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## On The Equivalence of Second Order Impedance Control and Proportional Gain Explicit Force Control (1994)

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Citations: | 8 - 6 self |

### Citations

1345 | Real-time obstacle avoidance for manipulators and mobile robots
- Khatib
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsic properties of the arm and replace them with the target impedance. The impedance relation can have any functional form. It has been shown that general impedances are useful for obstacle avoidance =-=[6, 10, 17]-=-. However, it will be made clear in this section that sensor based, feedback controlled interaction with the environment requires the impedance to be linear and of second order at most. This is for tw... |

234 |
Impedance control: An approach to manipulation
- Hogan
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the robot's position and the force it exerts. A complete introduction to impedance control is beyond the scope of this discussion and the reader is referred to the previous work of other researchers =-=[6, 8]-=-. The basic tenet of impedance control is that the arm should be controlled so that it behaves as a mechanical impedance to positional constraints imposed by the environment. This means that the force... |

208 |
Compliance and force control for computer controlled manipulators.
- Mason
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulator becomes necessary in at least one of the degrees of freedom of the manipulator; the other degrees of freedom remain position controlled. Mason formalized this idea and called it Hybrid Control =-=[14]-=-. Simply put, the manipulator should be force controlled in directions in which the position is constrained by environmental interaction, and position controlled in all orthogonal directions. The Hybr... |

54 | Understanding Bandwidth Limitations in Robot Force Control," - Eppinger, Seering - 1987 |

52 |
Motion and Force Control of Robot Manipulator,"
- Khatib, Burdick
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tractive to switch controllers as well as gains, and get the best performance possible from the system. Stable response through the impact transient has been demonstrated by switching control schemes =-=[19, 11, 12]-=-. Therefore, the results of this work indicate two major points. First, second order impedance control must be recognized as essentially equivalent to proportional gain explicit force control with fee... |

50 |
March-April). Stable execution of contact tasks using impedance control
- Hogan
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fp ! 1 or 0sK 0 fp ! 1. Figure 11 shows the proportional gain force control root locus for gains as low as negative one. The use of negative gains like this has appeared in the literature previously =-=[5, 7]-=-. However, this result is usually presented within the framework of impedance control. As will be seen in the following sections, the impedance controllers for which this result was obtained actually ... |

50 |
Resolved-acceleration control of mechanical manipulators,”
- Luh, Walker, et al.
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bian, J . The subscripts c and m indicate commanded and measured quantities. Without force feedback this control scheme is equivalent to position control schemes such as Resolved Acceleration Control =-=[13]-=- and Operational Space Control [9]. These are only first order impedance control schemes since they just modify the stiffness and damping of the arm. Including force feedback information in the contro... |

46 | Hybrid impedance control of robotic manipulators,” - Anderson, Spong - 1988 |

43 |
Robot Arm Dynamics and Control,"
- Bejczy
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mmanded. This is typically the method employed, as will be shown. 3.2 Model Based Control Model based control involves the use of a dynamic model of the manipulator to determine the actuation torques =-=[2]. Mo-=-del based impedance control may be summarized by the following equations [6, 16]: �� A = Du + h + g + J T fm (10) u = J \Gamma1 isx u \Gamma J ` m j (11)sx u = M \Gamma1 [(C \Deltasx +K \Deltax) \... |

39 | Manipulator control with superquadric artificial potential functions: Theory and experiments,” - Volpe, Khosla - 1990 |

38 | Introduction to Dynamic Models for Robot Force Control, " - Eppinger, Seering - 1987 |

34 |
Robust Compliant Motion for Manipulators”,
- Kazerooni
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the robot's position and the force it exerts. A complete introduction to impedance control is beyond the scope of this discussion and the reader is referred to the previous work of other researchers =-=[6, 8]-=-. The basic tenet of impedance control is that the arm should be controlled so that it behaves as a mechanical impedance to positional constraints imposed by the environment. This means that the force... |

33 |
Dynamic Stability Issues in Force Control of Manipulators,"
- An, Hollerbach
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e drop-off which gives a minimum phase margin of �� 15 ffi at K fp �� 1. The addition of a lowpass filter in the feedback loop can improve the response by introducing a dominant pole on the re=-=al axis [1, 16]-=-. However, this pole placement and the behavior of the system closely match that provided by integral control. A discussion including integral force control is outside the scope of this paper [16]. Th... |

33 |
Commande Dynamique dans l’Espace Opérationnel des Robots Manipulateurs en Présence d’Obstacles. Ph. D. thesis, l’ École Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace
- Khatib
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dicate commanded and measured quantities. Without force feedback this control scheme is equivalent to position control schemes such as Resolved Acceleration Control [13] and Operational Space Control =-=[9]-=-. These are only first order impedance control schemes since they just modify the stiffness and damping of the arm. Including force feedback information in the controller yields second order impedance... |

30 |
Implementing real-time robotic systems using CHIMERA 11
- Stewart, Schmitz, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in each case, the response and stability of the system are essentially the same. All experiments were conducted using the CMU DD Arm II and implemented under the Chimera II real time operating system =-=[15]-=-. The experiments presented here were conducted by pushing on a common environment: a cardboard box with an aluminum plate resting on top. The parameters of a second order model of this environmental ... |

26 | A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Explicit Force Control Strategies for Manipulators,” - Volpe, Khosla - 1993 |

24 | Integration of real-time software modules for reconfigurable sensor-based control systems - Stewart, Volpe, et al. - 1992 |

24 | A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Impact Control for Manipulators," - Volpe, Khosia - 1993 |

21 |
Experimental Verification of a Strategy for Impact Control
- Volpe, Khosla
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tractive to switch controllers as well as gains, and get the best performance possible from the system. Stable response through the impact transient has been demonstrated by switching control schemes =-=[19, 11, 12]-=-. Therefore, the results of this work indicate two major points. First, second order impedance control must be recognized as essentially equivalent to proportional gain explicit force control with fee... |

13 |
Implementation of Force and Impedance Control in Robot Manipulators,"
- Goldenberg
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...In this case, the value of active inertia is the acceleration feedback gain. Its value can be used to adjust M . Few researchers have proposed such acceleration feedback schemes for impedance control =-=[4]-=-. This is because an acceleration measurement typically requires a second derivative, which will be extremely noisy. Alternatively, the force may be measured and the acceleration commanded. This is ty... |

13 | Adaptive strategies in constrained manipulation - Slotine, Li - 1987 |

13 | The Application of ModelReference Adaptive Control to Robotic Manipulators," - Dubowsky, Desforges - 1979 |

9 | Adaptive control of robot manipulators: a review. - Hsia - 1986 |

9 | e P. Khosla, "Computational Considerations in the Implementation of Force Control Strategies - Volpe |

8 |
Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of a manipulator/sensor/environment model for force control
- Volpe, Khosla
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cludes the active damping control loop. It has previously been shown that G can be considered a fourth order transfer function [3], and we have experimentally extracted parameter values for the model =-=[16, 18]-=-. The closed loop transfer function with the feedforward term is: F c Fm = (1 +K fp )G 1 +K fp G : (2) This is a Type 0 System and will have a nonzero steady-state error for a step input. The root loc... |

7 |
and Artificial Forces in the Control of Manipulators: Theory and Experiments
- Real
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cludes the active damping control loop. It has previously been shown that G can be considered a fourth order transfer function [3], and we have experimentally extracted parameter values for the model =-=[16, 18]-=-. The closed loop transfer function with the feedforward term is: F c Fm = (1 +K fp )G 1 +K fp G : (2) This is a Type 0 System and will have a nonzero steady-state error for a step input. The root loc... |

4 | Analysis of force control based on linear models - Goldenberg - 1992 |

4 | On the Robot Compliant Motion," - Kazerooni - 1989 |

4 | Control of robotic manipulators with adaptive control - Koivo, Guo - 1981 |

4 | Analysis and experimental verification of a fourth order plant model for manipulator force control - Volpe, Khosla - 1994 |

3 |
Globally stable compliant motion control for robotic assembly
- Hamilton
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fp ! 1 or 0sK 0 fp ! 1. Figure 11 shows the proportional gain force control root locus for gains as low as negative one. The use of negative gains like this has appeared in the literature previously =-=[5, 7]-=-. However, this result is usually presented within the framework of impedance control. As will be seen in the following sections, the impedance controllers for which this result was obtained actually ... |

3 | Effect of sampling rates on the performance of model-based manipulator control schemes - Khosla - 1988 |

3 | Principles and Design of Model-Based Robot Controllers," - Tourassis - 1988 |

1 |
Implementation of a Discontinuous Control Law on a Robot During Collision with a Stiff Environment
- Lokhorst, Mills
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tractive to switch controllers as well as gains, and get the best performance possible from the system. Stable response through the impact transient has been demonstrated by switching control schemes =-=[19, 11, 12]-=-. Therefore, the results of this work indicate two major points. First, second order impedance control must be recognized as essentially equivalent to proportional gain explicit force control with fee... |

1 | Analysis and Experimental Veri cation of a Fourth Order Plant Model for Manipulator Force Control - Volpe, Khosla - 1994 |

1 | Principles and Design ofModel-Based Robot Controllers - Tourassis - 1988 |

1 | Analysis and Experimental Veri of a Fourth Order Plant Model for Manipulator Force Control - Volpe, Khosla - 1994 |