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## Principles and methods of Testing Finite State Machines -- a survey (1996)

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Venue: | PROCEEDINGS OF IEEE |

Citations: | 345 - 16 self |

### Citations

14077 |
Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness
- Garey, Johnson
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uch a path does not necessarily give a checking sequence. See [CVI1] for a counter example. We would like to find a shortest path that covers each red edge at least once. This is a Rural Postman Tour =-=[GJ]-=-. In general, it is an NP-hard problem. However, practical constraints are investigated and polynomial time algorithms are obtained for a class of communication protocols in [ADLU]. Sometimes, the sys... |

10609 | Introduction to Algorithms - Cormen, Leiserson, et al. - 1990 |

4818 |
Introduction to automata theory, languages, and computation
- Hopcroft, Ullman
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ines and represent CFSM's by an EFSM. Similarly, communicating EFSM's can also be represented by one EFSM. In general, EFSM's with unbounded variables have the same computing power as Turing machines =-=[HU]-=-.s- 6. OTHER FINITE STATE SYSTEMS There is a variant of Mealy machines, the Moore machines, in which the output is only determined by the state [HS, Mo]. Specifically, we replace the output function i... |

3947 |
Communication and Concurrency
- Milner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orresponding state t i in the minimized machine. There is a range of equivalence relations of states of machines (transition systems in general) from observational to strong bisimulation equivalences =-=[Mi]-=-. For fully specified and deterministic machines as in Definition 2.1, they are the same, and for more general machines such as nondeterministic machines they are different. We shall address this issu... |

2898 | The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms, - Aho, Hopcroft, et al. - 1974 |

680 |
Learning regular sets from queries and counterexamples
- Angluin
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es the two machines. Angluin showed that in this model it is possible to do machine identification in deterministic polynomial time provided the machine B under test has a (reliable) reset capability =-=[An1]-=-. Polynomial time here is measured as a function of the number of states n of the black box B and the lengths of the counterexample sequences that are returned by the teacher. Since there are always c... |

560 | Theoretical improvements in algorithmic efficiency for network flow problems. - Edmonds, Karp - 1972 |

467 | Computer-aided verification of coordinating processes: the automata-theoretic approach - Kurshan - 1994 |

429 | Model-checking for real-time systems. - Alur, Courcoubetis, et al. - 1990 |

375 |
An n logn algorithm for minimizing states in a finite automaton. In:
- Hopcroft
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng, since there are n states. Therefore, the total time complexity of a straightforward implementation of this state partitioning is O(pn 2 ). A modification of an algorithm for automata minimization =-=[Hop]-=- gives a fast algorithm with complexity O(pnlog n). After partitioning the states of the machine M into blocks of equivalent states, say r blocks B 1 , ... , B r , we can construct the equivalent mini... |

347 | Cryptographic limitations on learning Boolean formulae and finite automata. - Kearns, Valiant - 1994 |

320 | Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and - Lawler - 1976 |

301 |
On communicating finite-state machines.
- Brand, Zafiropulo
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... For their minimization and reachability, we need more general procedures [LY3]. Protocols among different processes can often be modeled as a collection of communicating finite state machines (CFSM) =-=[BZ]-=-. Each FSM is a component machine. To specify interactions between various component machines, we could use interprocess I/O operations similar to those used in the language CSP [Hoa]. An output opera... |

278 |
Complexity of automaton identification from given data
- Gold
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t [LNSSJ, WS]. The problem of inferring a finite state machine from a given set of observations has been studied in learning theory. Finding the smallest such consistent machine is an NP-hard problem =-=[Gol]-=-, and even approximating the minimum number of states required is hard [KV, PW]. 8. CONCLUSIONS Finite state machines have proved to be a useful model for systems in several different areas, and undou... |

234 |
Testing software design modeled by finite-state machines”,
- Chow
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hecking sequences. For machines with a reliable reset, i.e., at any moment the machine can be taken to an initial state, Chow developed a method that constructs a checking sequence of length O(pn 3 ) =-=[Ch]-=-. The area seemed to have mostly died down until a few years ago when the fault detection problem was resurrected and is now being studied anew due to its applications in testing communications protoc... |

209 |
Random walks, universal traversal sequences, and the complexity of maze problems.
- Aleliunas, Karp, et al.
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... do not have so much to do with the checking problem itself, but instead are due to the well known difficulties of traversing unknown graphs, i.e., the universal traversal problem for directed graphs =-=[AKLLR]-=-. Suppose that A is a specification FSM with n states and p inputs and that B is an implementation machine with at most n + D states. Suppose that B is identical to A except for the D extra states tha... |

134 | An optimization technique for protocol conformance test generation based on UIO sequences and rural Chinese postman tours”,
- Aho, Dahbura, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a Rural Postman Tour [GJ]. In general, it is an NP-hard problem. However, practical constraints are investigated and polynomial time algorithms are obtained for a class of communication protocols in =-=[ADLU]. Sometime-=-s, the system is too large to construct and we cannot even afford a covering path. To save space and to avoid repeatedly testing the same portion of the system, a "random walk" could be used... |

131 |
A theory for the derivation of tests,
- Brinksma
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(instead of inputs and outputs), and "different" behavior is defined in terms of a deadlock being reached with an inability to perform certain actions (instead of the output produced). It is=-= shown in [Bri] that ever-=-y specification can be tested in this sense, and there is a "canonical" tester. The fact that the framework uses the model of transition systems instead of FSM's is only a minor difference, ... |

130 | Test selection based on finite state models. - Fujiwara, Bochmann, et al. - 1991 |

110 | Introduction to the Theory of Finite-State Machines, - Gill - 1962 |

92 | Computational Learning theory: survey and selected bibliography. - Angluin - 1992 |

84 |
Fault-detecting experiments for sequential circuits. In:
- Hennie
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s- problem. He also posed the conformance testing problem, and asked whether there is a better method than using machine identification. A partial answer was offered by Hennie in an influential paper =-=[He]-=- in 1964: he showed that if the machine has a distinguishing sequence of length L then one can construct a checking sequence of length polynomial in L and the size of the machine. Unfortunately, not e... |

70 | Automatic functional test generation using the extended finite state machine model. - Cheng, Krishnakumar - 1993 |

64 | Reset sequences for monotonic automata.
- Eppstein
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er, it takes exponential time to construct the successor tree up to depth d. In fact, finding a shortest homing sequence is an NP-hard problem and is thus unlikely to have a polynomial time algorithm =-=[Ep]-=-. 2.4. Synchronizing Sequences A synchronizing sequence takes a machine to the same final state, regardless of the initial state or the outputs. That is, an input sequence x is synchronizing if and on... |

64 | Protocol verification via projections. - Lam, Shankar - 1984 |

62 | Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design.” - Lala - 1985 |

62 |
Online minimization of transition systems. In:
- Lee, Yannakakis
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...have to analyze and test the reachable part of the reduced machine; this is about the minimal amount of work we have to do using traditional FSM techniques. The general algorithm is somewhat involved =-=[LY2]-=-. We explain the main ideas here using an example. Example 5.1. Ring networks have been around for many years and are used for both local and wide area networks [Tan]. Our example is a simplified vers... |

52 | A method for the design of fault detection experiments”, - Gonenc - 1970 |

47 |
Fault detection for sequential machines by transition tours.
- Naito, Tsunoyama
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a few here: the D-method based on distinguishing sequences [He], the U-method based on UIO sequences [SD], the Wmethod based on characterization sets [Ch], and the T-method based on transition tours =-=[NT]-=-. A survey of these methods appears in [SL] as well as an experimental comparison on a subset of the NBS T4 protocol (15 states, 27 inputs). Finite state machines model well sequential circuits and co... |

46 | Distinguishing tests for nondeterministic and probabilistic machines.
- Alur, Couroubetis, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the event of crash, loss of messages, etc. There has been very little algorithmic work on testing problems for nondeterministic machines. The state identification problem was studied very recently in =-=[ACY]-=-. We are given an NFSM M and a set of possible initial states Q. We would like to find if possible an input sequence x, such that we will be able to determine the initial state from the output sequenc... |

43 |
Switching and Finite Automata Theory, 2nd ed.
- Kohavi
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...therwise. Several papers were published in the 60's on testing problems, motivated mainly by automata theory and testing switching circuits. Kohavi's book gives a good exposition of the major results =-=[Koh]-=-, see also [FM1]. During the late 60's and early 70's there were a lot of activities in the Soviet literature, which are apparently not well known in the West. An important paper on fault detection wa... |

41 | Euler tours and Chinese Postman”, - Edmonds, Johnson, et al. - 1973 |

38 |
Finite state Markov Decision processes
- Derman
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... only one j and l such that P(s i , s j , a k , o l ) > 0 (and hence this probability is actually equal to 1), then a PFSM becomes a deterministic FSM. A PFSM is essentially a Markov Decision Process =-=[De]-=-, where the inputs correspond to the actions of the process. The process is only partially observable, since we do not observe directly the state during testing, but obtain information only indirectly... |

32 |
Conformance Testing of Protocols Specified as Communicating Finite State Machines - A Guided Random Walk Based Approach
- Lee, Sabnani, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure random walk. Indeed, this is very likely to happen for machines with low enough connectivity and few faults (single fault, for instance). To avoid such problems, a guided random walk was proposed =-=[LSKPU]-=- for protocol testing where partial information of a history of the tested portion is being recorded. Instead of a random choice of next input, priorities based on the past history are enforced; on th... |

27 | A polynomial time algorithm for the local testability problem of deterministic finite automata - Kim, McNaughton, et al. - 1991 |

26 | A Unified Approach to Protocol Test Sequence Generation - Chanson, Zhu - 1993 |

24 |
An improved protocol test generation proce dure based on UIOs
- Chan, Vuong, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hat we find a path that exercises each red edge at least once. It provides a better fault coverage than a simple covering path, although such a path does not necessarily give a checking sequence. See =-=[CVI1]-=- for a counter example. We would like to find a shortest path that covers each red edge at least once. This is a Rural Postman Tour [GJ]. In general, it is an NP-hard problem. However, practical const... |

23 | Probabilistic verification of boolean functions,” - Jain, Abraham, et al. - 1992 |

22 |
Tutorial: Test Generation for VLSI Chips
- Agrawal, Seth
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for practical applications and heuristic procedures are used instead. For example, in circuit testing, test sequences are generated based on fault models that significantly limit the possible faults =-=[AS]-=-. Without fault models, covering paths are often used in both circuit testing [AS, FM1, Koh] and protocol testing [NT, SL, UD] where a test sequence exercises each transition of the specification mach... |

22 | Formal Methods for Generating Protocol Conformance Test Sequences,” - Dahbura, Sabnani, et al. - 1990 |

20 | Algebraic Theory of Machines - Krohn, Rhodes - 1962 |

19 |
Testing Finite State Machines: State Identification and Verification,”
- Lee, Yannakakis
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DSU, Gon, KSNM, MP1, SL1, SL2]. Consequently, the problems of state identification and verification have resurfaced. The complexity of state identification and verification has been resolved recently =-=[LY1]-=- as follows. The preset distinguishing sequence and the UIO sequence problems are both PSPACEcomplete. Furthermore, there are machines that have such sequences but only of exponential length. Surprisi... |

16 | Test Case Generation for Protocols Specified in Estelle - Chun, Amer - 1990 |

15 | State-identification experiments in finite automata. - Gill - 1961 |

13 | Approaches utilizing segment overlap to minimize test sequences - Chen, Choi, et al. - 1990 |

13 | Conformance testing with multiple observers - Dssouli, Bochmann - 1986 |

13 | Generating Conformance Test Sequences for Combined Control and Data - Miller, Paul - 1992 |

12 | A framework for test selection - Brinksma, Tretmans, et al. - 1991 |

12 | A Well-Defined Estelle Specification for Automatic Test Generation - Lee, Lee - 1991 |

11 |
Checking experiments for sequential machines
- Hsieh
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...que Input Output sequence for state s 1 (UIO sequence, for short) [SD]. This concept has been reintroduced at different times under different names; for example, it is called "simple I/O sequence=-=" in [Hs] and "-=-;checkword" in [Gob]. Distinguishing sequences and UIO sequences are interesting in their own right in offering a solution to the state identification and verification problems, respectively. Bes... |

9 | Variable-length distinguishing sequences and their application to the design of fault-detection experiments. - Kohavi, Kohavi - 1968 |

9 | Test generation for the specification written in Estelle, - Lee, Lee - 1991 |

9 |
Reverse-engineering of communication protocols.
- Lee, Sabnani
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st sequence that allows us to determine the transition diagram of B from its response to the test. Such procedures have applications in practice such as reverse-engineering of communication protocols =-=[LS]-=- where we want to keep track of proprietary protocol standards by observing the behavior of their implementations. Obviously, without any assumptions it is an impossible problem. We need certain a pri... |

8 | Design and Implementation of a Ferry Clip Test System - Chanson, Lee, et al. - 1989 |

8 | Generating minimal length test sequences for conformance testing of communication protocols - Miller, Paul - 1991 |

7 | A Survey of Formal Methods - Bochmann, Sunshine - 1983 |

7 | Automatic generation of test scenario skeletons from protocol specifications written in Estelle - Favreau, Linn - 1986 |

7 | Test result analysis and diagnostics for finite state machines. - Ghedamsi, Bochmann, et al. - 1992 |

7 |
Gedanken-Experiments on Sequential Machines", Automata Studies
- Moore
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[Hol, Kur]. There is an extensive literature on testing finite state machines, the fault detection problem in particular, dating back to the 50's. Moore's seminal 1956 paper on "gedanken-experime=-=nts" [Mo]-=- introduced the framework for testing problems. Moore studied the related, but harder problem of machine identification: given a machine with a known number of states, determine its state diagram. He ... |

6 | Improvements on UIO sequence generation and partial UIO sequences - Chun, Amer - 1992 |

6 | Automatic test generation for protocol data aspects, - Kwast - 1992 |

5 | Efficient algorithms for constructing testing sets, covering paths, and minimum flows," unpublished manuscript - Aho, Lee - 1987 |

5 | H.: On the complexity of generating optimal test sequences - Boyd, Ural - 1991 |

5 | Graphic programming using odd or even points. - Kuan - 1962 |

5 | Conformance relation, associated equivalence, and new canonical tester - Leduc - 1991 |

5 | Testing Protocol Implementations Based on a Formal Specification - Lundy, Miller - 1990 |

4 | Methods and semi-automatic tools for preparing distributed testing - Castanet, Sijelmassi - 1986 |

4 | On test sequence generation for protocols - Chan, Vuong, et al. - 1989 |

4 | Multiple fault diagnostics for finite state machines. - Ghedamsi, Bochmann, et al. - 1993 |

4 | A notation for specifying test selection criteria - Pachl - 1990 |

3 | Development of an international standard for conformance testing X.25 DTEs - Alfano, Kanungo - 1990 |

3 | Computing Diagnostic Tests for Incorrect Processes - Celikkan, Cleaveland - 1992 |

3 | An optimization technique for protocol conformance testing based on the wp method - Chen - 2003 |

3 | A useful FSM representation for test suite design and development - Kanungo, Lamont, et al. - 1986 |

3 | Probabilistic conformance testing of protocols with unobservable transitions - Low - 1993 |

2 | MHTS/400 - testing message handling systems - Austermuehl - 1986 |

2 | I "An Algorithm for Generating a Fault Detection Test for a Class of Sequential Circuits,, " presented at the International Symposium on the Theory of Iachine and Co pt tation - Breuer - 1971 |

2 | Minimum-cost synchronizable test sequence generation via the duplexU - Chen, Tang, et al. - 1993 |

2 | Generating test sequences and their degrees of indeterminism for protocols - Cheung, Wu, et al. - 1991 |

2 |
Check words for the states of a finite automaton
- Gobershtein
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e for state s 1 (UIO sequence, for short) [SD]. This concept has been reintroduced at different times under different names; for example, it is called "simple I/O sequence" in [Hs] and "=-=;checkword" in [Gob]-=-. Distinguishing sequences and UIO sequences are interesting in their own right in offering a solution to the state identification and verification problems, respectively. Besides, these sequences hav... |

2 | Testing nonlinear operators - Lee, Wozniakowski - 1995 |

2 | Derivation and validation of test scenarios based on the formal specification language LOTOS - Meer - 1986 |

2 | Test suite generation from a FSM with a given type of implementation errors - Petrenko, Yevtushenko - 1992 |

1 | Presentation layer conformance testing with TTCN - Bar, Strecker, et al. - 1991 |

1 | Automated validation of TTCN test suites - Bar, Schneider - 1992 |

1 | Testability of formal specifications - Burgt, Kroon, et al. - 1992 |

1 | Synchronizable protocol test generation via the duplex technique - Chen, Lu, et al. - 1991 |

1 | Testability in the context of SDL - Ellsberger, Kristoffersen - 1992 |

1 | Towards execution of TTCN test cases - Eswara, Berrian, et al. - 1990 |

1 | Fault location in iterative logic arrays - Friedman, Menon - 1972 |

1 | Using checking sequences for OSI session layer conformance testing - Hengeveld, Kroon - 1987 |

1 | Strategic testing environment with formal description techniques - Katsuyama, Sato, et al. - 1991 |

1 | On the degree of distinguishability of finite automata," Diskretnyi Analiz - Korshunov - 1967 |

1 | Protocol pruning - Lee, Netravali, et al. - 1995 |

1 | Passive testing and network management," paper in preparation - Lee, Netravali, et al. |

1 | Testing linear operators - Lee, Wozniakowski - 1995 |

1 |
On-line minimization of transition systems - general methods,’’ paper in preparation
- Lee, Yannakakis
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...large. Furthermore, if the parameter values are infinite then this approach does not work (the expanded system is not finite). For their minimization and reachability, we need more general procedures =-=[LY3]-=-. Protocols among different processes can often be modeled as a collection of communicating finite state machines (CFSM) [BZ]. Each FSM is a component machine. To specify interactions between various ... |

1 | Conformance testing: operational aspects, tools, and experiences - Matthews, Muralidhar, et al. - 1986 |

1 | MAP 2.1 network management and directory services test system - Muralidhar - 1987 |

1 | Application of the ISO distributed single-layer testing method to the connectionless network protocol - Nightingale - 1986 |