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## Automatic verification of multi-agent systems by model checking via ordered binary decision diagrams

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### Other Repositories/Bibliography

Venue: | Journal of Applied Logic |

Citations: | 53 - 27 self |

### Citations

3524 | Graph-based algorithms for Boolean function manipulation
- Bryant
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... This “reduced” representation is called the OBDD of the boolean function. Besides offering a compact representation of boolean functions, OBDDs of different functions can be composed efficiently. In =-=[16]-=- algorithms are provided for the manipulation and composition of OBDDs. OBDDs are used in the verification of the model checking of systems specified by means of formulae of CTL, a logic used to reaso... |

3251 | Model checking
- Clarke, Grumberg, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context ...h traditional software engineering, where one wants to validate a piece of software or hardware against a specification. One of the most successful formal techniques to verification is model checking =-=[3]-=-. In this approach, a system S to be verified is represented by means of a logical model MS encoding the computational traces of the system, and a property P to be checked is expressed via a logical f... |

1872 |
Reasoning about Knowledge
- Moses, Y, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l as their temporal evolution. Hence, the logical models required are richer than the temporal model used in traditional model checking. In this paper we consider the formalism of interpreted systems =-=[7]-=- to reason about temporal and epistemic properties of agents, and an extension of interpreted systems with modal operators to reason about correct behaviour [8]. Based on this formalism, we extend the... |

1516 | The model checker SPIN.
- Holzmann
- 1997
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Citation Context ... June 2005model checking is defined as the problem of establishing whether or not MS |= ϕP . Various tools have been built to perform this task automatically for temporal logic models (SMV [4], SPIN =-=[5]-=-, NuSMV [6], and others), and several concrete systems have been tested. Unfortunately, extending model checking techniques to the verification of MAS is not trivial. This is because model checking to... |

1491 |
Symbolic Model Checking
- McMillan
- 1993
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Citation Context ...D representation for a ∧ (b ∨ c). has been investigated mostly for temporal logics [3,13]. The model M is usually represented by means of a dedicated programming language, such as PROMELA [5] and SMV =-=[14]-=-. In many approaches, the model for the program is not built explicitly, but symbolically. Techniques to achieve this are based on ordered binary decision diagrams, SAT translations [15], or other alg... |

1312 |
An Introduction to Multiagent Systems
- WOOLDRIDGE
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to abstract from the details of the components, and to focus on the interaction among the various agents. The modelling of MAS in such scenarios is typically conducted by using logic-based formalisms =-=[1,2]-=-. Besides abstracting and specifying the behaviour of a complex system by means of MAS formalisms based on logic, recently researchers have been concerned with the problem of verifying MAS. Namely, if... |

917 | Symbolic model checking without BDDs.
- Biere, Cimatti, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...A [5] and SMV [14]. In many approaches, the model for the program is not built explicitly, but symbolically. Techniques to achieve this are based on ordered binary decision diagrams, SAT translations =-=[15]-=-, or other algebraic structures. These approaches are often referred to as symbolic model checking techniques; other approaches exist, notably with automata [5]. For the purposes of this paper, we rev... |

577 | The dining cryptographers problem: Unconditional sender and recipient untraceability.
- Chaum
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce, a particular form of knowledge is retained irrespective of the fault under consideration. 5.2 The protocol of the dining cryptographers The protocol of the dining cryptographers was introduced in =-=[19]-=-, and model checking of its properties was discussed in [20]. We report the original wording from [19]. “Three cryptographers are sitting down to dinner at their favourite three-star restaurant. Their... |

458 |
Reasoning About Rational Agents.
- Wooldridge
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to abstract from the details of the components, and to focus on the interaction among the various agents. The modelling of MAS in such scenarios is typically conducted by using logic-based formalisms =-=[1,2]-=-. Besides abstracting and specifying the behaviour of a complex system by means of MAS formalisms based on logic, recently researchers have been concerned with the problem of verifying MAS. Namely, if... |

341 | NuSMV 2: An OpenSource Tool for Symbolic Model Checking. In
- Cimatti, Clarke, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...model checking is defined as the problem of establishing whether or not MS |= ϕP . Various tools have been built to perform this task automatically for temporal logic models (SMV [4], SPIN [5], NuSMV =-=[6]-=-, and others), and several concrete systems have been tested. Unfortunately, extending model checking techniques to the verification of MAS is not trivial. This is because model checking tools are tai... |

273 | CUDD: CU Decision Diagram Package Release 2.3.0.
- Somenzi
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns the complement of this set with respect to the set of reachable states (this algorithm is based on the efficient implementation of the procedure to compute existential boolean quantifications; see =-=[16,17]-=-). The procedures SATO(ϕ, i), SATKH(ϕ, i, Γ), SATE(ϕ, Γ), and SATD(ϕ, Γ) implement a similar algorithm for the modalities Oi, ˆ K Γ i , EΓ, and DΓ. The procedure SATC(ϕ, Γ) is based on the equivalence... |

111 | Model checking AgentSpeak.
- Bordini, Fisher, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...MABLE language for the specification of MAS. In this work, nontemporal modalities are translated into nested data structures (in the spirit of [22]). A similar approach can be found in Bordini et al. =-=[23]-=-: in this work, a modified version of the AgentSpeak(L) language [24] is used to specify agents and to exploit existing model checkers. Both the works of M. Wooldridge et al. and of Bordini et al. use... |

103 | Model Checking Multiagent Systems.
- Benerecetti, Giunchiglia, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to verify MAS. In [21], M. Wooldridge et al. present the MABLE language for the specification of MAS. In this work, nontemporal modalities are translated into nested data structures (in the spirit of =-=[22]-=-). A similar approach can be found in Bordini et al. [23]: in this work, a modified version of the AgentSpeak(L) language [24] is used to specify agents and to exploit existing model checkers. Both th... |

100 | Symbolic model checking - Clarke, McMillan, et al. - 1996 |

87 | der Meyden. MCK: Model checking the logic of knowledge - Gammie, van - 2004 |

86 | Verifying epistemic properties of multi-agent systems via bounded model checking.
- Penczek, Lomuscio
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the verifi21cation of multi-modal logics that model MAS. An algorithm for bounded model checking a subset of CTLK (a logic that augments the standard CTL with epistemic modalities) is introduced in =-=[27]-=- and an implementation is provided in [28], while [29] extends [27] by considering modalities to reason about the “correct behaviour” of agents in the formalism of deontic interpreted systems. An algo... |

84 | Model Checking Multi-Agent Systems with MABLE," Authorized licensed use limited to: Carleton University. Downloaded on
- Wooldridge, Fisher, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 649 8 9643 1 9644 Table 6 Running time (for one formula) for the protocol of the dining cryptographers. 6 Related work and discussion Various ideas have previously been put forward to verify MAS. In =-=[21]-=-, M. Wooldridge et al. present the MABLE language for the specification of MAS. In this work, nontemporal modalities are translated into nested data structures (in the spirit of [22]). A similar appro... |

71 | Deontic interpreted systems’, - Lomuscio, Sergot - 2003 |

64 | Symbolic Model Checking the Knowledge of the Dining Cryptographers. In: CSFW.
- Meyden, Su
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of the fault under consideration. 5.2 The protocol of the dining cryptographers The protocol of the dining cryptographers was introduced in [19], and model checking of its properties was discussed in =-=[20]-=-. We report the original wording from [19]. “Three cryptographers are sitting down to dinner at their favourite three-star restaurant. Their waiter informs them that arrangements have been made with t... |

64 | Model checking knowledge and time in systems with perfect recall
- Meyden, Shilov
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... existing model checkers. Both the works of M. Wooldridge et al. and of Bordini et al. use the temporal model checker SPIN to perform an automatic verification. The works of van der Meyden and Shilov =-=[25]-=-, and van der Meyden and Su [20], are concerned with verification of interpreted systems. They consider the verification of a particular class of interpreted systems, namely the class of synchronous s... |

53 |
Decision Procedures for Propositional Linear-Time Belief-Desire-Intention Logics.
- Rao
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l modalities are translated into nested data structures (in the spirit of [22]). A similar approach can be found in Bordini et al. [23]: in this work, a modified version of the AgentSpeak(L) language =-=[24]-=- is used to specify agents and to exploit existing model checkers. Both the works of M. Wooldridge et al. and of Bordini et al. use the temporal model checker SPIN to perform an automatic verification... |

31 | Knowledge Sharing among Ideal Agents.
- Lomuscio
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...AP ×S. Finally, given a set of agents Σ = {1, . . . , n}, we define a deontic interpreted system as the tuple: DIS = 〈 (Gi, Ri, Acti, Pi, ti) i∈Σ , (GE, RE, ActE, PE, tE) , I, h 〉 . It has been shown =-=[12,7,10]-=- that deontic interpreted systems can provide a semantics to reason about time, knowledge, and correct behaviour. We analyse multi-agent systems by means of the following language: 3ϕ ::= p | ¬ϕ | ϕ ... |

24 | Bounded model checking for interpreted systems
- Lomuscio, Penczek
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts, as we do here. Unfortunately, due to the difference in semantics for MAS, it is currently impossible to compare MCMAS’s performance with other model checkers for MAS (such as MCK [26] and Verics =-=[28,31]-=-) on common examples. Conventional model checkers for temporal logics have been employed to verify MAS scenarios, by translating MAS specifications into pure-temporal specifications [21]. Performance ... |

15 |
Bounded model checking knowledge and real time.
- Lomuscio, Penczek, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...icular instant of time. This description assumes a “global” time and it has been proven useful in many circumstances [7] (approaches in which time is local can be obtained by considering local clocks =-=[11]-=-). The evolution of the agents’ local states is described by a function ti : Li × LE × Act1 × . . . × Actn × ActE → Li, which returns a local state (the “next” local state) for agent i, given the “cur... |

14 | A formalisation of violation, error recovery, and enforcement in the bit transmission problem
- Lomuscio, Sergot
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Γ = j, we write ˆ K j i , representing the knowledge of agent i under the assumption that agent j is functioning correctly. Notice that Oi does not represent obligations of agent i to ϕ; we refer to =-=[8]-=- for more details. Given a deontic interpreted system DIS, we associate to DIS a model MDIS = (W, Rt, ∼1, . . . , ∼n, RO 1 , . . . , RO n , L) that can be used to interpret any formula ϕ, as follows: ... |

13 | Automatic verification of deontic interpreted systems by model checking via OBDDs.
- Raimondi, Lomuscio
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...perties of agents, and an extension of interpreted systems with modal operators to reason about correct behaviour [8]. Based on this formalism, we extend the model checking algorithm that appeared in =-=[9]-=- and we present an implementation relying on Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) to verify temporal, epistemic, and correct behaviour modalities in interpreted systems. The rest of the paper is o... |

13 |
From bounded to unbounded model checking for temporal epistemic logic. Fundamenta Informaticae
- Kacprzak, Lomuscio, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g modalities to reason about the “correct behaviour” of agents in the formalism of deontic interpreted systems. An algorithm for unbounded model checking of the full language of CTLK is introduced in =-=[30]-=-. This paper differs from the works above in various respects. Differently from [21,23], instead of relying on existing model checkers, we extend the algorithms that appeared in [9] and we present an ... |

12 | Bounded model checking for deontic interpreted systems, in
- Wo´zna, Lomuscio, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...MAS. An algorithm for bounded model checking a subset of CTLK (a logic that augments the standard CTL with epistemic modalities) is introduced in [27] and an implementation is provided in [28], while =-=[29]-=- extends [27] by considering modalities to reason about the “correct behaviour” of agents in the formalism of deontic interpreted systems. An algorithm for unbounded model checking of the full languag... |

1 |
MCMAS - A tool for verification of multi-agent systems
- Raimondi, Lomuscio
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... introduce MCMAS, a tool that implements the algorithms presented in Section 3. MCMAS is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL); the implementation is available for download =-=[18]-=-. In MCMAS, deontic interpreted systems are described by using the language ISPL (Interpreted Systems Programming Language). Figure 2 gives a short example of this language. We refer to the files avai... |