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### Citations

528 |
Introduction to Solid State Physics,
- Kittel
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...� 1 − 3 2 sin θ 2�� . (A2) We can see that the two-way speed of light anisotropy is null only in the case η = 1 (vacuum). This prediction is in agreement with modern ether drift experiments in vacuum =-=[36, 37]-=-, using two cavity-stabilized lasers and whose value is Δc ′ c ∼ 10−15 . (A3) In the gaseous mode, for instance air (η = 1.000226), a maximum value of Δc ′ /c happens in reference axis parallel to Ear... |

324 |
Thermal radiation heat transfer,
- Siegel, Howell
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al analysis, whatever physical mechanism is invoked for blackbody radiation, it should be independent of nuclear reactions, since all solids are able to emit some form of continuous thermal radiation =-=[20]-=-. If it is true that the frequency and amount of photons released by an object is related only to the amount of energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the lattice [10], it is easy to see why ... |

169 |
Stellar Structure and Evolution
- Kippenhahn, Weigert
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s to determine the possible number of chemical elements, along with atomic masses and atomic numbers up to the final entry in the Periodic Table. The calculations were performed on the basis of IUPAC =-=[3]-=- table data for all known elements. The basic principle resides in the idea that the proportion of the defined element Y in any chemical compound of molecular mass X should be related to its single gr... |

166 |
Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis
- Clayton
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y [1]. The WMAP satellite launched in 2001 has on board only differential instruments working similarly to the DMR on COBE, so its data accounts only for the weak (dipole) component of the Background =-=[2]-=-. The anisotropy in the Background measured by the differential instruments is actually the same: DMR at COBE registered the anisotropy 3.353±0.024 mK, while WMAP gave 3.346±0.017 mK. The main directi... |

114 | A Unifying Field in Logics: Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Statistics, third edition
- Smarandache
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roste/Weyl/(Hilbert) solution, as well as the true Schwarzschild solution [11], and the Brillouin solution [12], amongst the infinitude of particular solutions that the field equations admit. (Fiziev =-=[13]-=- has also shown that there exists an infinite number of solutions for the point-mass and that the Hilbert black hole is not consistent with general relativity.) In the gravitational field only the cir... |

112 |
The Theoq of Heat Radiation
- Planck
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... these methods often have recourse to gradient fields, in addition to RF fields, during spin excitation [37–39]. These approaches have been particularly important in the study of proteins in solution =-=[39]-=-. Using quantum selection, it is not unreasonable to expect spin excitation with factors of 1,000–10,000 or more in water suppression. Methods which rely on coherence pathway selection, or hetero-nucl... |

103 |
Radiative Processes in Astrophysics
- Rybicki, Lightman
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g to their own conclusions the validity of these limits rest upon the assumption that the prediction phase variations were not partially canceled. There are also experiments that have claimed success =-=[22, 23]-=-. Particularly, Silvertooth has claimed an experimental detection of the ether drift velocity using a device capable of detecting the beams arriving in opposite directions [23]. Silvertooth reported i... |

83 |
The observation and analysis of stellar photospheres (Cambridge Astrophysics Series), 2nd Edition
- Gray
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ents of an elementary normal mode then become [3–6] and Er = −ig0 R5/θ , (22) Eϕ = g0 δ(sin α)R3 , (23) Ez = g0 δ 2 R4 (24) Br = −Eϕ/c(sin α) = −g0 δR3/c , (25) Bϕ = Er(sin α)/c = −ig0 (sin α)R5/θc , =-=(26)-=- Bz = −ig0 δR8/θc . (27) 28 B. Lehnert. Momentum of the Pure Radiation FieldsJanuary, 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 1 Here we have introduced g0 = G0/δ 2 where G0 is the characteristic amplitude of ... |

75 |
The Internal Constitution of the Stars
- Eddington
- 1926
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ume 1 We also suggest a new kind of Doppler frequency shift which can be predicted using Nottale-type gravitational Bohrradius, by taking into consideration varying G parameter as described by Moffat =-=[7]-=-. To our knowledge this proposition of new type of redshift corresponding to gravitational Bohrradius has never been considered before elsewhere. Further observation is of course recommended in order ... |

58 |
Fundamental of heat transfer
- Chapman
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...In addition to the “CMB” monopole, the COBE satellite reports a dipole signature associated with motion [7], confirming Relikt-1 findings [13]. The WMAP satellite has also detected this dipole signal =-=[19]-=-. The dipole is thought to reflect a doppler phenomenon associated with motion of the local group. Based on COBE measurements, the dipole has an amplitude of 3.353±0.024 mK in a direction (l, b) = = (... |

57 | Solar models: current epoch and time dependences, neutrinos, and helioseismological properties. Astrophys
- Bahcall, Pinsonneault, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the speed of light have been made. In most cases, the tests involve the so called round-trip test of light-speed isotropy like Michelson-Morley experiment and all its variants. Particularly, Miller =-=[15, 16]-=- has claimed a non-null results in the M-M experiments. These aspects are presented in Appendix. On the other hand, there are also several one-way test of light isotropy experiments. In most cases, th... |

56 |
Process Physics: From Information Theory to Quantum Space and
- Cahill, 2005a
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nt, we express the equations in terms of physically observable quantities. Mathematical methods for calculating observable quantities in General Relativity were invented by A. Zelmanov, in the 1940’s =-=[1, 2, 3]-=-. We now present a brief account thereof. A regular observer perceives four-dimensional space as the three-dimensional spatial section x0 = const, pierced at each point by time lines xi = const. ∗ The... |

49 |
Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities, Addison-We y
- Penner
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eland mean opacities is unsatisfactory. The requirements set on opacity by Eddington for the radiative zone are contrary to our knowledge of thermal emission spectra in either gases or plasmas (e.g., =-=[45, 46]-=-). As mentioned above, the production of a Planckian spectrum must involve a Planckian process and not the summation of many non-Planckian spectra. The “opacity problem” represents the greatest single... |

42 |
Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum
- Planck
- 1901
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e sea level. COBE also reaffirmed the presence of a dipole signal presumably associated with motion of the local group. The dipole signature had been clearly observed by the Soviet Relikt-1 satellite =-=[13]-=-, nearly 10 years earlier. Eventually, the WMAP satellite would affirm the existence of the dipole signal [14–16]. 2 COBE and the assignment of temperatures 2.1 The “CMB” monopole In acquiring the “CM... |

41 |
The sun: An introduction
- Stix
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...explain the observed rotation curves. The baryonic matter in a single QCM quantization state produces the correct rotational velocity for the cluster. 2 Conceptual review of QCM In a series of papers =-=[3, 4, 5]-=-, we derived a Schrödinger-like scalar wave equation from the general relativistic HamiltonJacobi equation via a tranformation that utilizes the total angular momentum of the gravitationally bound sys... |

35 | The Michelson and Morley 1887 Experiment and the Discovery of Absolute Motion
- Cahill, 2005b
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ule that all and only those men who do not shave themselves are shaved by the barber. It turns out that the only way for this paradox to work is if the statement is both true and false simultaneously =-=[14]-=-. This brings us to fuzzy Bayesian approach [14] as an extension of (3): where [14, p. 339]: P (si|M) = p (M |si) p (si) p (M) p (M |si) = , (4) r� p (xk |si) μM(xk) . (5) k=1 QM, special relativity a... |

32 | Dynamical Fractal 3-Space and the Generalised Schrödinger Equation: Equivalence Principle and Vorticity
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...effect [5a]. Another possibility is to explain redshift quantization from the viewpoint of Weyl-Moyal quantization theory [25]. It is shown that Schrödinger equation can be derived from Weyl approach =-=[8]-=-, therefore quantization in this sense comes from “graph”-type quantization. In large scale phenomena like galaxy redshift quantization one could then ask whether there is possibility of “super-graph”... |

31 |
1879: Über die Beziehung zwischen der Wärmestrahlung und der Temperatur
- Stefan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to know exactly how many photons the Sun could produce to support this hypothesis. Not sufficiently considering Kirchhoff’s work [10], Eddington incorrectly believed that Stefan’s law was universal =-=[11]-=-. He then applied this law to estimating the amount of photons produced. Given the dimensions involved, and the temperatures hypothesized for the solar interior, this photon output would have been tre... |

31 |
The Physics of Phonons
- Srivastava
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tal bias. The calibration will be done in the next search with active rotation which is free of the DRIFT-long-term timing variation. Before publication of this paper we were informed by V. Gurzadyan =-=[34, 35]-=- of a similar study on anisotropy of the one way velocity of light relative to the dipole of the CMBR based on the Compton edge of laser photons scattered in electron beam at GRAAL ESRF (Grenoble) acc... |

29 | Absolute motion and gravitational effects
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s can be achieved by substituting the current operator Eq. 2 into Eq. 1 and determining the expectation value [19] and after simple algebraic steps, we get a formula for the shot noise spectrum P (ω) =-=[20]-=- as: P (ω) = 2eP0 h � α,β �∞ 0 dε |Γ(ε)| fαF D(ε) × × � 1 − fβF D(ε + nˉhω) � , (10) where P0 is the Poissonian shot noise spectrum and fβF D(ε + n∇ω) are the Fermi distribution functions. The tunneli... |

27 |
On the validity of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission
- Robitaille
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ersons who will refer to the measurement of the Sun’s absolute velocity determined by me in 1975/76 to cite always the corrected figures given here and not the wrongly calculated figures presented in =-=[2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11]-=- and in some others of my papers. 5 Conclusions Comparing the figures obtained now by the Graz variation of my “coupled shutters” experiment with the figures obtained some ten years ago in Sofia by th... |

25 | Quantum Theory of a Relativistic Surface - Hoppe - 1982 |

25 |
On the theoretical temperature of the sun under the hypothesis of a gaseous mass maintaining its volume by its internal heat and depending on the laws of gases known to terrestial experiment
- Lane
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s difficult to interpret from the physical point of view. This discrepancy requires further investigation. In this connection it should finally be mentioned that the present axisymmetric photon model =-=[3, 6]-=- is radially polarized. The core of a dense light beam being treated earlier [8] consists on the other hand of a linearly polarized conventional electromagnetic wave, with a boundary region having a r... |

25 |
Über das Verhältnis zwischen dem Emissionsvermögen und dem Absorptionsvermögen. der Körper für Wärme und Licht, Poggendorfs Annalen der Physik und Chemie 109: 275-301. (English translation by Guthrie
- Kirchhoff
- 1860
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure, namely a solid graphite box [10]. Langley’s use of Planckian arguments [11–13, 39, 41, 42] to set a temperature for the photosphere constitutes a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission =-=[10, 43, 44]-=-. The presence of local thermal equilibrium is central to the assignment of any temperature based on thermodynamic arguments [10, 39]. Eddington’s need to shift the solar spectrum to lower frequencies... |

24 |
Modern Michelson-Morley experiment using cryogenic optical resonators
- Müller
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onents characterizes transport properties of electrons such as photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) [2–6]. Shot noise measurements provide a powerful tool to study electron transport in mesoscopic systems =-=[7]-=-. Shot noise can be enhanced in devices with superconducting leads by virtue of the Andreev-reflection process taking place at the interface between a semiconductor and superconductor [8–10]. A remark... |

23 |
The roland de witte 1991 experiment
- Cahill, 2006d
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nergy of the medium that fills the spaces (the same as for the energy of the space non-holonomic field) transforms into heat and radiations within the star by the stellar energy mechanism as shown in =-=[8, 9]-=-. In other words, a star “absorbs” the energy of the non-holonomity fields of the spaces wherein it is orbiting, then transforms the energy into heat and radiations. Employing this mechanism in an Ear... |

23 |
Thermophysical Properties of Matter
- Touloukian, Witt
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsertion of relations (13)–(17) into the expression (7) for the volume force then yields E ′ = 0. Further turning to the momentum density (8) of the radiation field, relations (13)–(17) give gx = 0 , =-=(18)-=- � 2 gy = δε0 Ex + E 2 y/(sin α) 2� /c , (19) � 2 Ex + E 2 y/(sin α) 2� /c . (20) gz = ε0 Finally the power term in the energy equation (9) vanishes because relations (10), (13), and (14) combine to E... |

22 |
Astrophysics of the Sun
- Zirin
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y made recourse to the laws of thermal radiation, obtaining a temperature of 3.5±1.0 K [1]. Although the cosmos can never meet the requirements for enclosure set forth by Kirchhoff [2], Dicke et. al. =-=[5]-=- would ultimately assign the signal to the average temperature of the Universe. Penzias and Wilson were thought to have discovered the “CMB”, a powerful signal bathing everything. The COBE satellite [... |

21 |
On the Fundamental Equations of ElectroMagnetics for Bodies
- Hertz
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...used instead of equation (10), which yields: � � Φ = q A ∙ dr + m Ω × r ∙ dr = �� ∞� = B ∙ dS = j=0 ˉh j Sj (E) . (23) The above method is known as “graph kinematic” [25] or Weyl-Moyal’s quantization =-=[26]-=-. We could also expect to find Hall effect quantization from this deformation quantization method. Consider a harmonic oscillator, which equation can be expressed in the form of deformation quantizati... |

19 | Novel gravity probe B frame-dragging effect
- Cahill, 2005b
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...“both can be right”, as described in Table 1 below. In Belnap’s four-valued logic there are, besides Truth (T) and Falsehood (F), also Uncertainty (U) and Contradiction (C) but they are inter-related =-=[30]-=-. Belnap’s logic is a particular case of Neutrosophic Logic (which considers three components: Truth, Falsehood, and Indeterminacy (I)) when indeterminacy is split into Uncertainty and Contradiction. ... |

13 |
Über die Energieverteilung in Emissionspektrum eines schwarzen Körpers
- Wien
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to 0.007 [11]. All statistical significance is removed to account for systematic error arising from the galactic cut [11]. The inequality in these two numbers was later reexamined. In Mather et al. =-=[12]-=-, the absolute value of the “CMB” temperature assigned using FIRAS, and the external calibrator, is shifted to 2.725± ±0.002 K (2σ; 95% confidence interval). The change is attributed to systematic err... |

13 |
Phonons: Theory and experiments I
- Bruesch
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tal bias. The calibration will be done in the next search with active rotation which is free of the DRIFT-long-term timing variation. Before publication of this paper we were informed by V. Gurzadyan =-=[34, 35]-=- of a similar study on anisotropy of the one way velocity of light relative to the dipole of the CMBR based on the Compton edge of laser photons scattered in electron beam at GRAAL ESRF (Grenoble) acc... |

12 |
Thermodynamics with quantum statistical illustrations
- Landsberg
- 1961
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...k [10] highlights that the Sun cannot meet the requirements for a blackbody, as set down by Kirchhoff, for the simple reason that it is not in thermal equilibrium with a perfectly absorbing enclosure =-=[9, 19]-=-. The analysis of the Sun is a non equilibrium problem, as manifested by the presence of convection currents, solar eruptions, solar wind, and emission of light without confinement. All transport proc... |

12 |
Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory. Artech House
- Ulaby, Moore, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to establish that the oceans are not blackbody in nature. At the Nadir angle (view is normal to the water surface), the sea surface appears with a brightness temperature of less than 100 K at 1.4 GHz =-=[33]-=-. In addition, the brightness temperature of salt water can be relatively independent of actual temperature [33]. When larger observation angles are used, the brightness temperature of sea water rapid... |

11 | Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection
- Cahill
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n case (Fig. 2). The Schottky barrier height, Vb, was calculated by using a MonteCarlo technique [24] and found to be equal to 0.47 eV. This value is in good agreement with those found by the authors =-=[25]-=-. As shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the normalized shot noise spectrum exhibits resonances at certain frequencies for both absorption and emission processes. The present results show that the Coulomb osc... |

11 |
An Introduction to Radiative Transfer
- Peraiah
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ole signature is noticeably clean. However, based on the extent of the oceanic surface, and the known behavior of the oceans in the microwave, it is inappropriate to model the Earth as a 285 K source =-=[21]-=-. Water is a good absorber of microwave power. This forms the basis of practical microwave applications. In addition, submarine communications, at microwave frequencies, Fig. 1: Brightness temperature... |

11 |
Experimental determination of wave-lengths in the invisible spectrum
- Langley
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uilibrium with an enclosure (e.g., [9, 19]). Furthermore, it possesses convection currents rendering it unsuitable as a candidate in blackbody radiation [10, 39]. As such, it was improper for Langley =-=[41, 42]-=- to set a temperature of the photosphere at ∼6,000 K, simply because a thermal emission spectrum was present. The proper assignment of a temperature based on thermal arguments depends on the known pre... |

11 |
A Third generation water bath based blackbody source
- Fowler
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ility found in the galactic foreground. It has been well established in astrophysics that galaxies can contain Active Galactic Nuclei. These have been studied extensively outside the microwave region =-=[47]-=-. These nuclei can vary by an order of magnitude in certain frequency bands [47]. Even in the microwave, it is clear that our own galaxy is highly variable from year to year. This is evidenced by the ... |

10 |
Mathematics for Physical Chemistry
- Mortimer
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts in chronological order using the anisotropy of the CMBR are summarized. Southern Hemisphere airborne measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation by Smoot and Lubin =-=[31]-=- (1979 — Lima, Peru) are in essential agreement with previous measurements from the northern hemisphere and the first-order anisotropy is readily interpreted as resulting from a motion of the Sun rela... |

10 |
The physics of phonons
- Reissland
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he length contraction (see Eq. A2), the Miller result gives speeds for the movement of the Earth, larger than v > 300 km/s. A review of the Dayton Miller’s ether drift experiments made by James DeMeo =-=[38]-=- shows indisputable evidence that data collected by Miller was affected by the sidereal period and this is clear proof of a cosmological ether drift effect. However, the Miller’s determination of the ... |

10 |
On hitherto unrecognized wave-lengths
- Langley
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uilibrium with an enclosure (e.g., [9, 19]). Furthermore, it possesses convection currents rendering it unsuitable as a candidate in blackbody radiation [10, 39]. As such, it was improper for Langley =-=[41, 42]-=- to set a temperature of the photosphere at ∼6,000 K, simply because a thermal emission spectrum was present. The proper assignment of a temperature based on thermal arguments depends on the known pre... |

10 |
Thermal plasmas: Fundamentals and applications
- Boulos, Fauchais, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eland mean opacities is unsatisfactory. The requirements set on opacity by Eddington for the radiative zone are contrary to our knowledge of thermal emission spectra in either gases or plasmas (e.g., =-=[45, 46]-=-). As mentioned above, the production of a Planckian spectrum must involve a Planckian process and not the summation of many non-Planckian spectra. The “opacity problem” represents the greatest single... |

9 | Michelson-morley experiments revisited
- Cahill, Kitto
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...been verified in numerous situations [1, 18], its direct physical meaning related to gravity was not understood; (8) and thus this formula is often misinterpreted, in conflict with General Relativity =-=[2, 9]-=-, as any type of energy being equivalent to a mass [3]. A related natural question is how to measure the gravitational component of a light ray. However, in view of the difficulties encountered in mea... |

9 |
Precision Measurements and Fundamental Constants
- Torr, Kolen
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he time spread’s function) is expressed through the velocity of light c = 2.997 930 ×10 10 cm/sec. Thus, we obtain the analytical value of the velocity ˉvi : ˉv = 2c E = cr R = 2.187 671×10 8 cm/sec, =-=(10)-=- Because the vortical motion is stationary, the linear velocity ˉvi of the circulation r is constant everywhere within it. In other words, ˉvi = 2,187.671 km/sec is the linear velocity of the space ro... |

9 | Dark matter” as a quantum foam in-flow effect
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...F ) � (12) in which ΔF is the difference in final and initial free energy after and before the influence of microwave field. The tunneling probability, Γ(ε), Eq. 10 has been determined by the authors =-=[22, 23]-=- using the transfer matrix method and it is expressed as: 1 Γ(ε + nˉhω) = � 2 1 + C1C 2 � (13) 2 where C1 and C2 are expressed as: and C1 = Veff sinh(kb) 2 √ L1 (14) C2 = 2 cosh(kb) cos(k ′ a) − C3 . ... |

9 | Black holes in elliptical and spiral galaxies and in globular clusters
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lculations were performed for the cases: absorption of quanta from the environment (Fig. 1) and emission case (Fig. 2). The Schottky barrier height, Vb, was calculated by using a MonteCarlo technique =-=[24]-=- and found to be equal to 0.47 eV. This value is in good agreement with those found by the authors [25]. As shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the normalized shot noise spectrum exhibits resonances at certai... |

9 |
On the Michelson-Morley experiment relating to the drift of the aether
- Hicks
- 1902
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is that topologically quantized vortex could exhibit in astrophysical scale. In this context we submit the viewpoint that this proposition indeed has been observed in the form of Tifft’s quantization =-=[28, 29]-=-. The following description supports this assertion of topological quantized vortices in astrophysical scale. We start with standard definition of Hubble law [28]: or r = (32) c z . H (33) Now we supp... |

9 |
Rouppe van der Voort
- Scharmer, Gudiksen, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... merely because a spectrum has a thermal appearance. That a spectrum appears thermal does not imply that it was generated by a blackbody [52, 53]. Indeed, the proper application of the laws of Planck =-=[54]-=-, Stefan [55], and Wien [56] requires that the emitting sample corresponds to a solid, best approximated on Earth by graphite or soot [50]. It has been advanced [49, 57–59], and it is herein restated,... |

8 |
equation-of-state tables for astrophysical applications, Astrophys
- Rogers, Swenson, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... R � I1 − I2 I1 + I2 � . (5) For the diffraction experiment with R = 30.0 cm, the angular resolution is better than 3.3 ×10 −7 rad. We have used the data acquisition system of the Tupi muon telescope =-=[24, 25, 26]-=-, which is made on the basis of the Advantech PCI-1711/73 card. The analog output signal from each segmented photo-diodes is linked to the analog input of the PCI card. The PCI card has 16 analog inpu... |

7 |
Electric phenomena in a system moving with any velocity less than that of light", The principle of relativity (Collection of original papers on relativity
- Lorentz
- 1952
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t and excitation by microwave is a particular interest. As high frequency perturbations are expected to yield a new nonequilibrium situation resulted from additional phase variations in energy states =-=[26, 27, 28]-=-. 12 A. N. Mina, A. H. Phillips. Frequency Detection and Fluctuation in Quantum DotssOctober, 2006 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 Fig. 1: The dependence of the normalized shot noise spectrum (P/Ppoisson... |

7 |
Seismology of the Sun and the distant stars
- Gough
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...relay information relative to the creation and formation of the early Universe [1–27]. WMAP has been hailed as providing some of the most important findings in science [2]. Reports by Spergel et. al. =-=[15]-=- and Bennett et. al. [7] are highly cited [28]. The ensemble of WMAP publications [3–26] appears to constitute a phenomenal assortment of data. WMAP is being praised both for its precision and the ins... |

6 |
dark matter” and the fine structure constant
- Gravity
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xplanation of the so-called “dark matter” effect in spiral galaxies [22], and to the systematics of black hole masses in spherical star systems [25], and to the explanation of the bore hole g anomaly =-=[21, 22, 23]-=-. These effects have permitted the development of the minimal dynamics of the 3-space, leading to the discovery that the parameter that determines the strength of the spatial self-interaction is none ... |

6 | 3-Space inflow theory of gravity: boreholes, black holes and the fine structure constant
- Cahill, 2006e
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...equation: � 1 − iEt/ˉh �� D + M h � F = 0 . (30) Therefore we can conclude here that there is neat linkage between Schrödinger equation, Maxwell equation, Riccati equation via biquaternion expression =-=[22, 23, 24]-=-. And approximate solution of Gross-Pitaevskii equation is similar to solution of Schrödinger equation, except that it exhibits a new term called here “the hronir wave” (30). Our proposition is that c... |

6 |
There Is No Speed Barrier in the Universe
- Smarandache
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...∇ V − (U∙∇ + DΔ)U − ∂t � � � � (4) ∂ − i (U∙∇ + DΔ)V + + V ∙∇ U = 0 . ∂t Therefore the real part of this equation takes the form of an Euler-Newton equation of dynamics � � ∂ + V ∙∇ V = (U∙∇ + DΔ)U , =-=(5)-=- ∂t i. e., dV dt F = , (6) m where the total derivative of the velocity field V takes its standard form dV/dt = (∂/∂t + V ∇)V and where the force F is given by F = m(U∙∇U + DΔU). Recall that, after on... |

6 |
An equation of state for low-mass stars and giant
- Saumon, Chabrier, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e just beyond 1, a number of constants is provided relative to the age of the Universe (13.7±0.2 Gyr), the amount of dark energy (∼73%), dark matter (∼22%), and baryons density or “real” matter (∼4%) =-=[7, 25]-=-. It is surmised that “decoupling” occurred just after the Big Bang (379±8 kyr) at a redshift of 1089±1. The thickness of the decoupling surface is given as 195±2, and the total mass-energy in the Uni... |

6 |
Introduction to liquid state physics
- March, Tosi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...titution, or physically, through specialized spin excitation. Biochemical substitution involves the removal of the protons associated with water, using deuterium oxide (D2O) as an alternative solvent =-=[30]-=-. Often, the sample is lyophilized [31]. That is, it is frozen and placed under vacuum so that all of the water can be removed through sublimation. The solvent is then replaced by the addition of D2O.... |

6 |
Ueber den Zusammenhang von Emission und Absorption von Licht und Warme. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec
- Kirchhoff
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uced with permission of the AAS. Image provided courtesy of the NASA/WMAP team. from the entire ball in the time domain and then Fourier transformed to achieve a set of images in the frequency domain =-=[43]-=-. The image displayed in Figure 6B corresponds to an imaging slice which lies outside the actual physical space occupied by the ball. Ideally, this image should be completely black. The spurious signa... |

5 |
The speed of light and the Einstein legacy
- Cahill
- 1905
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pagation, due to Andreev reflection processes at semiconductor-superconductor interface [16]. The scattering states ψα(ε) and ψβ(ε ′ ) are determined by solving the Bogoliubov-deGennes equation (BdG) =-=[17, 18]-=- and are given by: � � � � � 1 0 Ψαj(x, ε)= Aj exp(ikj x) +Bj exp(−ikj x) 0 1 � × ∞� � � eV0 × Jn exp ˉhω � � (3) −i (ε + nˉhω) t/ˉh n=0 where ω is the frequency of the induced microwave field, Jn is ... |

5 | Novel Gravity Probe B gravitational wave detection. arXiv: physics/0408097
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in for detecting absolute motion and gravitational wave effects a novel technique is that these effects will manifest in the gyroscope precessions observed by the Gravity Probe B satellite experiment =-=[30, 31]-=-. Eqn. (26) determines the dynamical time evolution of the velocity field. However that aspect is more apparent if we write that equation in the integro-differential form � � 2 ∂v v = −∇ + ∂t 2 � + G ... |

5 |
A new form of matter — unmatter, composed of particles and anti-particles
- Smarandache
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...metric, which is almost invariably and incorrectly called the “Schwarzschild” solution, r is taken both as a coordinate and a radius in the spacetime manifold of the point-mass. In my previous papers =-=[1, 2]-=- on the general solution for the vacuum field, I proved that r is neither a radius nor a coordinate in the gravitational field (Mg, gg), as Stavroulakis [3, 4, 5] has also noted. In the context of (Mg... |

5 |
Breaking Through Editorial
- Chubb
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., should be more than M⊙c 2 ×10 3 per annum (M⊙ is the mass of the Sun, c is the velocity of light). This energy expenditure is a fantastic value, if we accept today’s bounds on the age of the Galaxy =-=[2, 3, 4]-=-. In 1972 the experiments were approbated by the a common group of researchers working at Moscow University and the Institute of Space Research (Moscow, Russia). Their antennae were similar to Weber’s... |

5 |
Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark
- Carman
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...from equation (16) the result: d(mv) dt = 0 ⇒ (mv)2 − (mv)1 = 0 ⇒ ⇒ (mv)2 = (mv)1 = mv = const . (17) Equation (17) is the mathematical statement of the theorem of the conservation of linear momentum =-=[5]-=-. Law of Interaction: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; that is, in an isolated system of two particles acting upon each other, the mutual time rate of change of kinetic energie... |

5 |
Evidence for the existence of a narrow p-barn bound
- Gray, Hagerty, et al.
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... from “things”. In such a system there is no bottom level and we must consider the system as having an iterative character and attempt to pick up the structure by some mathematical modelling. Chaitin =-=[6]-=- developed some insights into the nature of complex self-referential information systems: combining Shannon’s information theory and Turing’s computability theory resulted in the development of Algori... |

5 |
Smarandache Hypothesis”, The Encyclopedia of
- Weisstein
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... defining pseudo-Riemannian spaces are broken, so that photon teleportation manifests outside the basic space-time of the General Theory of Relativity. Such a fully degenerate space was considered in =-=[3, 4]-=-, where it was referred to as a zero-space because, from viewpoint of a regular observer, all spatial intervals and time intervals are zero there. When dτ = 0 and dσ = 0 observable relativistic mass m... |

5 |
Stars and Atoms
- Eddington
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the universe, and their M200 is the total mass within this radius in solar masses M⊙ as determined by a standard NFW universal density profile for a dark matter halo as determined by Navarro et al. =-=[8]-=- from N-body simulations. The kT (keV) represents the spectroscopic temperature of the 0.1 � r � 0.5R200 region, and the velocity v kT comes from these temperatures. Table 1 lists our results for the ... |

5 |
Four years of SOHO discoveries — some highlighs
- Fleck, Brekke, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...∼1,000 times greater than the density proposed by the gaseous models for the solar surface. A solar seismic wave [55] was produced in association with a flare on the surface of the Sun on 9 July 1996 =-=[40]-=-. Such a Sun quake demonstrates that the solar surface is fully able to sustain a surface gravity (or transverse) wave extending over millions of meters. These are described as “resembling ripples fro... |

5 |
An oil-based 293 K to 473 K blackbody source
- Fowler
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the galactic contribution. The galaxy is highly variable in the microwave relative to the magnitude of any real anisotropy. This is an observation which could be made by examining old data from COBE =-=[48]-=-. Given this state, it is also clear that every galaxy in the Fig. 15: Comparison of the 3-year average ILC map with the year-1 ILC map. Note that the difference images are shown at reduced resolution... |

5 |
Comparative calibration of heat flux sensors in two blackbody facilities
- Murphy, Tsai, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Universe. 2.4 The assignment of brightness temperature Perhaps the most serious concern relative to the Penzias and Wilson, COBE, and WMAP findings involves the assignment of brightness temperatures =-=[49]-=-. The Universe is not in thermal equilibrium with a perfectly absorbing enclosure [49, 50, 51, 52]. As a result, the assignment of these temperatures constitutes a violation of Kirchhoff’s Law [50, 52... |

5 |
Transfer calibration validation tests on a heat flux sensor in the 51 mm hightemperature blackbody
- Murphy, Tsai, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rn relative to the Penzias and Wilson, COBE, and WMAP findings involves the assignment of brightness temperatures [49]. The Universe is not in thermal equilibrium with a perfectly absorbing enclosure =-=[49, 50, 51, 52]-=-. As a result, the assignment of these temperatures constitutes a violation of Kirchhoff’s Law [50, 52]. It is improper to assign a temperature merely because a spectrum has a thermal appearance. That... |

5 |
Vacuum processing technique for development of primary standard blackbodies
- Navarro, Bruce, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rn relative to the Penzias and Wilson, COBE, and WMAP findings involves the assignment of brightness temperatures [49]. The Universe is not in thermal equilibrium with a perfectly absorbing enclosure =-=[49, 50, 51, 52]-=-. As a result, the assignment of these temperatures constitutes a violation of Kirchhoff’s Law [50, 52]. It is improper to assign a temperature merely because a spectrum has a thermal appearance. That... |

5 |
Solar faculae stand exposed
- Roberts
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd hydrogen, suggest that it cannot exist. 4.3 The solar surface The Sun has a reasonably distinct surface. This point has recently been emphasized by images obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope =-=[53, 54]-=-. These images reveal that the solar surface is not simply composed of clouds hovering about, but has a clear three-dimensional appearance which evolves in a manner reflecting “solar hills, valleys, a... |

4 |
The Einstein postulates 1905-2005: a critical review of the evidence
- Cahill
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pagation, due to Andreev reflection processes at semiconductor-superconductor interface [16]. The scattering states ψα(ε) and ψβ(ε ′ ) are determined by solving the Bogoliubov-deGennes equation (BdG) =-=[17, 18]-=- and are given by: � � � � � 1 0 Ψαj(x, ε)= Aj exp(ikj x) +Bj exp(−ikj x) 0 1 � × ∞� � � eV0 × Jn exp ˉhω � � (3) −i (ε + nˉhω) t/ˉh n=0 where ω is the frequency of the induced microwave field, Jn is ... |

4 |
New “nuclei” built on nucleons and anti-nucleons
- Chapiro
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nstructed, according to the general prescription of Eddington. Clearly, the correct form of C(D(r)) must naturally yield the Droste/Weyl/(Hilbert) solution, as well as the true Schwarzschild solution =-=[11]-=-, and the Brillouin solution [12], amongst the infinitude of particular solutions that the field equations admit. (Fiziev [13] has also shown that there exists an infinite number of solutions for the ... |

4 | There is no speed barrier for a wave phase nor for entangle particles
- Smarandache
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of coordinate time for a test particle to reach the source. Time stops at the Schwarzschild point-mass. The conventional concepts of the Schwarzschild sphere and its interior are meaningless. Doughty =-=[10]-=- has shown that the acceleration of a test particle approaching the point-mass along a radial geodesic is given by, By (17), a = a = √ � 11 −g11 −g � |g00,1| . (31) 2g00 α 2C 3 �√C 4 − α � 1 2 Clearly... |

4 |
Thermal properties and nuclear energy applications
- Burchell
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rn relative to the Penzias and Wilson, COBE, and WMAP findings involves the assignment of brightness temperatures [49]. The Universe is not in thermal equilibrium with a perfectly absorbing enclosure =-=[49, 50, 51, 52]-=-. As a result, the assignment of these temperatures constitutes a violation of Kirchhoff’s Law [50, 52]. It is improper to assign a temperature merely because a spectrum has a thermal appearance. That... |

3 |
Process Physics and Whitehead: the new science of space and time
- Cahill
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...S IN PHYSICS October, 2006 where Ω is the proper frequency of the radiation, dσ = = hik dx i dx k is the three-dimensional observable interval ∗ . The equations of geodesic lines in chr.inv.-form are =-=[4, 5]-=- dΩ dτ − Ω c 2 Fi c i + Ω c 2 Dikc i c k = 0 , d(Ωc i ) dτ + 2ω(Di k + A ∙i k∙)c k − ΩF i + ΩΔ i knc k c n = 0 , (20) is the observable chr.inv.-velocity of light (its where ci = dxi dτ square is inva... |

3 |
Process Physics: self-referential information and experiential reality
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sure variations in the one-way speed of EM waves travelling through a coaxial cable as the orientation of the cable is changed, with the latest being a high precision technique reported herein and in =-=[5, 6]-=-. This method is 1st order in v/c, so it does not require relativistic effects to be taken into account, as discussed later. As the Michelson interferometer requires a gas to be present in the light p... |

3 | The detection of absolute motion
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...α and β (Eq. 2) denote mode number (m) as well as whether it concerns electron α = (m, e) or hole α = (m, h) propagation, due to Andreev reflection processes at semiconductor-superconductor interface =-=[16]-=-. The scattering states ψα(ε) and ψβ(ε ′ ) are determined by solving the Bogoliubov-deGennes equation (BdG) [17, 18] and are given by: � � � � � 1 0 Ψαj(x, ε)= Aj exp(ikj x) +Bj exp(−ikj x) 0 1 � × ∞�... |

3 |
Quantum foam, gravity and gravitational waves. arXiv: physics/0312082
- Cahill
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...milar idea has been put forward by Masreliez [18] using the metric: ds 2 = e αβ � dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 − (icdt) 2� . (8) Another alternative of this metric has been proposed by Socoloff and Starobinski =-=[19]-=- using multi-connected hypersurface metric: ds 2 = dx 2 + e −2x (dy 2 + dz 2 ) (9) with boundaries: e −x = Λ. Therefore one can conclude that the use of phion condensate model has led us to a form of ... |

3 |
Grammatikakis G., Tsilimigras T., Simopoulou E. Observation of excessive and direct gamma production in (p-bar d) annihilations at rest
- Kalogeropoulos, Vayaki
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uld be more than noise [5]. The experiments were continued in 1973–1974 at laboratories in Rochester University, Bell Company, and IBM in USA [6, 7], Frascati, Münich, Meudon (Italy, Germany, France) =-=[8]-=-, Glasgow University (Scotland) [9] and other laboratories around the world. The experimental systems used in these attempts were more sensitive than those of the Weber detectors, but none registered ... |

3 | General Relativity and Gravitation - Castro |

3 |
X-ray flare sparks quake inside the Sun. Nature
- Kosovichev, Zharkova
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se a spectrum has a thermal appearance. That a spectrum appears thermal does not imply that it was generated by a blackbody [52, 53]. Indeed, the proper application of the laws of Planck [54], Stefan =-=[55]-=-, and Wien [56] requires that the emitting sample corresponds to a solid, best approximated on Earth by graphite or soot [50]. It has been advanced [49, 57–59], and it is herein restated, that the mon... |

2 |
et al. Observation of structure in ˉpp and ˉpd total cross sections below 1.1
- Carrol
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...′2 � �2 r−r0 dr 4C |r−r 0| 2 − C(dθ 2 + sin 2 θdϕ 2 ) , that is, ds 2 = − �√ � C − α √ dt C 2 − � √ � C C √ C − α ′2 4C dr2 − C(dθ 2 + sin 2 θdϕ 2 ) , (17) which is the line-element derived by Abrams =-=[7]-=- by a different method. Alternatively one could set r = Rc in (6), as Hilbert in his work [8] effectively did, to obtain the familiar Droste/Weyl/(Hilbert) line-element, ds 2 � � r − α = dt r 2 � � r ... |

2 |
Quasinuclear systems of nucleons and antinucleons
- Bogdanova, Dalkarov, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...conventional quantum theory it has been discovered that the individuality of the measurement process — the “click” of the detector — can be modelled by adding a noise term to the Schrödinger equation =-=[10]-=-. Then by performing an ensemble average over many individual runs of this modified Schrödinger equation one can derive the ensemble measurement postulate — namely <A> = (ψ, Aψ) for the “expectation v... |

2 |
Smarandache Hypothesis: Evidences, Implications, and Applications
- Motta
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... time the result may be different according to the way we define the speed as the velocity of waves of the metric, or something else. The usual approach sets forth the speed of gravitation as follows =-=[1, 5]-=-. One considers the space-time metric gαβ = = g (0) αβ + ζαβ, composed of a Galilean metric g (0) αβ (wherein g (0) 00 = 1, g (0) 0i = 0, g(0) ik = −δik) and tiny corrections ζαβ defining a weak gravi... |

2 |
Teleportation breakthrough made
- Rincon
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sfy, 1. C ′ (r) > 0, r > r 0; C(r) 2. lim � � = 1; r→∞ 2 r − r0 3. � C(r 0) = β = m + � m 2 − q 2 , q 2 < m 2 . I call the foregoing the Metric Conditions of Abrams (MCA) for the point-charge. Abrams =-=[6]-=- obtained them by a different method — using (1) and the field equations directly. In the absence of charge (7) must reduce to the general Schwarzschild solution for the simple point-mass (2). The onl... |

2 |
Teleportation goes long distance
- Rincon
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is exactly what is found. 2.2 Invariants and energy balance Let us now make explicit the energy balance by accounting for this additional potential energy. This question has already been discussed in =-=[7, 8]-=- and in [9], but we propose here a different presentation. We shall express the energy equation in terms of the various equivalent variables which we use in scale relativity, namely, the wave function... |

2 |
Australian teleport breakthrough. BBC News Online, 2002/06/17. 86 F. Smarandache. There Is No Speed Barrier for a Wave Phase Nor for Entangled Particles
- Whitehouse
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cale of the solar system in order to explain the origins of this Pioneer-Galileo anomalous constant acceleration. The Dirac-Eddington large number coincidences from vacuum fluctuations was studied by =-=[8]-=-. Let us examine closer the equality between the properfour forces mP c 2 LP = MUc2 R ⇒ mP LP = MU R c2 = . (3.10) G The last term in eq-(3.10) is directly obtained after implementing the Machian prin... |

2 | On Area Coordinates and Quantum Mechanics in Yang’s Noncommutative Spacetime with a Lower and Upper Scale - Castro - 2006 |

2 |
An introduction to the study of stellar interiors
- Chandrashekar
- 1957
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...related to image processing, yearly galactic variability, and point sources. Concerns are also raised relative to the validity of assigning brightness temperatures in this setting. The WMAP satellite =-=[1]-=- was launched with the intent of measuring the microwave signals present in space. It is widely held that these signals are anisotropic and relay information relative to the creation and formation of ... |

2 |
Eclipse science results: past and present
- Livingston, Koutchmy
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce of angular momentum becomes localized to a corresponding inhomogeneous boundary region [3, 8]. The wave equation (4) now results in the relations Ex = −(i/kδ 2 ) ∂Ez ∂x , (13) Ey = −(sin α) Ez/δ , =-=(14)-=- where the field Ez plays the rôle of a generating function for the components Ex and Ey. From equation (2) the magnetic field components become Bx = −Ey/c(sin α) , (15) i ∂Ez By = Ex/c(sin α) + kc(si... |

2 |
The physics of astrophysics: radiation
- Shu
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...otropy maps are prepared by combining the signals represented in Figure 1 with particular weighting at 61 GHz. Maps for each year are prepared individually and then combined “for a number of reasons” =-=[23]-=-. Extensive image processing is applied prior to generating the final anisotropy map (see Figure 2). The noise level in the data sets depends on the number of observations at each point. The major hur... |

2 |
The structure of the Sun
- Cortes, Sanchez
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g the premier academic institutions [1], have made numerous claims, most notably stating that their data enables them to visualize what happened in the first trillionth of a second after the Big Bang =-=[27]-=-. From data with a signal to noise just beyond 1, a number of constants is provided relative to the age of the Universe (13.7±0.2 Gyr), the amount of dark energy (∼73%), dark matter (∼22%), and baryon... |

2 |
Progess in liquid physics
- Croxton
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context .../δ 2 where G0 is the characteristic amplitude of a normalized generating function G, θ = kr0 with r0 as a characteristic radial length, and R3 = ρ 2 DG R4 = 1 − R3 (28) R5 = ∂ ∂ρ R4 � � ∂ 1 R8 = + R3 =-=(29)-=- ∂ρ ρ with ρ = r/r0 and the operator D given by D = ∂2 1 + ∂ρ2 ρ ∂ ∂ρ − θ2δ 2 . (30) For the electric field E ′ the components now reduce to E ′ r = −ig0 δ 2 (R5 + R8) , /θ (31) E ′ ϕ = 0 , (32) E ′ z... |

2 |
The science of fluids
- Michelson
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xcite the spins in such a manner that the protons co-resonating with water are nulled and other regions of the spectrum are detected [32–36]. This approach is adopted by methods such as presaturation =-=[32]-=-, jump-return [33], and other binomial sequences for spin excitation [34–36]. In each case, the spectral region near the water resonance is sacrificed in order to permit the detection of adjacent freq... |

2 |
Atomic collision phenomena in solids
- Palmer, Thompson, et al.
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...� 1 − 3 2 sin θ 2�� . (A2) We can see that the two-way speed of light anisotropy is null only in the case η = 1 (vacuum). This prediction is in agreement with modern ether drift experiments in vacuum =-=[36, 37]-=-, using two cavity-stabilized lasers and whose value is Δc ′ c ∼ 10−15 . (A3) In the gaseous mode, for instance air (η = 1.000226), a maximum value of Δc ′ /c happens in reference axis parallel to Ear... |

1 |
Private communications
- Kamla
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in this work with the representations of Clifford algebras in different dimensions and with different signatures. The line element dS as defined in (4) is dimensionless. Alternatively, one can define =-=[8, 9]-=- the line element whose dimension is that of the D-volume so that: dΣ 2 = L 2D dσ 2 + L 2D−2 dxμd μ + + L 2D−4 dxμνdx μν + . . . + dxμ1...μDdx μ1...μD . Let us use the relation (5) γμ1 ∧ . . . ∧ γμD =... |

1 | arXiv: hep-th/9908115; Ansoldi - Castro |

1 | B626, 209; Foundations of Physics - Lett |

1 | naturaleza poderosamente influyente de la Ciencia y Tecnologı́a modernas ha conducido a la percepción general de que los descubrimientos más importantes pueden realizarse principalmente o solamente mediante grandes grupos de investigación gubernamental - La |