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## Review Article Distributed Cooperative Regulation for Multiagent Systems and Its Applications to Power Systems: A Survey

### Citations

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Citation Context ...ods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality =-=[89]-=-, LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to the communication structure. High centrality nodes ... |

3849 | Emergence of scaling in random networks.
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Citation Context ...re the authors turned to seek the minimum density of controllers for controlling the spatially extended chaotic systems. With the discoveries of the smallworld network [16] and the scale-free network =-=[17]-=-, complex networks have witnessed unprecedented developments in The Scientific World Journal 3 Figure 2: The communication structure for centralized control. various fields, and the discussions of syn... |

1053 | Consensus problems in networks of agents with switching topology and time-delays,”
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Citation Context ...e in the investigation of cooperative control of events in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization [2], consensus =-=[3, 4]-=-, swarming [5], flocking [6], and rendezvous [7]. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natural phenomena (scho... |

521 |
A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness,
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Citation Context ... highly connected nodes to be pinned [20]. On the other hand, one can also utilize the following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality =-=[84, 85]-=-, closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can b... |

418 | Flocking for multi-agent dynamic systems: Algorithms and theory,”
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Citation Context ...rative control of events in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization [2], consensus [3, 4], swarming [5], flocking =-=[6]-=-, and rendezvous [7]. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natural phenomena (school of fish, bird flock, and ... |

416 | Consensus seeking in multiagent systems under dynamically changing interaction topologies,”
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Citation Context ...e in the investigation of cooperative control of events in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization [2], consensus =-=[3, 4]-=-, swarming [5], flocking [6], and rendezvous [7]. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natural phenomena (scho... |

177 |
The centrality index of a graph,”
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Citation Context ...inned [20]. On the other hand, one can also utilize the following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality =-=[86]-=-, eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the node... |

89 |
Node centrality in weighted networks: Generalizing degree and shortest paths.”
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Citation Context ...anning forest of the interaction graph. Some high ControlRank (CR) nodes [94] have been chosen to be pinned. One can also make use of the closeness centrality of the weighted directed networks method =-=[95]-=- to decide whether the nodes should be pinned or not. In [96], the authors have proposed a selective method based on the pinned candidates set composed of the nodes whose outdegree is bigger than thei... |

87 | Synchronization in complex networks
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Citation Context ...arkable increase in the investigation of cooperative control of events in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization =-=[2]-=-, consensus [3, 4], swarming [5], flocking [6], and rendezvous [7]. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natur... |

77 | Subgraph centrality in complex networks,
- Estrada, Rodrguez-Velzquez
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality =-=[88]-=-, PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to the communication structu... |

75 |
Collective dynamics of “smallworld” networks,”Nature,
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Citation Context ... in the literature [14, 15], where the authors turned to seek the minimum density of controllers for controlling the spatially extended chaotic systems. With the discoveries of the smallworld network =-=[16]-=- and the scale-free network [17], complex networks have witnessed unprecedented developments in The Scientific World Journal 3 Figure 2: The communication structure for centralized control. various fi... |

62 |
Tracking control for multi-agent consensus with an active leader and variable topology,”
- Hong, Hu, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le leaders and multiple followers in the multiagent network, such a tracking problem is the containment control. For a multiagent system, consensus tracking control has been introduced in Hong et al. =-=[12]-=-, where the state of the leader is time varying and not measured; in order to track such a leader, a neighbor-based local controller together with a neighbor-based state estimation rule was proposed f... |

55 |
Some unique properties of eigenvector centrality
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., one can also utilize the following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality =-=[87]-=-, subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to... |

45 |
Betweenness centrality in large complex networks.
- Barthelemy
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... highly connected nodes to be pinned [20]. On the other hand, one can also utilize the following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality =-=[84, 85]-=-, closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can b... |

42 | On pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks,”Automatica, - Yu, Chen, et al. - 2009 |

39 | Pinning control of scale-free dynamical networks,”
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iently large. However, in most practical cases, the coupling strength is small and the network needs to be controlled to a desired homogeneous trajectory. The pinning control strategy was proposed in =-=[20]-=- for the scale-free dynamical network, where specifically and randomly pinning schemes were employed to synchronize the dynamical network. Furthermore, Li et al. [21] proposed the concept of virtual c... |

39 |
Distributed observers design for leader-following control of multi-agent networks,”
- Hong, Chen, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gent networkwhich does not contain a directed spanning tree. In fact, leader-following consensus can be regarded as pinning consensus as well. Leader-follower models were introduced in the literature =-=[12, 41, 42]-=- where agents in the system can be categorized as leaders and followers. A leader can be viewed as an objective node which can perceive more information in order to guide the whole group, while a foll... |

38 |
Pinning a complex dynamical network to its equilibrium,”
- Li, Wang, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... control strategy was proposed in [20] for the scale-free dynamical network, where specifically and randomly pinning schemes were employed to synchronize the dynamical network. Furthermore, Li et al. =-=[21]-=- proposed the concept of virtual control and studied the pining control problem for a complex dynamical network. The concept of pinning controllability had been introduced in [1] for general complex d... |

33 |
Containment control in mobile networks,”
- Ji, Ferrari-Trecate, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntainment control is a combination of formation and rendezvous problem and as such it is of interest for UAV formation control, robot swarms, and attitude control of rigid bodies [13]. The authors in =-=[56, 57]-=- investigated the problem of driving a collection of mobile robots to a given target location in the context of partial difference equations by a decentralized control strategy for the followers, and ... |

32 | Pinning complex networks by a single controller,”
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t: the uncontrolled sites and the reference (controlled) ones. It has been shown that the latter plays the role of leading the whole network towards a given (desired) reference evolution. Chen et al. =-=[22]-=- proved that a single controller can pin a coupled complex network to a homogenous trajectory if the network coupling strength is sufficiently large. In [23], the authors established some sufficient c... |

25 | Pinning adaptive synchronization of a general complex dynamical network,” - Zhou, Lu, et al. - 2008 |

22 | Distributed control for identical dynamically coupled systems: A decomposition approach.
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Citation Context ...39028, 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/139028 2 The Scientific World Journal Centralized controller Decentralized controller Distributed controller Figure 1: Three kinds of control strategies =-=[8]-=-. centralized control. The same is valid for underwater repair done by multiple underwater robots. Cooperative control studies can be traced back to the synchronization control of themaster-slave syst... |

21 | Leader-following consensus of multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies - Ni, Cheng - 2010 |

21 | Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control
- Ferrari-Trecate, Egerstedt, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntainment control is a combination of formation and rendezvous problem and as such it is of interest for UAV formation control, robot swarms, and attitude control of rigid bodies [13]. The authors in =-=[56, 57]-=- investigated the problem of driving a collection of mobile robots to a given target location in the context of partial difference equations by a decentralized control strategy for the followers, and ... |

20 |
Finite-time formation control for multi-agent systems
- Xiao, Wang, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... with each other such that a formation control objective can be achieved, and the followers communicate with each other such that they can converge to the formation based on the designed protocol. In =-=[81]-=-, finite-time formation control has been considered for a group of agents where the global formation information was only available for navigational leaders; meanwhile, the other following agents regu... |

18 |
Pinning control of spatiotemporal chaos
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tional efficiency based on the sparse communication network. In fact, such an idea comes from the pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks. Pinning control can be found in the literature =-=[14, 15]-=-, where the authors turned to seek the minimum density of controllers for controlling the spatially extended chaotic systems. With the discoveries of the smallworld network [16] and the scale-free net... |

17 |
Controllability of complex networks via pinning
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sed at the end of the paper. 1. Introduction The regulating of collective behaviors for multiple interacting units is of great importance for networked interconnected systems in practical engineering =-=[1]-=-. Because of the development of communication technologies, the past decade has witnessed a remarkable increase in the investigation of cooperative control of events in a multiagent system, where loca... |

16 |
Criteria for global pinning-controllability of complex network
- Porfiri, Bernardo
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(desired) reference evolution. Chen et al. [22] proved that a single controller can pin a coupled complex network to a homogenous trajectory if the network coupling strength is sufficiently large. In =-=[23]-=-, the authors established some sufficient conditions for global pinning controllability of a generic network of coupled oscillators to some desired solutions. The authors in [24] considered the stocha... |

16 | Leader-following consensus problem with a varying-velocity leader and time-varying delays,” - Peng, Yang - 2009 |

15 | Leader-following coordination of multiagent systems with coupling time delays,” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications,
- Hu, Hong
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gent networkwhich does not contain a directed spanning tree. In fact, leader-following consensus can be regarded as pinning consensus as well. Leader-follower models were introduced in the literature =-=[12, 41, 42]-=- where agents in the system can be categorized as leaders and followers. A leader can be viewed as an objective node which can perceive more information in order to guide the whole group, while a foll... |

15 | Distributed coordinated tracking with a dynamic leader for multiple Euler-Lagrange systems,”
- Mei, Ren
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d-order nonlinear multiagent systems [71], finite-time containment formultiple Lagrangian systems [72], and multiple rigid body systems [73]. Distributed containment control problemswere discussed in =-=[74, 75]-=- for nonlinear Euler-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator or adaptive control law under a directed communication topology. Some other nonlinear multiagent system cas... |

14 | A supermodular optimization framework for leader selection under link noise in linear multi-agent systems
- Clark, Bushnell, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olved by minimizing the maximal distance in the communication graph from the leader to the followers. Such a ... |

12 |
Distributed tracking control of leader-follower multi-agent systems under noisy measurement,”
- Hu, Feng
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ral pinning consensus problem; see Figure 3. Leader-follower models have been extensively studied in the literature in terms of controllability, formation, and target tracking [43–45]. The authors in =-=[46]-=- investigated the distributed tracking control for leader-follower multiagent system with measurement noises and directed interconnection topology. By using the iterative learning approach, tracking c... |

12 | Distributed finite-time attitude containment control for multiple rigid bodies,”Automatica,
- Meng, Ren, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ems has been investigated as well, such as containment for second-order nonlinear multiagent systems [71], finite-time containment formultiple Lagrangian systems [72], and multiple rigid body systems =-=[73]-=-. Distributed containment control problemswere discussed in [74, 75] for nonlinear Euler-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator or adaptive control law under a directe... |

11 | A leaderbased containment control strategy for multiple unicycles
- Dimarogonas, Egerstedt, et al.
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Citation Context ... leader, a neighbor-based local controller together with a neighbor-based state estimation rule was proposed for each autonomous agent such that all agents could follow the leader. Dimarogonas et al. =-=[13]-=- introduced a leader-based containment control strategy for multiple unicycle agents, where the leaders could converge to a desired formation and the followers could converge to the convex hull of the... |

11 | Distributed containment control for Lagrangian networks with parametric uncertainties under a directed graph,”
- Mei, Ren, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d-order nonlinear multiagent systems [71], finite-time containment formultiple Lagrangian systems [72], and multiple rigid body systems [73]. Distributed containment control problemswere discussed in =-=[74, 75]-=- for nonlinear Euler-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator or adaptive control law under a directed communication topology. Some other nonlinear multiagent system cas... |

10 | Master–slave synchronization of Luré systems with time-delay
- Yalcin, Suykens, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...entralized control. The same is valid for underwater repair done by multiple underwater robots. Cooperative control studies can be traced back to the synchronization control of themaster-slave system =-=[9]-=-, where there is a communication link between the node of themaster system and the node of the slave system, which is also known as the drive-response system. Along with the development of communicati... |

10 | Pinning control of complex dynamical networks with heterogeneous delays,” - Xiang, Chen, et al. - 2008 |

10 |
Reaching a consensus via pinning control
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he control center to the objective trajectory and the rest of the nodes communicated with each other to achieve the expected networked tracking. The following distributed pinning protocol is given in =-=[36]-=-: ?̇? ... |

10 |
Containment in leader-follower networks with switching communication topologies,”
- Notarstefano, Egerstedt, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...time-varying communication topology, switching always follows two different cases: random switching and Markov switching.Under the assumption that the union of undirected graphs is jointly connected, =-=[78]-=- considered the containment control problem in leader-following networks. By considering the dynamically/randomly switching topologies, [79] investigated the mean-square containment control for multia... |

9 |
Convergence analysis of the incremental cost consensus algorithm under different communication network topologies in a smart grid
- Zhang, Chow
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... control strategy could improve the control capability in the regulations of frequency and voltage. By selecting the incremental cost of each generation unit as the consensus variable, the authors in =-=[98]-=- introduced an incremental cost consensus (ICC) algorithm which was able to solve the conventional (centralized) economic dispatch problem of power systems in a distributed manner. Based on the cooper... |

8 |
Consensus tracking for multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics under fixed communication topologies,”
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Citation Context ...ince it covers the multiagent systems with integrator-type dynamics, linear dynamics, and nonlinear dynamics; meanwhile, first-order, second-order, and higher-order multiagent system are all possible =-=[18, 19]-=-. 2.2. Pinning Originated from Complex Dynamical Networks. A closely related research topic to consensus is the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The complex dynamical network is coupled ... |

8 |
Second-order leaderfollowing consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems via pinning control,”
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Citation Context ...= 0 indicates there is no control over the agent ... |

7 |
Rendezvous of multiple mobile agents with preserved network connectivity,”
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Citation Context ...ents in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization [2], consensus [3, 4], swarming [5], flocking [6], and rendezvous =-=[7]-=-. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natural phenomena (school of fish, bird flock, and herding) to physics/... |

7 |
Finite-time distributed consensus via binary control protocols,”Automatica
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Citation Context ...ld be improved, as the pinning nodes can be used to provide an accurate future state trajectory prediction due to the availability of the objective information shared with these nodes. The authors in =-=[39]-=- investigated finitetime distributed consensus problem for multiagent systems using a binary consensus protocol and the pinning control scheme. By using the Lie algebra theory, a linear node-andnode p... |

6 |
Controlling spatiotemporal chaos in coupled map lattice systems,” Phys
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Citation Context ...tional efficiency based on the sparse communication network. In fact, such an idea comes from the pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks. Pinning control can be found in the literature =-=[14, 15]-=-, where the authors turned to seek the minimum density of controllers for controlling the spatially extended chaotic systems. With the discoveries of the smallworld network [16] and the scale-free net... |

6 | On pinning synchronization of directed and undirected complex dynamical networks,” - Song, Cao - 2010 |

6 | Synchronization via pinning control on general complex networks - Yu, Chen, et al. |

6 | Distributed containment control of multi-agent systems with general linear dynamics in the presence ofmultiple leaders,” - Li, Ren, et al. - 2013 |

5 |
A graph-theoretic approach on optimizing informed-node selection inmulti-agent tracking control, Physica D 267
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Citation Context ...servability of complex systems. Yu et al. [33] investigated how to choose an optimal node to realize the pinning controllability of the complex network based on the cut graph theory. And recently, in =-=[34]-=-, the optimal choice for the ... |

5 | Leader-following consensus of second-order agents with multiple timevarying delays,” - Zhu, Cheng - 2010 |

5 |
Evolutionary pinning control and its application in UAV coordination
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications =-=[91, 92]-=-. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to the communication structure. High centrality nodes are always viewed as more important nodes in networks and th... |

5 |
Distributed cooperative secondary control of microgrids using feedback linearization
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Citation Context ...o a virtual power plant (VPP) in a distribution network. By input-output feedback linearization, the secondary voltage control problemwas converted to a linear second-order tracking consensus problem =-=[102]-=- and it was shown that the distributed structure could improve the system reliability. Similarly, distributed control was introduced in distribution networks for coordinating multiple energy storage (... |

4 |
Controllability of complex networks,”Nature,
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lem for pinning control is which nodes should be pinned and at least how many nodes should be pinned for undirected or directed network 4 The Scientific World Journal structures. Recently, Liu et al. =-=[31]-=- developed analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network based on the theory of maximum matching, which can identify the set of driver nodes with time-dependen... |

4 | Distributed tracking control for linear multiagent systems with a leader of bounded unknown input
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Citation Context ...eader whose control input was nonzero and not available The Scientific World Journal 5 Leaders Followers Figure 4: Containment control structure of leader-following multiagent system. to any follower =-=[48]-=-. Xu et al. [49] considered the leaderfollowing consensus of nonlinear multiagent system under switching topologies where the union of all the topologies was jointly connected. While for consensus tra... |

4 | Pinning control of complex networked systems: A decade after and beyond - Wang, Su - 2014 |

4 | Distributed containment control for double-integrator dynamics: Algorithms and experiments - Cao, Stuart, et al. - 2010 |

4 | Necessary and sufficient conditions for containment control of networked multi-agent systems - Liu, Xie, et al. - 2012 |

4 |
Identifying influential nodes in complex networks, Physica A 391
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nodes or specifically themost highly connected nodes to be pinned [20]. On the other hand, one can also utilize the following centrality methods to choose the pinning nodes, such as: local centrality =-=[83]-=-, betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications [91, 92... |

4 | Leaders in social networks, the delicious case.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...des, such as: local centrality [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality =-=[90]-=-, and some applications [91, 92]. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to the communication structure. High centrality nodes are always viewed as more im... |

4 |
Node-to-node pinning control of complex networks,”Chaos
- Porfiri, Fiorilli
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty [83], betweenness centrality [84, 85], closeness centrality [86], eigenvector centrality [87], subgraph centrality [88], PageRank centrality [89], LeaderRank centrality [90], and some applications =-=[91, 92]-=-. These centrality methods can be utilized to rank the nodes in the network according to the communication structure. High centrality nodes are always viewed as more important nodes in networks and th... |

3 |
Cooperative control strategy for multiple photovoltaic generators in distribution networks
- Xin, Lu, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ontrol problems subjected to one ormultiple leaders, such as in power systems, the tracking of the expected regulation of the active and reactive power outputs ofmultiple photovoltaic (PV) generators =-=[10]-=-, and the tracking of the reference voltage/frequency for the interconnected distributed generation (DGs) [11]. When there is only one leader and multiple followers in the multiagent network, the corr... |

3 |
A hybrid model predictive control scheme for containment and distributed sensing in multi-agent systems
- Galbusera, Ferrari-Trecate, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a decentralized formation control strategy. At this point, the leaders stop and let the followers settle back into the leader polytope before they start moving again. Inspired by [57], the authors in =-=[58]-=- furthermore considered a hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) structure for containment and distributed sensing in a leader-following multiagent architecture. Containment control problems are ... |

3 | Distributed containment control with multiple dynamic leaders for double-integrator dynamics using only positionmeasurements,” - Li, Ren, et al. - 2012 |

3 | Containment control of heterogeneous multi-agent systems - Zheng, Wang - 2014 |

3 | Containment of linear multi-agent systems under general interaction topologies - Liu, Xie, et al. |

3 |
Localization of effective pinning control in complex networks of dynamical systems
- Wu
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ains. When the communication network is directed, how to select the appropriate pinned nodes is quite a challenging problem. In the literature, there have been several pinning strategies proposed. In =-=[93]-=-, it is suggested to pin the roots of trees in a spanning forest of the interaction graph. Some high ControlRank (CR) nodes [94] have been chosen to be pinned. One can also make use of the closeness c... |

2 |
Secondary control of microgrids based on distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems
- Bidram, Davoudi, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gulation of the active and reactive power outputs ofmultiple photovoltaic (PV) generators [10], and the tracking of the reference voltage/frequency for the interconnected distributed generation (DGs) =-=[11]-=-. When there is only one leader and multiple followers in the multiagent network, the corresponding tracking problem is affiliated to consensus tracking or pinning consensus; when there are multiple l... |

2 | Synchronization of hybrid-coupled heterogeneous networks: pinning control and impulsive control schemes - Hu, Liang, et al. - 2014 |

2 | Fast consensus via predictive pinning control
- Zhang, Chen, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stems with general network topologies and addressed what kind of agents and how many agents should be pinned. Based on the method of model predictive control (MPC) and pinning control, the authors in =-=[38]-=- showed that the consensus performances (i.e., the convergence speed towards consensus) could be improved, as the pinning nodes can be used to provide an accurate future state trajectory prediction du... |

2 | Consensus analysis of multiagent networks via aggregated and pinning approaches
- Xiong, Ho, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ibuted consensus problem for multiagent systems using a binary consensus protocol and the pinning control scheme. By using the Lie algebra theory, a linear node-andnode pinning method was proposed in =-=[40]-=- to achieve a consensus for the case of a directedmultiagent networkwhich does not contain a directed spanning tree. In fact, leader-following consensus can be regarded as pinning consensus as well. L... |

2 |
Tracking control over a finite interval for multi-agent systems with a time-varying reference trajectory
- Meng, Jia, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing control for leader-follower multiagent system with measurement noises and directed interconnection topology. By using the iterative learning approach, tracking control problems were considered in =-=[47]-=- for multiagent systems which were described by both discretetime and continuous-time models, where all agents in a directed graphwere enabled to track a time-varying reference trajectory perfectly ov... |

2 | Consensus tracking for higher-order multi-agent systems with switching directed topologies and occasionally missing control inputs - Chen - 2013 |

2 | Pinning control and synchronization on complex dynamical networks - Chen - 2014 |

2 |
Containment control of multi-agent systems by exploiting the control inputs of neighbors
- Liu, Xie, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r carried out in the single-/double-integrator agents with multiple stationary or dynamic leaders under fixed undirected/directed communication topologies [59–62] by distributed protocol. The authors =-=[63]-=- studied the containment control for continuoustime/discrete-time multiagent systems by proposing a new protocol which exploited the control input information of neighbors. While the containment contr... |

2 |
Distributed containment control of linear multi-agent systems,”Neurocomputing
- Ma, Miao
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the control input information of neighbors. While the containment control for linear multiagent system [64–66] has been considered recently, such as necessary and sufficient conditions were given in =-=[67, 68]-=- for discrete-time linear multiagent systems under both the state feedback and output feedback protocol cases. Robust ... |

2 |
Distributed finite-time containment control for multiple Lagrangian systems
- Meng, Ren, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... control for nonlinear multiagent systems has been investigated as well, such as containment for second-order nonlinear multiagent systems [71], finite-time containment formultiple Lagrangian systems =-=[72]-=-, and multiple rigid body systems [73]. Distributed containment control problemswere discussed in [74, 75] for nonlinear Euler-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator o... |

2 |
Pinning-controlled synchronization of hybrid-coupled complex dynamical networks with mixed time-delays
- Song, Cao, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (CR) nodes [94] have been chosen to be pinned. One can also make use of the closeness centrality of the weighted directed networks method [95] to decide whether the nodes should be pinned or not. In =-=[96]-=-, the authors have proposed a selective method based on the pinned candidates set composed of the nodes whose outdegree is bigger than their in-degree. Illuminated by the idea in [96], it is considere... |

2 |
et al., “Cooperative control strategy of energy storage system and microsources for stabilizing the microgrid during islanded operation
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- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uted Regulation. As for distributed cooperative control, consensus protocol and pinning tracking have been introduced in some application fields of power systems, especially in microgrids. Kim et al. =-=[97]-=- employed a cooperative control strategy to the islanded operation microsources and the energy storage system (ESS) and showed that such a control strategy could improve the control capability in the ... |

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Virtual power plant-based distributed control strategy for multiple distributed generators
- Xin, Gan, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ators [99, 100] such that all the PVs had the same reserve ratio with respect to their maximum available power, and the regulation output for multiple distributed generators (DGs) was investigated in =-=[101]-=- in a distributed fashion such that these generators could be developed into a virtual power plant (VPP) in a distribution network. By input-output feedback linearization, the secondary voltage contro... |

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Swarming behavior ofmulti-agent systems
- Chu
- 2004
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Citation Context ...ation of cooperative control of events in a multiagent system, where local interactions among the events can emerge some captivating phenomena, such as synchronization [2], consensus [3, 4], swarming =-=[5]-=-, flocking [6], and rendezvous [7]. This does not come as a surprise since such cooperative phenomenon lies in the heart of many real scenarios, ranging from some natural phenomena (school of fish, bi... |

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Global
- Li, Liu, et al.
- 2012
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Citation Context ...ince it covers the multiagent systems with integrator-type dynamics, linear dynamics, and nonlinear dynamics; meanwhile, first-order, second-order, and higher-order multiagent system are all possible =-=[18, 19]-=-. 2.2. Pinning Originated from Complex Dynamical Networks. A closely related research topic to consensus is the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The complex dynamical network is coupled ... |

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Pinning dynamic systems of networks with markovian switching couplings and controllernode set
- Han, Lu, et al.
- 2014
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Citation Context ...ufficiently large. In [23], the authors established some sufficient conditions for global pinning controllability of a generic network of coupled oscillators to some desired solutions. The authors in =-=[24]-=- considered the stochastic pinning synchronization of coupled dynamical system with Markovian switching couplings, where the coupling matrix and pinning feedback gain follow a common Markovian switchi... |

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Observability of complex systems
- Barabási
- 2013
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Citation Context ...ools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network based on the theory of maximum matching, which can identify the set of driver nodes with time-dependent control. The authors =-=[32]-=- further investigated the observability of complex systems. Yu et al. [33] investigated how to choose an optimal node to realize the pinning controllability of the complex network based on the cut gra... |

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A step forward to pinning control of complex networks: finding an optimal vertex to control
- Yu, Lü, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... based on the theory of maximum matching, which can identify the set of driver nodes with time-dependent control. The authors [32] further investigated the observability of complex systems. Yu et al. =-=[33]-=- investigated how to choose an optimal node to realize the pinning controllability of the complex network based on the cut graph theory. And recently, in [34], the optimal choice for the ... |

1 | Distributed finitetime tracking control for multi-agent systems: an observerbased approach - Zhao, Duan, et al. - 2013 |

1 | Consensus tracking of linear multi-agent systems under networked observability conditions - Diao, Duan, et al. - 2014 |

1 | Containment control for secondorder multi-agent systems with time-varying delays - Liu, Xie, et al. - 2014 |

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Cooperative containment of discrete-time linear multi-agent systems
- Ma, Lewis, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the control input information of neighbors. While the containment control for linear multiagent system [64–66] has been considered recently, such as necessary and sufficient conditions were given in =-=[67, 68]-=- for discrete-time linear multiagent systems under both the state feedback and output feedback protocol cases. Robust ... |

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Robust containment tracking of uncertain linearmulti-agent systems: a nonsmooth control approach
- Wen, Duan, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...agent systems under both the state feedback and output feedback protocol cases. Robust ... |

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Robust
- Wang, Jia
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...agent systems under both the state feedback and output feedback protocol cases. Robust ... |

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Distributed containment control of secondorder multi-agent systems with inherent non-linear dynamics
- Wang, Jia
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ated recently in [69, 70]. On the other hand, the containment control for nonlinear multiagent systems has been investigated as well, such as containment for second-order nonlinear multiagent systems =-=[71]-=-, finite-time containment formultiple Lagrangian systems [72], and multiple rigid body systems [73]. Distributed containment control problemswere discussed in [74, 75] for nonlinear Euler-Lagrange sys... |

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Distributed finite-time tracking control for nonlinear multi-agent systems subject to external disturbances
- Zhang, Yang, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator or adaptive control law under a directed communication topology. Some other nonlinear multiagent system cases were studied in =-=[76, 77]-=-. On the other hand, switching communication topology is an attractive research area, which has been considered in the designing of the distributed protocol. As a kind of time-varying communication to... |

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Distributed adaptive containment control of uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems in strict-feedback form
- Yoo
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r-Lagrange systems with parametric uncertainties by introducing estimator or adaptive control law under a directed communication topology. Some other nonlinear multiagent system cases were studied in =-=[76, 77]-=-. On the other hand, switching communication topology is an attractive research area, which has been considered in the designing of the distributed protocol. As a kind of time-varying communication to... |

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Mean square containment control of multi-agent systems with transmission noises
- Liu, Xie, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n that the union of undirected graphs is jointly connected, [78] considered the containment control problem in leader-following networks. By considering the dynamically/randomly switching topologies, =-=[79]-=- investigated the mean-square containment control for multiagent systems with transmission noises. The almost surely asymptotic containment was considered in [80] for a secondordermultiagent systemund... |

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Target containment control ofmulti-agent systems with random switching interconnection topologies
- Lou, Hong
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ically/randomly switching topologies, [79] investigated the mean-square containment control for multiagent systems with transmission noises. The almost surely asymptotic containment was considered in =-=[80]-=- for a secondordermultiagent systemunder the switching of a continuoustime irreducible Markov chain. Generally, the containment control problem of a group of ... |

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Containment control with multiple interacting leaders under switching topologies
- Liu, Cheng, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... only available for navigational leaders; meanwhile, the other following agents regulated their positions by the local information in a distributedmanner. Cooperative control has been investigated in =-=[82]-=- such that the leaders converged to a formation and the followers moved into the convex hull spanned by the leaders final positions under switching topologies. It deserves further investigations of di... |

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Pinning control of directed dynamical networks based on ControlRank
- Lu, Wang
- 2008
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Citation Context ...the literature, there have been several pinning strategies proposed. In [93], it is suggested to pin the roots of trees in a spanning forest of the interaction graph. Some high ControlRank (CR) nodes =-=[94]-=- have been chosen to be pinned. One can also make use of the closeness centrality of the weighted directed networks method [95] to decide whether the nodes should be pinned or not. In [96], the author... |

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A center-free control strategy for the coordination of multiple photovoltaic generators
- Xin, Lu, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alized) economic dispatch problem of power systems in a distributed manner. Based on the cooperative control strategies, the regulation output was considered for multiple photovoltaic (PV) generators =-=[99, 100]-=- such that all the PVs had the same reserve ratio with respect to their maximum available power, and the regulation output for multiple distributed generators (DGs) was investigated in [101] in a dist... |

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A new frequency regulation strategy for photovoltaic systems without energy storage
- Xin, Liu, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alized) economic dispatch problem of power systems in a distributed manner. Based on the cooperative control strategies, the regulation output was considered for multiple photovoltaic (PV) generators =-=[99, 100]-=- such that all the PVs had the same reserve ratio with respect to their maximum available power, and the regulation output for multiple distributed generators (DGs) was investigated in [101] in a dist... |