better filtering methods, although challenging, would be of interest for the community. As this is not the purpose of this work, we choose here the threshold that Yoon et al. =-=[27]-=- used for the same purpose. We use this inferred data set for the remainder of this paper. Fig. 1 presents, for all the data sets, the evolution over time of the total number of contacts that occurred... |

24 |
On 1/f Noise and Other Distributions with Long Tails
- Montroll, Shlesinger
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ld aggregate power law inter-contacts. Limited analytical results exist on mixture of log-normals as they do not lead as easily as exponentials to simple closed form formulas. Montroll and Shlesinger =-=[20]-=- show that a geometric mixture of log-normals yields a power-law, and Reed [22] [19] show that stopping a log-normal multiplicative growth at a random exponential time yields a power-law distribution.... |

15 | A survey-based mobility model of people for simulation of urban mesh networks
- Kim, Bohacek
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...initial models with proposals to better match patterns observed in real mobility data. Musolesi et al. [21] propose a model in which the movements of nodes are driven by social relationships. Bohacek =-=[16]-=- designed a mobility model of individuals in urban settings based on a recent US Bureau of Labor Statistics time-use study. Legendre et al. [17] question whether microscopic mobility behaviors are val... |

14 |
The Pareto Law of Incomes— An Explanation and An Extension
- Reed
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure of log-normals as they do not lead as easily as exponentials to simple closed form formulas. Montroll and Shlesinger [20] show that a geometric mixture of log-normals yields a power-law, and Reed =-=[22]-=- [19] show that stopping a log-normal multiplicative growth at a random exponential time yields a power-law distribution. None of these results deal with aggregate estimates nor do they apply directly... |

12 | A framework for opportunistic forwarding in disconnected networks
- Carreras, Miorandi, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... In this way it provides a common framework to analyse different DTNs. The traditional Random Way Point and Random Walk mobility models for ad-hoc networks fall in this category (see Carreras et al. =-=[2]-=-). More generally, the model would allow one to capture the different forms of heterogeneity that we have identified in the data sets of Sec. 2. 3.2 Aggregated Exponentials In this section we address ... |

10 |
Last encounter routing under random waypoint mobility
- Sarafijanovic-Djukic, Grossglauser
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntacts with power laws of various degrees. Initial DTN work focused on scheduled meeting times [12]. Focus then turned to the sort of randomness in meeting times encountered in mobile ad-hoc networks =-=[10, 23]-=-, and characterised in mobility models such as Random Way-Point [13], and Random Walk [6]. These models yield homogeneous patterns, where all nodes share a single inter-contact time distribution. Spyr... |

9 | Reconsider microscopic mobility modeling for self-organizing networks
- Legendre, Borrel, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts of nodes are driven by social relationships. Bohacek [16] designed a mobility model of individuals in urban settings based on a recent US Bureau of Labor Statistics time-use study. Legendre et al. =-=[17]-=- question whether microscopic mobility behaviors are valuable to represent mobility with more realness and their influence on important characteristics (e.g., link duration distribution). Francois et ... |

6 | Predictable disruption tolerant networks and delivery guarantees,” Arxiv
- Francois, Leduc
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stion whether microscopic mobility behaviors are valuable to represent mobility with more realness and their influence on important characteristics (e.g., link duration distribution). Francois et al. =-=[9]-=- proposes a framework for formalizing the behavior contact patterns in situations in which each node knows the probability distributions for its contacts with other nodes. Carreras et al. [2] 1e+06 pr... |

3 |
Bus-based Disruption Tolerant Network,” http: //prisms.cs.umass.edu/diesel
- UMassDieselNet
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tially connected. This means that there is no guarantee that an end-to-end path exists between a given pair of nodes at a given time. Examples from the recent literature include the DieselNet project =-=[26]-=-, which features communication devices deployed in a regional bus system, and Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) [3], which are formed by devices that people carry every day, such as cell phones, PDAs, a... |