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## The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment

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Venue: | Living Rev. Relativity 9 |

Citations: | 214 - 1 self |

### Citations

664 | The Hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimeter
- Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to suggest the possibility that the inverse-square law could be violated at very short ranges, below the centimeter range of existing laboratory verifications of the 1/r 2 behavior. One set of ideas =-=[12, 200, 199]-=- posited that some of the extra spatial dimensions that come with string theory could extend over macroscopic scales, rather than being rolled up at the Planck scale of 10 −33 cm, which was then the c... |

327 |
New dimensions at a millimeter to a Fermi and superstrings at a TeV
- Antoniadis, Arkani-Hamed, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to suggest the possibility that the inverse-square law could be violated at very short ranges, below the centimeter range of existing laboratory verifications of the 1/r 2 behavior. One set of ideas =-=[15, 13, 222, 221]-=- posited that some of the extra spatial dimensions that come with string theory could extend over macroscopic scales, rather than being rolled up at the Planck scale of 10 −33 cm, which was then the c... |

110 | Gravitational radiation from post-newtonian sources and inspiralling compact binaries,” Living Reviews in Relativity,
- Blanchet
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n AnPN indicates that the term is O(ǫn ) relative to the Newtonian term −ˆn. Explicit and unambiguous formulae for non-spinning bodies through 3.5PN order have been calculated by various authors (see =-=[33]-=- for a review). Here we quote only the first PN corrections and the leading radiation-reaction terms at 2.5PN order: A1PN = { (4 + 2η) m A2.5PN = − 8 15 ηm r r − (1 + 3η)v2 + 3 η ˙r2 2 {( 9v 2 + 17 m ... |

105 |
A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft.
- Bertotti, Iess, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he 1976 Viking experiment resulted in a 0.1 percent measurement [201]. A significant improvement was reported in 2003 from Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft while it was on its way to Saturn =-=[28]-=-, with a result γ − 1 = (2.1 ± 2.3) × 10−5 . This was made possible by the ability to do Doppler measurements using both X-band (7175 MHz) and Ka-band (34316 MHz) radar, thereby significantly reducing... |

97 |
Lorentz-violating extension of the standardmodel,”
- Colladay, Kostelecky
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rame of the universe. The c 2 framework focusses exclusively on classical electrodynamics. It has recently been extended to the entire standard model of particle physics by Kosteleck´y and colleagues =-=[58, 59, 137]-=-. The “Standard Model Extension” (SME) has a large number of Lorentz-violating parameters, opening up many new opportunities for experimental tests (Sec. 2.2.4). A variety of clock anisotropy experime... |

86 |
The Search for Non-Newtonian Gravity.
- Fischbach, Talmadge
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... A consensus emerged that there was no credible experimental evidence for a fifth force of nature, of a type and range proposed by Fischbach et al. For reviews and bibliographies of this episode, see =-=[92, 94, 95, 4, 249]-=-. 2.3.2 Short-range modifications of Newtonian gravity Although the idea of an intermediate-range violation of Newton’s gravitational law was dropped, new ideas emerged to suggest the possibility that... |

82 |
LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,
- Abramovici, Althouse, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... realization that a leading candidate source of detectable waves would be the inspiral, driven by gravitational radiation damping, of a binary system of compact objects (neutron stars or black holes) =-=[1, 229]-=-. The analysis of signals from such systems will require theoretical predictions from GR that are extremely accurate, well beyond the leading-order prediction of Newtonian or even post-Newtonian gravi... |

66 | The string Dilaton and a least coupling principle,
- Damour, Polyakov
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tional Lagrangian here takes the form of a scalar-tensor theory (Sec. 3.3.2). But the non-metric electromagnetic term will, in general, produce violations of EEP. For examples of specific models, see =-=[227, 76]-=-. Another class of non-metric theories are included in the “varying speed of light (VSL)” theories; for a detailed review, see [158] On the other hand, whether one views such effects as a violation of... |

59 |
A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the LenseThirring effect,
- Ciufolini, Pavlis
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wo existing LAGEOS satellites are not in appropriately inclined orbits, and no concrete plans exist at present to launch a third satellite in a supplementary orbit. Nevertheless, Ciufolini and Pavlis =-=[56]-=- combined nodal precession data from LAGEOS I and II with improved models for the Earth’s multipole moments provided by two recent orbiting geodesy satellites, Europe’s CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellit... |

58 |
Test of general relativity and measurement of the LenseThirring effect with two Earth satellites
- Ciufolini, Pavlis, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te Experiment), and reported a 5 – 10 percent confirmation of GR. In earlier reports, Ciufolini et al. had reported tests at the the 20 – 30 percent level, without the benefit of the GRACE/CHAMP data =-=[54, 55, 53]-=-. Some authors stressed the importance of adequately assessing systematic errors in the LAGEOS data [203, 120]. 3.7.2 Geodetic precession A gyroscope moving through curved spacetime suffers a precessi... |

47 |
Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo Program.
- Dickey, Bender, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l are then estimated in the least-squares method. Numerous ongoing analyses of the data find no evidence, within experimental uncertainty, for the Nordtvedt effect [266, 267] (for earlier results see =-=[82, 265, 173]-=-). These results represent a limit on a possible violation of WEP for massive bodies of about 1.4 parts in 10 13 (compare Figure 1). However, at this level of precision, one cannot regard the results ... |

46 |
CPT violation and the standard model,” Phys
- Colladay, Kostelecky
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rame of the universe. The c 2 framework focusses exclusively on classical electrodynamics. It has recently been extended to the entire standard model of particle physics by Kosteleck´y and colleagues =-=[58, 59, 137]-=-. The “Standard Model Extension” (SME) has a large number of Lorentz-violating parameters, opening up many new opportunities for experimental tests (Sec. 2.2.4). A variety of clock anisotropy experime... |

45 |
General relativity as a cosmological attractor of tensor-scalar theories”, Phys
- Damour, Nordtvedt
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... if β0 > 0, then during cosmological evolution, the scalar field naturally evolves toward the minimum of the potential, i.e. toward α0 ≈ 0, ω → ∞, or toward a theory close to, though not precisely GR =-=[71, 72]-=-. Estimates of the expected relic deviations from GR today in such theories depend on the cosmological model, but range from 10 −5 to a few times 10 −7 for |γ − 1|. Negative values of β0 correspond to... |

41 | Observing binary inspiral in gravitational radiation: One interferometer”, Phys
- Finn, Chernoff
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...racy of 10 −5 or better. Since v ∼ 1/10 during the late inspiral, this means that correction terms in the phasing at the level of v 5 or higher are needed. More formal analyses confirm this intuition =-=[61, 90, 62, 193]-=-. Because it is a slow-motion system (v ∼ 10 −3 ), the binary pulsar is sensitive only to the lowestorder effects of gravitational radiation as predicted by the quadrupole formula. Nevertheless, the f... |

40 |
Violations of the equivalence principle in a dilaton-runaway scenario
- Damour, Piazza, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ues that could easily be excluded by solar system experiments. Scalar fields coupled to gravity or matter are also ubiquitous in particle-physics-inspired models of unification, such as string theory =-=[227, 156, 76, 73, 74]-=-. In some models, the coupling to matter may lead to violations of EEP, which could be tested or bounded by the experiments described in Sec. 2.1. In many models the scalar field could be massive; if ... |

38 |
Runaway dilaton and equivalence principle violations”, Phys
- Damour, Piazza, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ues that could easily be excluded by solar system experiments. Scalar fields coupled to gravity or matter are also ubiquitous in particle-physics-inspired models of unification, such as string theory =-=[227, 156, 76, 73, 74]-=-. In some models, the coupling to matter may lead to violations of EEP, which could be tested or bounded by the experiments described in Sec. 2.1. In many models the scalar field could be massive; if ... |

36 |
Tensor-scalar cosmological models and their relaxation toward general relativity”, Phys
- Damour, Nordtvedt
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... if β0 > 0, then during cosmological evolution, the scalar field naturally evolves toward the minimum of the potential, i.e. toward α0 ≈ 0, ω → ∞, or toward a theory close to, though not precisely GR =-=[71, 72]-=-. Estimates of the expected relic deviations from GR today in such theories depend on the cosmological model, but range from 10 −5 to a few times 10 −7 for |γ − 1|. Negative values of β0 correspond to... |

34 |
Gravitational waves from merging compact binaries: How accurately can one extract the binary’s parameters from the inspiral wave form?”, Phys
- Cutler, Flanagan
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...racy of 10 −5 or better. Since v ∼ 1/10 during the late inspiral, this means that correction terms in the phasing at the level of v 5 or higher are needed. More formal analyses confirm this intuition =-=[61, 90, 62, 193]-=-. Because it is a slow-motion system (v ∼ 10 −3 ), the binary pulsar is sensitive only to the lowestorder effects of gravitational radiation as predicted by the quadrupole formula. Nevertheless, the f... |

31 |
An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system
- Burgay, D’Amico, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he galactic system B1913+16. This makes a separate, precision measurement of the relativistic contribution to ˙ Pb essentially impossible. J0737-3039A,B. This binary pulsar system, discovered in 2003 =-=[47]-=-, was already remarkable for its extraordinarily short orbital period (0.1 days) and large periastron advance (16.88 ◦ yr −1 ), but then the companion was also discovered to be a pulsar [155]. Because... |

25 |
Improved laser test of the isotropy of space. Phys
- Brillet, Hall
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eam physicists by the late 1920s, ultimately to become part of the standard toolkit of every working physicist. This accumulation included • the classic Michelson-Morley experiment and its descendents=-=[166, 214, 126, 45]-=-, • the Ives-Stillwell, Rossi-Hall and other tests of time-dilation[123, 206, 88], • tests of the independence of the speed of light of the velocity of the source, using both binary X-ray stellar sour... |

25 |
Relativistic effects in the Global Positioning System
- Ashby
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ilation). If these effects were not accurately accounted for, GPS would fail to function at its stated accuracy. This represents a welcome practical application of GR! (For the role of GR in GPS, see =-=[17, 18]-=-; for a popular essay, see [287].) Local position invariance also refers to position in time. If LPI is satisfied, the fundamental constants of non-gravitational physics should be constants in time. T... |

24 |
The 1995-99 measurements of the Lense-Thirring effect using laserranged satellites, Class
- Ciufolini
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te Experiment), and reported a 5 – 10 percent confirmation of GR. In earlier reports, Ciufolini et al. had reported tests at the the 20 – 30 percent level, without the benefit of the GRACE/CHAMP data =-=[54, 55, 53]-=-. Some authors stressed the importance of adequately assessing systematic errors in the LAGEOS data [203, 120]. 3.7.2 Geodetic precession A gyroscope moving through curved spacetime suffers a precessi... |

23 |
Gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: Energy loss and waveform to second postnewtonian order
- Blanchet, Damour, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...), the second term is the 1PN contribution, the third term, with the coefficient 4π, is the “tail” contribution, and the fourth term is the 2PN contribution, first reported jointly by Blanchet et al. =-=[42, 41, 291]-=-. The 2.5PN, 3PN and 3.5PN contributions have also been calculated (see [36] for a review). Similar expressions can be derived for the loss of angular momentum and linear momentum. Expressions for non... |

21 |
On the orbital period change of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16”, Astrophys
- Damour, Taylor
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...manner that can subtract from the direct effect of a variation in G, given by ˙ Pb/Pb = −2 ˙ G/G [180]. Thus, the bounds quoted in Table 5 for the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 and others [128] (see also =-=[77]-=-) are theory-dependent and must be treated as merely suggestive. In a similar manner, bounds from helioseismology and big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) assume a model for the evolution of G over the mult... |

20 |
The Oklo bound on the time variation of the fine-structure constant revisited
- Damour, Dyson
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proton mass ratio me/mp, or the 12Limit on ˙ k/k Constant k (yr−1) Redshift Method Fine structure < 30 × 10−16 0 Clock comparisons [161, 30, 96, 188] constant < 0.5 × 10−16 0.15 Oklo Natural Reactor =-=[67, 101, 189]-=- αEM = e2 /¯hc < 3.4 × 10−16 0.45 187Re decay in meteorites [184] (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10−16 0.2 − 3.7 Spectra in distant quasars [240, 174] < 1.2 × 10−16 0.4 − 2.3 Spectra in distant quasars [219, 50] Weak ... |

18 |
Radiative gravitational fields in general relativity I. General structure of the field outside the source
- Blanchet, Damour
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has bedeviled the subject of gravitational radiation for decades. Numerous approaches have been developed to try to handle this difficulty. The “post-Minkowskian” method of Blanchet, Damour and Iyer =-=[34, 35, 36, 70, 37, 32]-=- solves Einstein’s equations by two different techniques, one in the near zone and one in the far zone, and uses the method of singular asymptotic matching to join the solutions in an overlap region. ... |

17 |
New tests of Einstein’s equivalence principle and Newton’s inverse-square
- Adelberger
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion balance tray to compare the accelerations of various materials toward local topography on Earth, movable laboratory masses, the Sun and the galaxy [223, 18], and have reached levels of 3 × 10 −13 =-=[2]-=-. The resulting upper limits on η are summarized in Figure 1 (TEGP 14.1 [252]; for a bibliography of experiments up to 1991, see [92]). A number of projects are in the development or planning stage to... |

17 | GravitationalRadiation Damping of Compact Binary Systems to Second Post-Newtonian Order”, Phys
- Blanchet, Damour, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ots denote time derivatives. For a binary system this leads to Q ij = 2η(v i v j − mˆn i ˆn j /r). (68) For binary systems, explicit formulae for the waveform through 2PN order have been derived (see =-=[39]-=- for a ready-to-use presentation of the waveform for circular orbits; see [33] for a full review). Given the gravitational waveform, one can compute the rate at which energy is carried off by the radi... |

17 |
Beitrage zum Gesetze der Proportionalität von Trägheit und Gravität
- Eötvös, Pekár, et al.
- 1922
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion parameters η A . Many high-precision Eötvös-type experiments have been performed, from the pendulum experiments of Newton, Bessel and Potter, to the classic torsion-balance measurements of Eötvös =-=[86]-=-, Dicke [81], Braginsky [42] and their collaborators. In the modern torsion-balance experiments, two objects of different composition are connected by a rod or placed on a tray and suspended in a hori... |

16 |
Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the Hg-199(þ) single-ion optical
- Bize
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ly on the electromagnetic fine structure constant αEM, the electron-proton mass ratio me/mp, or the 12Limit on ˙ k/k Constant k (yr−1) Redshift Method Fine structure < 30 × 10−16 0 Clock comparisons =-=[161, 30, 96, 188]-=- constant < 0.5 × 10−16 0.15 Oklo Natural Reactor [67, 101, 189] αEM = e2 /¯hc < 3.4 × 10−16 0.45 187Re decay in meteorites [184] (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10−16 0.2 − 3.7 Spectra in distant quasars [240, 174] < ... |

15 |
Estimating spinning binary parameters and testing alternative theories of gravity with
- Berti, Buonanno, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e shown that observing waves from neutron-star black-hole inspirals is not likely to bound scalar-tensor gravity at a level competitive with the Cassini bound or with future solar-system improvements =-=[283, 162, 237, 292, 29, 30]-=-. 6.4 Speed of gravitational waves According to GR, in the limit in which the wavelength of gravitational waves is small compared to the radius of curvature of the background spacetime, the waves prop... |

14 |
Numerical relativity and compact binaries, Phys
- Baumgarte, Shapiro
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in’s equations via numerical methods. This field of “numerical relativity” is a rapidly growing and maturing branch of gravitational physics, whose description is beyond the scope of this review (see =-=[146, 23]-=- for reviews). Another is black hole perturbation theory (see [169, 131, 212] for reviews). 4.1.2 Compact bodies and the strong equivalence principle When dealing with the motion and gravitational-wav... |

14 |
A search for anisotropy of inertial mass using a free precession technique
- Drever
- 1961
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...periments, performed in the period 1959–60 independently by Hughes and collaborators at Yale University, and by Drever at Glasgow University, although their original motivation was somewhat different =-=[118, 83]-=-. The Hughes-Drever experiments yielded extremely accurate results, quoted as limits on the parameter δ ≡ c −2 −1 in Figure 2. Dramatic improvements were made in the 1980s using laser-cooled trapped a... |

14 |
The Measurement of the Light Deflection from Jupiter: Experimental Results, ApJ
- Fomalont, Kopeikin
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st in front of a quasar, and Kopeikin and Fomalont made precise measurements of the Shapiro delay with picosecond timing accuracy, and claimed to have measured the correction term to about 20 percent =-=[97, 132, 134, 135]-=-. However, several authors pointed out that this 1.5PN effect does not depend on the speed of propagation of gravity, but rather only depends on the speed of light [13, 259, 209, 48, 210]. Intuitively... |

14 |
Kapitulnik,A: New Experimental Constraints on Non-Newtonian Forces below 100 microns
- Chiaverini, Smullin, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uish gravitation-like interactions from electromagnetic and quantum mechanical (Casimir) effects. No deviations from the inverse square law have been found to date at distances between 10 µm and 10 mm=-=[172, 131, 130, 54, 171]-=-. For a comprehensive review of both the theory and the experiments, see [5]. 3 Tests of Post-Newtonian Gravity 3.1 Metric theories of gravity and the strong equivalence principle 3.1.1 Universal coup... |

13 |
Relativity in the Global Positioning System, Living Rev.
- Ashby
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ilation). If these effects were not accurately accounted for, GPS would fail to function at its stated accuracy. This represents a welcome practical application of GR! (For the role of GR in GPS, see =-=[14, 15]-=-; for a popular essay, see [258].) Local position invariance also refers to position in time. If LPI is satisfied, the fundamental constants of non-gravitational physics should be constants in time. T... |

13 |
New limits on the drift of fundamental constants from laboratory measurements,” Phys
- Fischer, Kolachevsky, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ly on the electromagnetic fine structure constant αEM, the electron-proton mass ratio me/mp, or the 12Limit on ˙ k/k Constant k (yr−1) Redshift Method Fine structure < 30 × 10−16 0 Clock comparisons =-=[161, 30, 96, 188]-=- constant < 0.5 × 10−16 0.15 Oklo Natural Reactor [67, 101, 189] αEM = e2 /¯hc < 3.4 × 10−16 0.45 187Re decay in meteorites [184] (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10−16 0.2 − 3.7 Spectra in distant quasars [240, 174] < ... |

12 |
Tensor-multi-scalar theories of gravitation., Class. Quantum Grav. 9
- Damour, Esposito-Farèse
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsor theories These theories contain the metric g, a scalar field ϕ, a potential function V (ϕ), and a coupling function A(ϕ) (generalizations to more than one scalar field have also been carried out =-=[68]-=-). For some purposes, the action is conveniently written in a non-metric representation, sometimes denoted the “Einstein frame”, in which the gravitational action looks exactly like that of GR: Ĩ = (1... |

12 |
Post-Newtonian parameters and constraints on Einstein-aether theory,” Phys
- Foster, Jacobson
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies for violations of Lorentz invariance in gravity, in parallel with similar studies in matter interactions, such as the SME. The general class of theories was analysed by Jacobson and collaborators =-=[124, 163, 125, 85, 98]-=-, motivated in part by [138]. Analysing the post-Newtonian limit, they were able to infer values of the PPN parameters γ and β as follows [98]: α2 = (2c13 − c14) 2 c123(2 − c14) γ = 1 , β = 1 , (40) ξ... |

11 |
Test of constancy of speed of light with rotating cryogenic optical resonators
- Antonini, Okhapkin, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es of experiments, the frequencies of electromagnetic cavity oscillators in various orientations were compared with each other or with atomic clocks as a function of the orientation of the laboratory =-=[268, 149, 171, 11]-=-. These placed 8bounds on c −2 − 1 at the level of better than a part in 10 9 . Haugan and Lämmerzahl [112] have considered the bounds that Michelson-Morley type experiments could place on a modified... |

11 |
Improved test of the equivalence principle for gravitational self-energy
- Baeßler, Heckel, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...niversity of Washington used a sophisticated torsion balance tray to compare the accelerations of various materials toward local topography on Earth, movable laboratory masses, the Sun and the galaxy =-=[223, 18]-=-, and have reached levels of 3 × 10 −13 [2]. The resulting upper limits on η are summarized in Figure 1 (TEGP 14.1 [252]; for a bibliography of experiments up to 1991, see [92]). A number of projects ... |

11 |
Postnewtonian generation of gravitational waves
- Blanchet, Damour
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has bedeviled the subject of gravitational radiation for decades. Numerous approaches have been developed to try to handle this difficulty. The “post-Minkowskian” method of Blanchet, Damour and Iyer =-=[34, 35, 36, 70, 37, 32]-=- solves Einstein’s equations by two different techniques, one in the near zone and one in the far zone, and uses the method of singular asymptotic matching to join the solutions in an overlap region. ... |

11 |
Esposito-Farèse: Gravitational-wave versus binary-pulsar tests of strong-field gravity
- Damour, G
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nary pulsar, dipole radiation is suppressed, and the bounds obtained are not competitive with the Cassini bound on γ, except for the unstable regime of generalized scalar-tensor theories, with β0 < 0 =-=[264, 69]-=-. Bounds on the parameters α0 and β0 from solar-system, binary-pulsar and gravitational wave observations (see Secs. 5.1 and 6.3) are found in [69]. Alternatively, a binary pulsar system with dissimil... |

11 |
The fundamental constants and their time variation, in “Aspects of Quantum Theory
- Dyson
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hysics should be constants in time. Table 1 shows current bounds on cosmological variations in selected dimensionless constants. For discussion and references to early work, see TEGP 2.4 (c) [252] or =-=[84]-=-. For a comprehensive recent review both of experiments and of theoretical ideas that underly proposals for varying constants, see [234]. Experimental bounds on varying constants come in two types: bo... |

10 |
Hereditary effects in gravitational radiation
- Blanchet, Damour
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has bedeviled the subject of gravitational radiation for decades. Numerous approaches have been developed to try to handle this difficulty. The “post-Minkowskian” method of Blanchet, Damour and Iyer =-=[34, 35, 36, 70, 37, 32]-=- solves Einstein’s equations by two different techniques, one in the near zone and one in the far zone, and uses the method of singular asymptotic matching to join the solutions in an overlap region. ... |

10 |
Results of a New Test of Local Lorentz Invariance: A Search for Mass Anisotropy in 21Ne,
- Chupp, Hoara, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Drever experiments yielded extremely accurate results, quoted as limits on the parameter δ ≡ c −2 −1 in Figure 2. Dramatic improvements were made in the 1980s using laser-cooled trapped atoms and ions=-=[194, 144, 52]-=-. This technique made it possible to reduce the broading of resonance lines caused by collisions, leading to improved bounds on δ shown in Figure 2 (experiments labelled NIST, U. Washington and Harvar... |

10 | experiment and cosmology
- Damour, “Gravitation
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r to the appropriate review articles and monographs, specifically to Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics [252], hereafter referred to as TEGP. Additional recent reviews in this subject are =-=[247, 255, 257, 65, 66, 216]-=-. References to TEGP will be by chapter or section, e.g. “TEGP 8.9 [252]”. 32 Tests of the Foundations of Gravitation Theory 2.1 The Einstein equivalence principle The principle of equivalence has hi... |

9 |
Response of primordial abundances to a general modification of gN and/or of the early universe expansion rate
- Bambi, Giannotti, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on, Seattle, and California, 39Method G/G(10 ˙ −13 −1 yr ) Reference Lunar Laser Ranging 4 ± 9 [266] Binary Pulsar 1913 + 16 40 ± 50 [128] Helioseismology 0 ± 16 [109] Big Bang nucleosynthesis 0 ± 4 =-=[60, 20]-=- Table 5: Constancy of the gravitational constant. For binary pulsar data, the bounds are dependent upon the theory of gravity in the strong-field regime and on neutron star equation of state. Big-ban... |

8 |
Self-Consistency of Relativistic Observables with General Relativity in the White Dwarf-Neutron Star Binary PSR J11416545”, Astrophys
- Bailes, Ord, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er motion effects will play a significantly smaller role in the interpretation of Pb ˙ measurements than they did in B1913+16. J1141-6545. This is a case where the companion is probably a white dwarf =-=[19, 17]-=-. The mass of the pulsar and companion are 1.30 ± 0.02 and 0.986 ± 0.02 M⊙, respectively. Pb ˙ has been measured to about 25 percent, consistent with the GR prediction. But because of the asymmetry in... |

8 |
New experimental limit on the validity of local position invariance
- Bauch, Weyers
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imental errors, leading to a limit on the LPI violation parameter |α H − α SCSO | < 2 × 10 −2 [231]. This bound has been improved using more stable frequency standards, such as atomic fountain clocks =-=[106, 195, 22]-=-. The current bound, from comparing a Cesium atomic fountain with a Hydrogen maser for a year, is |α H − α Cs | < 2.1 × 10 −5 [22]. The varying gravitational redshift of Earth-bound clocks relative to... |

8 |
Tail-transported temporal correlations in the dynamics of a gravitating system”, Phys
- Blanchet, Damour
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

8 |
Gravitation and the universe
- Dicke
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rs η A . Many high-precision Eötvös-type experiments have been performed, from the pendulum experiments of Newton, Bessel and Potter, to the classic torsion-balance measurements of Eötvös [86], Dicke =-=[81]-=-, Braginsky [42] and their collaborators. In the modern torsion-balance experiments, two objects of different composition are connected by a rod or placed on a tray and suspended in a horizontal orien... |

8 |
Hereditary effects in gravitational radiation”, Phys
- Blanchet, Damour
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has bedeviled the subject of gravitational radiation for decades. Numerous approaches have been developed to try to handle this difficulty. The “post-Minkowskian” method of Blanchet, Damour and Iyer =-=[37, 38, 39, 79, 40, 35]-=- solves Einstein’s equations by two different techniques, one in the near zone and one in the far zone, and uses the method of singular asymptotic matching to join the solutions in an overlap region. ... |

7 | Second-post-Newtonian generation of gravitational radiation”, Phys
- Blanchet
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

7 |
New Nucleosynthesis Constraint on the Variation of NewNucleosynthesisConstraintontheV ariationofGG
- Copi, Davis, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on, Seattle, and California, 39Method G/G(10 ˙ −13 −1 yr ) Reference Lunar Laser Ranging 4 ± 9 [266] Binary Pulsar 1913 + 16 40 ± 50 [128] Helioseismology 0 ± 16 [109] Big Bang nucleosynthesis 0 ± 4 =-=[60, 20]-=- Table 5: Constancy of the gravitational constant. For binary pulsar data, the bounds are dependent upon the theory of gravity in the strong-field regime and on neutron star equation of state. Big-ban... |

7 | Big bang nucleosynthesis and tensor-scalar gravity,”
- Damour, Pichon
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtainties, one can assess the quantitative difference between the BBN predictions of GR and scalar-tensor gravity under strong-field conditions and compare with observations. For recent analyses, see =-=[211, 75, 57]-=-. Another example is the exploration of the spacetime near black holes and neutron stars via accreting matter. Studies of certain kinds of accretion known as advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) ... |

7 |
NonNewtonian Gravity and New Weak Forces: an Index of Measurement and Theory”, Metrologia 29
- Fischbach, Gillies, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Sun and the galaxy [223, 18], and have reached levels of 3 × 10 −13 [2]. The resulting upper limits on η are summarized in Figure 1 (TEGP 14.1 [252]; for a bibliography of experiments up to 1991, see =-=[92]-=-). A number of projects are in the development or planning stage to push the bounds on η even lower. The project MICROSCOPE (MICRO-Satellite à Trainée Compensée pour l’Observation du Principe d’ Équiv... |

7 | Determination of the PPN Parameter γ with the Hipparcos Data
- Froeschlé, Mignard, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... + γ)/2 = 0.99992 ± 0.00023, or equivalently, γ − 1 = (−1.7 ± 4.5) × 10−4 [217]. Analysis of observations made by the Hipparcos optical astrometry satellite yielded a test at the level of 0.3 percent =-=[100]-=-. A VLBI measurement of the deflection of light by Jupiter was reported; the predicted deflection of about 300 microarcseconds was seen with about 50 percent accuracy [230]. The results of light-defle... |

6 |
A new test of conservation laws and Lorentz invariance in relativistic gravity
- Bell, Damour
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o be randomly oriented relative to the ecliptic (see TEGP 8.2, 8.3, 9.3 and 14.3 (c) [252]). An improved bound on α3 of 2 ×10 −20 from the period derivatives of 20 millisecond pulsars was reported in =-=[25]-=-; improved bounds on α1 were achieved using lunar laser ranging data [172], and using observations of the circular binary orbit of the pulsar J2317+1439 [24]. Negative searches for these effects have ... |

6 | PSR J1756-2251: A New Relativistic Double Neutron Star System
- Faulkner, Kramer, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-tensor gravity (see Sec. 5.4). J1756-2251. Discovered in 2004, this pulsar is in a binary system with a probable neutron star companion, with Pb = 7.67 hr, e = 0.18 and ˙ω = 2.585 ± 0.002 deg. yr −1 =-=[89]-=-. 5.3 Binary pulsars and alternative theories Soon after the discovery of the binary pulsar it was widely hailed as a new testing ground for relativistic gravitational effects. As we have seen in the ... |

6 |
Searches for New Macroscopic Forces
- Adelberger, G
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... A consensus emerged that there was no credible experimental evidence for a fifth force of nature, of a type and range proposed by Fischbach et al. For reviews and bibliographies of this episode, see =-=[108, 110, 111, 6, 278]-=-. 2.3.2 Short-range modifications of Newtonian gravity Although the idea of an intermediate-range violation of Newton’s gravitational law was dropped, new ideas emerged to suggest the possibility that... |

5 | Testing the equivalence principle by Lamb shift energies”, Phys
- Alvarez, Mann
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent sets a limit on the parameter combination |3Γ0 − Λ0| (Figure 3); the null-redshift experiment comparing hydrogen-maser and SCSO clocks sets a limit on |αH −αSCSO| = 3 2 |Γ0 −Λ0|. Alvarez and Mann =-=[7, 6, 8, 9, 10]-=- extended the THǫµ formalism to permit analysis of such effects as the Lamb shift, anomalous magnetic moments and non-baryonic effects, and placed interesting bounds on EEP violations. 2.2.3 The c 2 f... |

5 |
Testing general relativity and probing the merger history of massive black holes with LISA”, Class
- Berti, Buonanno, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e shown that observing waves from neutron-star black-hole inspirals is not likely to bound scalar-tensor gravity at a level competitive with the Cassini bound or with future solar-system improvements =-=[254, 213, 263, 26, 27]-=-. 6.4 Speed of gravitational waves According to GR, in the limit in which the wavelength of gravitational waves is small compared to the radius of curvature of the background spacetime, the waves prop... |

5 |
Signal analysis of gravitational wave tails
- Blanchet, Sathyaprakash
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...powers of f in Eq. (90) can be measured, then one again obtains more than two constraints on the two unknowns m1 and m2, leading to the possibility to test GR. For example, Blanchet and Sathyaprakash =-=[41, 40]-=- have shown that, by observing a source with a sufficiently strong signal, an interesting test of the 4π coefficient of the “tail” term could be performed. Another possibility involves gravitational w... |

5 | Model-dependence of Shapiro time delay and the ‘speed of gravity/speed of light’ controversy
- Carlip
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...about 20 percent [97, 132, 134, 135]. However, several authors pointed out that this 1.5PN effect does not depend on the speed of propagation of gravity, but rather only depends on the speed of light =-=[13, 259, 209, 48, 210]-=-. Intuitively, if one is working to only first order in v/c, then all that counts is the uniform motion of the planet, Jupiter (its acceleration about the Sun contributes a higher-order, unmeasurably ... |

5 |
Constraints on the Variation of G from Primordial Nucleosynthesis
- Clifton, Barrow, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtainties, one can assess the quantitative difference between the BBN predictions of GR and scalar-tensor gravity under strong-field conditions and compare with observations. For recent analyses, see =-=[211, 75, 57]-=-. Another example is the exploration of the spacetime near black holes and neutron stars via accreting matter. Studies of certain kinds of accretion known as advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) ... |

5 |
The last three minutes: Issues in gravitational wave measurements of coalescing compact binaries”, Phys
- Cutler, Apostolatos, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...racy of 10 −5 or better. Since v ∼ 1/10 during the late inspiral, this means that correction terms in the phasing at the level of v 5 or higher are needed. More formal analyses confirm this intuition =-=[61, 90, 62, 193]-=-. Because it is a slow-motion system (v ∼ 10 −3 ), the binary pulsar is sensitive only to the lowestorder effects of gravitational radiation as predicted by the quadrupole formula. Nevertheless, the f... |

5 |
Experimental relativity
- Dicke
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aced back to Robert Dicke, who contributed crucial ideas about the foundations of gravitation theory between 1960 and 1965. These ideas were summarized in his influential Les Houches lectures of 1964 =-=[80]-=-, and resulted in what has come to be called the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). One elementary equivalence principle is the kind Newton had in mind when he stated that the property of a body ca... |

5 | Binary-pulsar tests of strong-field gravity
- Esposito-Farese
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f GR, then the resulting lower bound on ωBD would be ωBD > 4 × 10 4 s 2 NS/σ . (89) Thus, for sNS ∼ 0.2, a 4 percent measurement would already compete with the Cassini bound (for further details, see =-=[87]-=-). 6 Gravitational Wave Tests of Gravitational Theory 6.1 Gravitational wave observatories Some time in the next decade, a new opportunity for testing relativistic gravity will be realized, when a wor... |

5 |
Six years of the fifth force
- Fischbach, Talmadge
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... A consensus emerged that there was no credible experimental evidence for a fifth force of nature, of a type and range proposed by Fischbach et al. For reviews and bibliographies of this episode, see =-=[92, 94, 95, 4, 249]-=-. 2.3.2 Short-range modifications of Newtonian gravity Although the idea of an intermediate-range violation of Newton’s gravitational law was dropped, new ideas emerged to suggest the possibility that... |

4 |
Test of the second postulate of special relativity in the GeV region
- Alväger, Farley, et al.
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ossi-Hall and other tests of time-dilation[123, 206, 88], • tests of the independence of the speed of light of the velocity of the source, using both binary X-ray stellar sources and high-energy pions=-=[43, 5]-=-, • tests of the isotropy of the speed of light[49, 204, 141] In addition to these direct experiments, there was the Dirac equation of quantum mechanics and its prediction of anti-particles and spin; ... |

4 | Testing the equivalence principle using atomic vacuum energy shifts”, Mod
- Alvarez, Mann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent sets a limit on the parameter combination |3Γ0 − Λ0| (Figure 3); the null-redshift experiment comparing hydrogen-maser and SCSO clocks sets a limit on |αH −αSCSO| = 3 2 |Γ0 −Λ0|. Alvarez and Mann =-=[7, 6, 8, 9, 10]-=- extended the THǫµ formalism to permit analysis of such effects as the Lamb shift, anomalous magnetic moments and non-baryonic effects, and placed interesting bounds on EEP violations. 2.2.3 The c 2 f... |

4 |
Equivalence of active and passive gravitational mass using the moon”, Phys
- Bartlett, Buren
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in 1968 by Kreuzer, in which the gravitational attraction of fluorine and bromine were compared to a precision of 5 parts in 10 5 . A remarkable planetary test was reported by Bartlett and van Buren =-=[21]-=-. They noted that current understanding of the structure of the Moon involves an iron-rich, aluminum-poor mantle whose center of mass is offset about 10 km from the center of mass of an aluminum-rich,... |

4 |
Detecting a tail effect in gravitational-wave experiments”, Phys
- Blanchet, Sathyaprakash
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...powers of f in Eq. (90) can be measured, then one again obtains more than two constraints on the two unknowns m1 and m2, leading to the possibility to test GR. For example, Blanchet and Sathyaprakash =-=[41, 40]-=- have shown that, by observing a source with a sufficiently strong signal, an interesting test of the 4π coefficient of the “tail” term could be performed. Another possibility involves gravitational w... |

4 |
Verification of the equivalence of inertial and gravitational
- Braginski, Panov
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gh-precision Eötvös-type experiments have been performed, from the pendulum experiments of Newton, Bessel and Potter, to the classic torsion-balance measurements of Eötvös [86], Dicke [81], Braginsky =-=[42]-=- and their collaborators. In the modern torsion-balance experiments, two objects of different composition are connected by a rod or placed on a tray and suspended in a horizontal orientation by a fine... |

4 |
An ‘aether drift’ experiment based on the Mössbauer effect”, Phys
- Champeney, Isaak, et al.
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...8], • tests of the independence of the speed of light of the velocity of the source, using both binary X-ray stellar sources and high-energy pions[43, 5], • tests of the isotropy of the speed of light=-=[49, 204, 141]-=- In addition to these direct experiments, there was the Dirac equation of quantum mechanics and its prediction of anti-particles and spin; later would come the stunningly successful relativistic theor... |

4 |
Probing the time-variation of the fine-structure constant: Results based on Si IV doublets from a UVES sample, A&A 430
- Chand, Petitjean, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [67, 101, 189] αEM = e2 /¯hc < 3.4 × 10−16 0.45 187Re decay in meteorites [184] (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10−16 0.2 − 3.7 Spectra in distant quasars [240, 174] < 1.2 × 10−16 0.4 − 2.3 Spectra in distant quasars =-=[219, 50]-=- Weak interaction < 1 × 10−11 0.15 Oklo Natural Reactor [67] constant < 5 × 10−12 109 Big Bang nucleosynthesis [159, 202] αW = Gfm2 pc/¯h 3 e-p mass ratio < 3 × 10−15 2.6 − 3.0 Spectra in distant quas... |

3 |
The equivalence principle and g-2 experiments”, Phys
- Alvarez, Mann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent sets a limit on the parameter combination |3Γ0 − Λ0| (Figure 3); the null-redshift experiment comparing hydrogen-maser and SCSO clocks sets a limit on |αH −αSCSO| = 3 2 |Γ0 −Λ0|. Alvarez and Mann =-=[7, 6, 8, 9, 10]-=- extended the THǫµ formalism to permit analysis of such effects as the Lamb shift, anomalous magnetic moments and non-baryonic effects, and placed interesting bounds on EEP violations. 2.2.3 The c 2 f... |

3 |
A tighter test of local Lorentz invariance using PSR J2317+1439”, Astrophys
- Bell, Camilo, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of 20 millisecond pulsars was reported in [25]; improved bounds on α1 were achieved using lunar laser ranging data [172], and using observations of the circular binary orbit of the pulsar J2317+1439 =-=[24]-=-. Negative searches for these effects have produced strong constraints on the PPN parameters (Table 4). 3.6.3 Constancy of the Newtonian gravitational constant Most theories of gravity that violate SE... |

3 |
Is the Speed of Light Independent of the Velocity of the Source? Phys
- Brecher
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ossi-Hall and other tests of time-dilation[123, 206, 88], • tests of the independence of the speed of light of the velocity of the source, using both binary X-ray stellar sources and high-energy pions=-=[43, 5]-=-, • tests of the isotropy of the speed of light[49, 204, 141] In addition to these direct experiments, there was the Dirac equation of quantum mechanics and its prediction of anti-particles and spin; ... |

3 |
Static post-Newtonian equivalence of general relativity and gravity with a dynamical preferred frame”, Phys
- Eling, Jacobson
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies for violations of Lorentz invariance in gravity, in parallel with similar studies in matter interactions, such as the SME. The general class of theories was analysed by Jacobson and collaborators =-=[124, 163, 125, 85, 98]-=-, motivated in part by [138]. Analysing the post-Newtonian limit, they were able to infer values of the PPN parameters γ and β as follows [98]: α2 = (2c13 − c14) 2 c123(2 − c14) γ = 1 , β = 1 , (40) ξ... |

3 | Oklo Constraint on the Time-Variability of the Fine-Structure Constant
- Fujii
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proton mass ratio me/mp, or the 12Limit on ˙ k/k Constant k (yr−1) Redshift Method Fine structure < 30 × 10−16 0 Clock comparisons [161, 30, 96, 188] constant < 0.5 × 10−16 0.15 Oklo Natural Reactor =-=[67, 101, 189]-=- αEM = e2 /¯hc < 3.4 × 10−16 0.45 187Re decay in meteorites [184] (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10−16 0.2 − 3.7 Spectra in distant quasars [240, 174] < 1.2 × 10−16 0.4 − 2.3 Spectra in distant quasars [219, 50] Weak ... |

3 |
Pulsar Catalogue”, web interface to database. URL (cited on 15 July 2005): http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/psrcat
- ATNFCSIRO
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion γ ′ (ms) 4.2919(8) Orbital period derivative Pb ˙ (10−12) −2.4184(9) Table 6: Parameters of the binary pulsar B1913+16. The numbers in parentheses denote errors in the last digit. Data taken from =-=[20, 272]-=-. Note that γ ′ is not the same as the PPN parameter γ [see Eq. (76)]. transfer from the companion, it is generally agreed that the companion is compact. Evolutionary arguments suggest that it is most... |

2 |
Tests of the gravitational inverse-square law”, Annu
- Adelberger, Heckel, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... No deviations from the inverse square law have been found to date at distances between 10 µm and 10 mm[152, 117, 116, 51, 151]. For a comprehensive review of both the theory and the experiments, see =-=[3]-=-. 3 Tests of Post-Newtonian Gravity 3.1 Metric theories of gravity and the strong equivalence principle 3.1.1 Universal coupling and the metric postulates The empirical evidence supporting the Einstei... |

2 | The equivalence principle and anomalous magnetic moment experiments”, Phys
- Alvarez, Mann
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

2 |
The equivalence principle in the non-baryonic regime”, Phys
- Alvarez, Mann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

2 |
The light cone effect on the Shapiro time delay”, Astrophys
- Asada
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...about 20 percent [97, 132, 134, 135]. However, several authors pointed out that this 1.5PN effect does not depend on the speed of propagation of gravity, but rather only depends on the speed of light =-=[13, 259, 209, 48, 210]-=-. Intuitively, if one is working to only first order in v/c, then all that counts is the uniform motion of the planet, Jupiter (its acceleration about the Sun contributes a higher-order, unmeasurably ... |

2 |
Gravitational physics tests from ranging to a Mercury orbiter”, unknown status
- Ashby, Bender, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed 2012 Bepi-Colombo Mercury orbiter mission over a two-year integration with 6 cm rms accuracy in range could yield ∆( ˙ G/G) < 10 −13 yr −1 ; an eight-year mission could improve this by a factor 15 =-=[168, 16]-=-. Although bounds on ˙ G/G from solar-system measurements can be correctly obtained in a phenomenological manner through the simple expedient of replacing G by G0 + ˙ G0(t − t0) in Newton’s equations ... |

2 |
Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects on Energy Dependence of the Speed of Light from
- Biller
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a burst source at large distances, one could bound contributions to the dispersion for n > 2. One limit, |f (3) | < 128 comes from observations of 1 and 2 TeV gamma rays from the blazar Markarian 421 =-=[29]-=-. Another limit comes from birefringence in photon propagation: in many Lorentz violating models, different photon polarizations may propagate with different speeds, causing the plane of polarization ... |

2 |
Present status of the resonant-mass gravitational-wave antenna NIOBE
- Blair, Heng, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing bars of spherical, or nearly spherical shape come to fruition. These systems are primarily sensitive to waves in relatively narrow bands about frequencies in the hundreds to thousands of Hz range =-=[185, 110, 31, 196]-=-. In addition, plans are being developed for an orbiting laser interferometer space antenna (LISA for short). Such a system, consisting of three spacecraft orbiting the sun in a triangular formation s... |

2 |
Gravitationalwave radiation from compact binary systems in the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory”, Phys
- Brunetti, Coccia, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [150, 237]); initial work has been done to assess whether the ground-based or space-based laser interferometers (or combinations of the two types) could perform interesting polarization measurements =-=[238, 46, 157, 104, 244]-=-. Unfortunately for this purpose, the two LIGO observatories (in Washington and Louisiana states, respectively) have been constructed to have their respective arms as parallel as possible, apart from ... |

2 |
Test of Lense - Thirring orbital shift due to spin”, Class
- Ciufolini, Chieppa, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te Experiment), and reported a 5 – 10 percent confirmation of GR. In earlier reports, Ciufolini et al. had reported tests at the the 20 – 30 percent level, without the benefit of the GRACE/CHAMP data =-=[54, 55, 53]-=-. Some authors stressed the importance of adequately assessing systematic errors in the LAGEOS data [203, 120]. 3.7.2 Geodetic precession A gyroscope moving through curved spacetime suffers a precessi... |

2 |
binary stars, and the mass of the graviton
- Cutler, Hiscock, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ional radiation damping by a massive graviton [91], and using LISA observations of the phasing of waves from compact white-dwarf binaries, eccentric galactic binaries, and eccentric inspiral binaries =-=[63, 127]-=-. Bounds obtainable from gravitational radiation effects should be compared with the solid bound λg > 2.8×10 12 km, [224] derived from solar system dynamics, which limit the presence of a Yukawa modif... |

2 |
An ESA cornerstone mission for a gravitational-wave observatory
- Danzmann, “LISA
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormation separated from each other by five million kilometers, would be sensitive primarily in the very low frequency band between 10 −4 and 10 −1 Hz, with peak strain sensitivity of order h ∼ 10 −23 =-=[79]-=-. In addition to opening a new astronomical window, the detailed observation of gravitational waves by such observatories may provide the means to test general relativistic predictions for the polariz... |

2 |
Reanalysis of the Eötvös experiment”, Phys
- Fischbach, Sudarsky, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a of using EEP tests in this way may have originated in the middle 1980s, with the search for a “fifth” force. In 1986, as a result of a detailed reanalysis of Eötvös’ original data, Fischbach et al. =-=[93]-=- suggested the existence of a fifth force of nature, with a strength of about a percent that of gravity, but with a range (as defined by the range λ of a Yukawa potential, e −r/λ /r) of a few hundred ... |

2 |
The LIGO project: Progress and plans
- Fritschel
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng newborn neutron stars, signals from non-axisymmetric pulsars, and a stochastic background of waves, may be detectable (for reviews, see [1, 229]; for updates on the status of various projects, see =-=[99, 44]-=-). A similar network of cryogenic resonant-mass gravitational antennas have been in operation for many years, albeit at lower levels of sensitivity (h ∼ 10 −19 ). While modest improvements in sensitiv... |

2 |
MICRO-Satellite à Trâınée Compensée pour l’Observation du Principe d’Equivalence)”, project homepage
- CNES
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ée pour l’Observation du Principe d’ Équivalence) is designed to test WEP to 10−15 . It is being developed by the French space agency CNES for a possible launch in March, 2008, for a one-year mission =-=[61]-=-. The dragcompensated satellite will be in a Sun-synchronous polar orbit at 700 km altitude, with a payload consisting of two differential accelerometers, one with elements made of the same material (... |

1 |
Searches for new macroscopic forces”, Annu
- Adelberger, Heckel, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... A consensus emerged that there was no credible experimental evidence for a fifth force of nature, of a type and range proposed by Fischbach et al. For reviews and bibliographies of this episode, see =-=[92, 94, 95, 4, 249]-=-. 2.3.2 Short-range modifications of Newtonian gravity Although the idea of an intermediate-range violation of Newton’s gravitational law was dropped, new ideas emerged to suggest the possibility that... |

1 |
Experimental tests of gravitational theory”, Phys
- Damour
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r to the appropriate review articles and monographs, specifically to Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics [252], hereafter referred to as TEGP. Additional recent reviews in this subject are =-=[247, 255, 257, 65, 66, 216]-=-. References to TEGP will be by chapter or section, e.g. “TEGP 8.9 [252]”. 32 Tests of the Foundations of Gravitation Theory 2.1 The Einstein equivalence principle The principle of equivalence has hi... |

1 |
Mission Project”, project homepage
- Small
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...P and QuickSTEP) has not been approved by any agency beyond the level of basic design studies or supporting research and development. An alternative concept for a space test of WEP is Galileo-Galilei =-=[1]-=-, which uses a rapidly rotating differential accelerometer as its basic element. Its goal is a bound on η at the 10 −13 level on the ground and 10 −17 in space. 2.1.2 Tests of local Lorentz invariance... |