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## Dynamic Rate Shaping of Compressed Digital Video (1995)

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Venue: | In Proc. of 2 nd IEEE Intl. Conf. on Image Processing |

Citations: | 38 - 4 self |

### Citations

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Citation Context ...to perform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming =-=[10]-=-[22][37][38][50] or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all pic... |

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Citation Context ...45]. The interested reader may refer to [17] for a detailed description of the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. Note that since the selection set is discrete in nature, the above Integer Problem (IP) =-=[35]-=- may alternatively be relaxed to a linear program [9]. This approach has been well studied in similar problem setups [5] and is known to perform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in t... |

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Citation Context ...erform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming [10]=-=[22]-=-[37][38][50] or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all picture... |

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Citation Context ...e-e * . Recall that for AR(1) sources with high ρ, the rate distortion behavior for coding DCT coefficients is very close to the statistically optimal Karhunen-Louve Transform (KLT) (see Chapter 6 in =-=[39]-=-). We therefore take (the somewhat round-about) recourse to the KLT to approximate DCT. It is known that the orthogonal basis functions for KLT are the eigenvectors of the signal’s ACF matrix. Let the... |

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Citation Context ...erize the statistical and R-D behavior of each of the different components of equations (3) and (4). We model the pixel values of intra-frame images using a first order Autoregressive process (AR(1)) =-=[27]-=-. An Autoregressive-1 process is a wide-sense stationary process characterized by an exponentially decreasing auto-correlation function (ACF). In the 2dimensional case the ACF R(x,y)=R(0,0)ρx |x| ρy |... |

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Citation Context ...e ex , ey , 3.3 Rate distortion behavior The next step in finding the optimal DRS solution involves a characterization of the rate distortion behavior of the MCFD signal e. a) Large Block Size Berger =-=[11]-=- shows that the MSE rate distortion function of a Gaussian source with a Toeplitz ACF that corresponds to a spectral density function Φ(ω) has the following parametric representation for large block s... |

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Citation Context ... ∑ (2) min{ D( b) + λ R( b)} i i i i i= 1 i= 1 Note that the two problems are not equivalent; for some value ofλ , however, which our algorithm will have to find, their solutions become identical [20]=-=[45]-=-. The interested reader may refer to [17] for a detailed description of the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. Note that since the selection set is discrete in nature, the above Integer Problem (IP) [35... |

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Citation Context ...m setups [5] and is known to perform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20]=-=[21]-=-, Dynamic Programming [10][22][37][38][50] or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter c... |

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Citation Context ..., universal interoperability can be achieved. 1.1 Related Work At the time when DRS was introduced, techniques had been developed to employ rate control for live sources based on network feedback [19]=-=[28]-=-. No general solution was available, however, for 2sprerecorded material. Earlier work such as the approaches used in [31] and [54] to manipulate the rate of compressed H.261 streams were ad-hoc, with... |

190 |
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Citation Context ...aping error from past frames. We derive the rate distortion behavior of the MCFD signal for both large and finite block sizes. Utilizing these results along with facts from Matrix Perturbation Theory =-=[51]-=-, we show that the spectrum (eigenvalues) of the current frame residual error alone and that along with the motion compensated accumulated error are separated by bounded constants. Similar arguments f... |

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Citation Context .... The other major category of algorithms is that where requantization of DCT coefficients is performed. Since the original introduction of DRS, considerable work has been performed on the subject. In =-=[47]-=- a set of basic techniques for “bitstream scaling” are discussed, including the elimination of high frequency components, but they are based on heuristics with no theoretical analysis or claim of opti... |

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Citation Context ...time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming [10][22][37][38][50] or marginal analysis =-=[24]-=- approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all picture coding types are used (I, P, and B) t... |

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Citation Context ... be architected so that it facilitates rate adaptation with minimal additional processing. Scalable coding in this respect is extremely useful, and developments in this area are very promising (e.g., =-=[40]-=- and [49]). We should point out, however, that all currently deployed coding standards are all single layer schemes. 3s1.2 Results Our earlier work in [15][16][17][18] discussed a family of DRS algori... |

90 | Heterogeneous Video Transcoding to Lower Spatio-Temporal Resolutions and Different Encoding Formats
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Citation Context ...ce and target coding formats are identical, it is also possible and – indeed – very interesting to examine heterogeneous rate shaping or transcoding (e.g., from MPEG-2 to MPEG4). Examples include [43]=-=[44]-=-[52]. Finally, it is also natural to ask whether or not the original coding scheme could be architected so that it facilitates rate adaptation with minimal additional processing. Scalable coding in th... |

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Citation Context ...rm very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming [10][22]=-=[37]-=-[38][50] or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all picture cod... |

82 | A Survey of Light-weight Transport Protocols for High-speed Networks - Doeringer, Dykeman, et al. - 1990 |

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Citation Context ...te adaptation include [41], an alternative (but incompatible with existing standards) technique for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approximation and an odd remainder part, =-=[2]-=- where the entire operation is very efficiently performed in the frequency (DCT) domain, and [56] where rate shaping is performed by block dropping and intelligent reconstruction at the (non-standard)... |

71 | Joint selection of source and channel rate for VBR video transmission under ATM policing constraints,” this issue
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Citation Context ...roper integration of rate shaping schemes with actual networks and decoders; in [26] we describe a real-time DRS implementation for Internet video including a TCP-friendly rate controller, whereas in =-=[25]-=- buffer conditions for the encoder and transcoder are presented in order to avoid overflow/underflow at the decoder. Most recently, DRS has been applied on MPEG-4, combining fine granular scalability ... |

59 | Meeting Arbitrary QoS Constraints Using Dynamic Rate Shaping of Code - Eleftheriadis, Anastassiou |

59 | L.Zhang: An Admission Control Algorithm for Predictive Real-Time Services - Jamin - 1992 |

55 | Constrained and general dynamic rate shaping of compressed digital video - Eleftheriadis, Anastassiou - 1995 |

52 | Automatic Face Location Detection and Tracking for Model-Assisted Coding of Video Teleconference - Eleftheriadis, Jacquin - 1995 |

41 | Scheduling Multimedia Documents Using Temporal Constraints - Buchanan, Zellweger - 1992 |

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32 | A common framework for rate and distortion based scaling of highly scalable compressed video
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Citation Context ...tected so that it facilitates rate adaptation with minimal additional processing. Scalable coding in this respect is extremely useful, and developments in this area are very promising (e.g., [40] and =-=[49]-=-). We should point out, however, that all currently deployed coding standards are all single layer schemes. 3s1.2 Results Our earlier work in [15][16][17][18] discussed a family of DRS algorithms for ... |

27 |
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Citation Context ...troduction The concept of Dynamic Rate Shaping (DRS) [15][17][18] was introduced in early 1995 as a technique to adapt the rate of compressed video bit-streams (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, H.261, as well as JPEG =-=[36]-=-) to dynamically varying bit rate constraints. The need for rate adaptation is a very naturally-arising one in best-effort networks such as the Internet. Despite increases in bandwidth availability, t... |

27 | Automatic face location detection for model-assisted rate control in h.261 compatible coding of video - Eleftheriadis, Jacquin - 1995 |

25 |
Rate Conversion of MPEG Coded Video by Requantization
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Citation Context ...ristics with no theoretical analysis or claim of optimality. An early re-quantization-based scheme where the quantization step size is determined by local and global activity criteria is presented in =-=[34]-=-. A more detailed theoretical analysis for proper (re)quantizer selection for intra frames is offered in [53]. The subject is further addressed in [3], where the optimal selection of quantizers is ana... |

23 | Video compression makes big gains - RUETZ - 1991 |

20 | Tactus: Toolkit-Level Support for Synchronized Interactive Multimedia - Dannenberg, er, et al. - 1992 |

20 | Model-assisted coding of video teleconferencing sequences at low bit rates - Eleftheriadis, Jacquin - 1994 |

20 | Algorithms and performance evaluation of the XPhone multimedia communication system - Eleftheridas, Pejhan, et al. - 1993 |

19 | Rate Shaping by block dropping for transmission of mpeg-precoded video over channels of dynamic bandwidth
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Citation Context ...for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approximation and an odd remainder part, [2] where the entire operation is very efficiently performed in the frequency (DCT) domain, and =-=[56]-=- where rate shaping is performed by block dropping and intelligent reconstruction at the (non-standard) receiver. Techniques have also been investigated for the proper integration of rate shaping sche... |

18 | Efficient drift-free signal-to-noise ratio scalability - Arnold, Frater, et al. - 2000 |

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Citation Context ...dropping and intelligent reconstruction at the (non-standard) receiver. Techniques have also been investigated for the proper integration of rate shaping schemes with actual networks and decoders; in =-=[26]-=- we describe a real-time DRS implementation for Internet video including a TCP-friendly rate controller, whereas in [25] buffer conditions for the encoder and transcoder are presented in order to avoi... |

18 | MAEstro - A Distributed Multimedia Authoring Environment - George, Howard - 1991 |

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Citation Context ...ailed description of the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. Note that since the selection set is discrete in nature, the above Integer Problem (IP) [35] may alternatively be relaxed to a linear program =-=[9]-=-. This approach has been well studied in similar problem setups [5] and is known to perform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity i... |

16 |
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Citation Context ...quantization step size is determined by local and global activity criteria is presented in [34]. A more detailed theoretical analysis for proper (re)quantizer selection for intra frames is offered in =-=[53]-=-. The subject is further addressed in [3], where the optimal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in [29]... |

15 |
The optimal transform of motioncompensated frame difference images in a hybrid coder
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Citation Context ...dimensional case the ACF R(x,y)=R(0,0)ρx |x| ρy |y| , which assuming that ρx=ρy=ρ yields R(x,y)=R(0,0)ρ |x|+|y| . A correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.9-0.98 is known to model natural images quite well =-=[13]-=-. 3.2 MCFD Model Next, we need to model the statistical behavior of the motion residual signal (e in equations (3) and (4) above) assuming an AR(1) model for the source signal y. Chen and Pang [12][13... |

15 | Optimal data partitioning of MPEG-2 coded video - Eleftheriadis, Anastasiou - 1994 |

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Citation Context ...veloped to employ rate control for live sources based on network feedback [19][28]. No general solution was available, however, for 2sprerecorded material. Earlier work such as the approaches used in =-=[31]-=- and [54] to manipulate the rate of compressed H.261 streams were ad-hoc, with no characterization of the performance of the proposed schemes. Our focus is based on techniques where select DCT coeffic... |

13 |
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Citation Context ...ery close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming [10][22][37]=-=[38]-=-[50] or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all picture coding ... |

12 | Fine-grained rate shaping for video streaming over wireless networks
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Citation Context ...nd transcoder are presented in order to avoid overflow/underflow at the decoder. Most recently, DRS has been applied on MPEG-4, combining fine granular scalability (FGS) and FEC with R-D optimization =-=[14]-=-. Although our interest is primarily “homogeneous” rate shaping, where the source and target coding formats are identical, it is also possible and – indeed – very interesting to examine heterogeneous ... |

12 |
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Citation Context ...[53]. The subject is further addressed in [3], where the optimal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in =-=[29]-=-[48][55]. Other techniques for rate adaptation include [41], an alternative (but incompatible with existing standards) technique for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approxim... |

12 | Rate-reduction transcoding design for wireless video streaming,‖ inwork
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Citation Context ...nd target coding formats are identical, it is also possible and – indeed – very interesting to examine heterogeneous rate shaping or transcoding (e.g., from MPEG-2 to MPEG4). Examples include [43][44]=-=[52]-=-. Finally, it is also natural to ask whether or not the original coding scheme could be architected so that it facilitates rate adaptation with minimal additional processing. Scalable coding in this r... |

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Searching for the multiplier in one-constraint optimization problems
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Citation Context ...can be converted to an unconstrained one using Lagrange multipliers. A fast, iterative algorithm for the determination of the optimal λ can be found based on bisection [20] or a descent algorithm [21]=-=[23]-=-. A key characteristic of this algorithm is that it operates in the convex hull of the “operational” R(D) curves of each block. In each iteration of the bisection algorithm, we have to determine the o... |

9 |
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Citation Context ...e subject is further addressed in [3], where the optimal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in [29][48]=-=[55]-=-. Other techniques for rate adaptation include [41], an alternative (but incompatible with existing standards) technique for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approximation an... |

8 |
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Citation Context ...close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynamic Programming [10][22][37][38]=-=[50]-=- or marginal analysis [24] approaches. Similar algorithmic approaches but in different contexts have also been used in [5][38]. 2.3 Constrained DRS of Inter coded pictures When all picture coding type... |

7 | ANASTASSIOU (D.): Minimal Error Drift in Frequency Scalability for Motion-Compensated DCT - MOKRY - 1994 |

7 | Multicast Group Address Management and Connection Control for Multi-Party Applications - Eleftheriadis, Pejhan, et al. - 1993 |

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Optimal transcoding of compressed video
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Citation Context ...cal and global activity criteria is presented in [34]. A more detailed theoretical analysis for proper (re)quantizer selection for intra frames is offered in [53]. The subject is further addressed in =-=[3]-=-, where the optimal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in [29][48][55]. Other techniques for rate adapt... |

6 | Error Accumulation of Repetitive Image Coding - Chang, Eleftheriadis - 1994 |

6 | Hybrid coders with motion compensation - Chen, Pang - 1992 |

6 | Analysis of I/O Subsystem Design for Multimedia Workstations - Druschel, Abbott, et al. - 1992 |

6 | Architecture and Algorithms of the Xphone Multimedia Communication System. ACM/Springer Verlag Multimedia Systems - Eleftheriadis, Pejhan, et al. - 1994 |

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Citation Context ... N ∑ ∑ (2) min{ D( b) + λ R( b)} i i i i i= 1 i= 1 Note that the two problems are not equivalent; for some value ofλ , however, which our algorithm will have to find, their solutions become identical =-=[20]-=-[45]. The interested reader may refer to [17] for a detailed description of the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. Note that since the selection set is discrete in nature, the above Integer Problem (IP)... |

5 |
Adaptive Rate Control Algorithm Based on Logarithmic R-Q model for MPEG-1 to MPEG-4
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Citation Context ...source and target coding formats are identical, it is also possible and – indeed – very interesting to examine heterogeneous rate shaping or transcoding (e.g., from MPEG-2 to MPEG4). Examples include =-=[43]-=-[44][52]. Finally, it is also natural to ask whether or not the original coding scheme could be architected so that it facilitates rate adaptation with minimal additional processing. Scalable coding i... |

5 | Low Bit Rate Model-Assisted H.261Compatible Coding for Video - Elefthenadis, Jacquin - 1995 |

4 |
Modeling and efficient optimization for object based scalability and some related problems
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Citation Context ... since the selection set is discrete in nature, the above Integer Problem (IP) [35] may alternatively be relaxed to a linear program [9]. This approach has been well studied in similar problem setups =-=[5]-=- and is known to perform very close to IP optimality in time that is linear in the size of the optimization window. This complexity is provably better than that of Lagrange relaxation [20][21], Dynami... |

4 | Alternative formulations for bit allocation with dependent quantization - Batra, Eleftheriadis - 2002 |

4 |
Optimal data partitioning of MPEG-2 coded video”, To appear
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Citation Context ...erturbation theory for tracking the spectral behavior of the auto-correlation matrix of the source signal and the motion residual it yields. 1s1 Introduction The concept of Dynamic Rate Shaping (DRS) =-=[15]-=-[17][18] was introduced in early 1995 as a technique to adapt the rate of compressed video bit-streams (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, H.261, as well as JPEG [36]) to dynamically varying bit rate constraints. The ne... |

4 | Basic Synchronization Concepts in Multimedia Systems - Carmo, Sannes, et al. - 1992 |

3 |
Data partitioning and coding of DCT coefficients based on requantization for error-resilient transmission of video
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Citation Context ...timal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in [29][48][55]. Other techniques for rate adaptation include =-=[41]-=-, an alternative (but incompatible with existing standards) technique for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approximation and an odd remainder part, [2] where the entire opera... |

3 | Multicast Address Management and Connection Control for Multi-Party Applications - Eleftheriadis, Pejhan, et al. - 1995 |

2 |
Analysis of dynamic rate shaping
- Batra, Eleftheriadis
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...esult is that it allows us to use the much simpler memoryless DRS algorithms without any significant distortion penalty. For the sake of completeness, we repeat a part of the problem formulation from =-=[4]-=-[15][16][17][18] in the next section. The experimental and computational results reported in the following section, however, are far more conclusive than those in the earlier works. 2. Problem formula... |

2 |
Architecture and Algorithms
- Eleftheriadis, Pejhan, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rate, universal interoperability can be achieved. 1.1 Related Work At the time when DRS was introduced, techniques had been developed to employ rate control for live sources based on network feedback =-=[19]-=-[28]. No general solution was available, however, for 2sprerecorded material. Earlier work such as the approaches used in [31] and [54] to manipulate the rate of compressed H.261 streams were ad-hoc, ... |

2 |
Fast software MPEG-2 video transcoder with optimization of requantization error compensation
- Tajime, Senda, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The subject is further addressed in [3], where the optimal selection of quantizers is analyzed. Along these lines, straightforward decoding plus encoding cascades are presented and optimized in [29]=-=[48]-=-[55]. Other techniques for rate adaptation include [41], an alternative (but incompatible with existing standards) technique for data partitioning using re-quantization into an even value approximatio... |

2 |
VBR Transport of CBR-Encoded Video over
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Citation Context ...o employ rate control for live sources based on network feedback [19][28]. No general solution was available, however, for 2sprerecorded material. Earlier work such as the approaches used in [31] and =-=[54]-=- to manipulate the rate of compressed H.261 streams were ad-hoc, with no characterization of the performance of the proposed schemes. Our focus is based on techniques where select DCT coefficients are... |

2 | A Dynamic QoS Management Scheme for Adaptive Hierarchically Coded Flows - Campbell - 1995 |

2 | A Reliable and E cient Multicast Protocol for Broadband Broadcast Networks - Erramilli, Singh - 1987 |

2 | Multimedia Tra c Characteristics in Broadband Networks - Habib, Saadawi - 1992 |

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1 | Modeling and optimization techniques for digital video communication
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Citation Context ... the quantization error among the various coefficients based on their statistical characteristics at the transcoded rate and not at the original encoding rate. At lower rate shaping 2 Please refer to =-=[8]-=- for similar results on additional sequences. 10sratios, dynamic rate shaping performs better as it operates entirely in quantized DCT domain, and hence does not accumulate quantization error from suc... |

1 |
ISO/IEC 13818-1 MPEG-2 H.222.0, "Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio: Systems
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Citation Context ...nstrained one using Lagrange multipliers: instead of minimizing ∑ Di( bi) given ( ) i ∑ R i i bi , we minimize: 1 These include recoding the coded block patterns, and re-executing DC prediction loops =-=[32]-=-[33]. 7sN N ∑ ∑ (2) min{ D( b) + λ R( b)} i i i i i= 1 i= 1 Note that the two problems are not equivalent; for some value ofλ , however, which our algorithm will have to find, their solutions become i... |

1 | An Overview of LightwavePacket Networks - Acampora, Karol - 1989 |

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