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## DOI: 10.1007/S11336-010-9155-7 A KRAEMER-TYPE RESCALING THAT TRANSFORMS THE ODDS RATIO INTO THE WEIGHTED KAPPA COEFFICIENT (2010)

### Citations

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Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions,
- Fleiss, Levin, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...able X and by p2 and q2 for variable Y (Warrens, 2008c, 2008d). The odds ratio is a widely used measure of 2 × 2 association, and probably the most widely used measure in epidemiology (Edwards, 1963; =-=Fleiss, 2003-=-; Kraemer, 2004). The formula of the odds ratio in terms of proportions a, b, c, and d is OR = ad/bc. The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occur... |

54 |
On the association of attributes in statistics.
- Yule
- 1900
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ratio is 1, but all other values of the odds ratio lie between 0 and ∞. Several authors have therefore proposed rescalings of the odds ratio that transform the measure to a correlationlike codomain (=-=Yule, 1900-=-, 1912; Digby, 1983). The association measures by Yule (1900, 1912) and Digby (1983) have value 0 when two variables are statistically independent and maximum value 1 (perfect association). Kraemer (1... |

34 | On the methods of measuring the association between two attributes. - Yule - 1912 |

32 | Quantification of agreement in psychiatric diagnosis revisited. Arch Gen Psychiatry. - PE, RL, et al. - 1987 |

23 |
2 × 2 kappa coefficients: Measurements of agreement and association
- Bloch, Kraemer
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Citation Context ...lbert, 2009). It is the unique measure that is based on an acknowledgment that the clinical consequences of a false negative may be quite different from the clinical consequences of a false positive (=-=Bloch & Kraemer, 1989-=-; Kraemer, Periyakoil, & Noda, 2004). A real number r ∈ [0,1] must be specified a priori indicating the relative importance of false negatives to false positives. The sample estimator of the weighted ... |

18 |
Measures of association in a 2 2 table
- Edwards
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and q1 for variable X and by p2 and q2 for variable Y (Warrens, 2008c, 2008d). The odds ratio is a widely used measure of 2 × 2 association, and probably the most widely used measure in epidemiology (=-=Edwards, 1963-=-; Fleiss, 2003; Kraemer, 2004). The formula of the odds ratio in terms of proportions a, b, c, and d is OR = ad/bc. The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the od... |

14 | On the equivalence of Cohen’s kappa and the Hubert–Arabie adjusted rand index, - Warrens - 2008 |

11 |
Ramifications of a population model for κ as a coefficient of reliability,
- Kraemer
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to false positives. The sample estimator of the weighted kappa (Bloch & Kraemer, 1989) is κ(r) = ad − bc rp1q2 + (1 − r)p2q1 . (1) The measure κ(1/2) is also known as Cohen’s (1960) kappa (see also, =-=Kraemer, 1979-=-; Warrens, 2008e). Since the denominator of (1) can be written as rp1q2 + (1 − r)p2q1 = r(a + b)(b + d) + (1 − r)(a + c)(c + d) Requests for reprints should be sent to Matthijs J. Warrens, Institute o... |

11 | On similarity coefficients for 2 × 2 tables and correction for chance, - Warrens - 2008 |

8 | On association coefficients for 2×2 tables and properties that do not depend on the marginal distributions, - Warrens - 2008 |

7 | Assessment of 2 x 2 associations: generalization of signal-detection methodology - Kraemer - 1988 |

7 |
Agreement between two independent groups of raters,
- Vanbelle, Albert
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the event is more likely in the first group. Another statistic of 2 × 2 association is the weighted kappa index (Spitzer, Cohen, Fleis, & Endicott, 1967; =-=Vanbelle & Albert, 2009-=-). It is the unique measure that is based on an acknowledgment that the clinical consequences of a false negative may be quite different from the clinical consequences of a false positive (Bloch & Kra... |

7 | On the indeterminacy of resemblance measures for binary(presence/absence) data - Warrens - 2008 |

6 |
Approximating the tetrachoric correlation coefficient
- Digby
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ll other values of the odds ratio lie between 0 and ∞. Several authors have therefore proposed rescalings of the odds ratio that transform the measure to a correlationlike codomain (Yule, 1900, 1912; =-=Digby, 1983-=-). The association measures by Yule (1900, 1912) and Digby (1983) have value 0 when two variables are statistically independent and maximum value 1 (perfect association). Kraemer (1988) showed how 2 ×... |

6 | k-Adic similarity coefficients for binary (presence/absence) data, - Warrens - 2009 |

4 | On the Indeterminacy of Resemblance Measures for (Presence/Absence) Data - WARRENS |

3 |
Reconsidering the odds ratio as a measure of 2× 2 association in a population
- Kraemer
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...p2 and q2 for variable Y (Warrens, 2008c, 2008d). The odds ratio is a widely used measure of 2 × 2 association, and probably the most widely used measure in epidemiology (Edwards, 1963; Fleiss, 2003; =-=Kraemer, 2004-=-). The formula of the odds ratio in terms of proportions a, b, c, and d is OR = ad/bc. The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another... |