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## Improved watermark detection for spread-spectrum based watermarking using independent component analysis (2005)

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Venue: | Proceedings of 2005 ACM Workshop on Digital Rights Management |

Citations: | 6 - 0 self |

### Citations

3448 | A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation
- Mallat
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n and the observation satisfies the ˆb full-rank condition. For non-Gaussianity requirement, the realworld audio and image coefficients in DWT domain can be approximated by the Laplacian distribution =-=[5, 6, 26, 32]-=-. If the watermark, w, is generated based on some non-Gaussian distribution then non-Gaussianity condition of the watermark is also satisfied. The full-rank condition can be relaxed if ICA framework o... |

2228 | E.: Independent component analysis
- Hyvärinen, Karhunen, et al.
- 2001
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Citation Context ... components from observed data using ICA framework, the generative model should meet certain conditions to ensure the identifiability of the ICA model. The identifiability constraints, as proposed in =-=[14]-=-, for noise free ICA model are outlined as, 1. Statistical independence: The hidden (latent) variables/ sources are statistically independent. 2. Non-Gaussianity: At the most one independent component... |

490 | Quantization index modulation: A class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding - Chen, Wornell - 2001 |

251 | Multidimensional independent component analysis
- Cardoso
- 1941
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...based on the information-theoretic framework, for example, Bell et al’s [26] ICA scheme is based on the idea of information maximization or “infomax” among the estimated independent components, Comon =-=[15]-=- used higher-order cumulants, Gaeta et al [20] used ML method, and extensions of infomax, higher-order cumulants, ML method etc. can be found in [14, 16, 26, 27]. 4. PROPOSED ICA BASED WATERMARK DETEC... |

249 | High-Order contrasts for independent component analysis. Tutorial NIPS*98 - Cardoso - 1998 |

167 |
An information maximisation approach to blind separation and blind deconvolution
- BELL, SEJNOWSKI
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ized inverse) of mixing matrix A, i.e., ˆ ˆ† ˆH ˆ −1 ( ) ˆH B = A = A A A (8). Most of existing BSS schemes using ICA model are based on the information-theoretic framework, for example, Bell et al’s =-=[26]-=- ICA scheme is based on the idea of information maximization or “infomax” among the estimated independent components, Comon [15] used higher-order cumulants, Gaeta et al [20] used ML method, and exten... |

87 | Maximum likelihood for blind separation and deconvolution of noisy signals using mixture models
- MOULINES, CARDOSO, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... among the estimated independent components, Comon [15] used higher-order cumulants, Gaeta et al [20] used ML method, and extensions of infomax, higher-order cumulants, ML method etc. can be found in =-=[14, 16, 26, 27]-=-. 4. PROPOSED ICA BASED WATERMARK DETECTOR The proposed ICA-based watermark detector consists of two stages: 1) watermark estimation stage, and, 2) watermark decoding and/or detection stage. The water... |

63 | Performance analysis of existing and new methods for data hiding with known-host information in additive channels
- Pérez-González, Balado, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o two major groups: (a) blind embedding implies that the watermark embedder does not use the host signal information during the watermark embedding process (spread spectrum based watermarking schemes =-=[1, 2, 3, 6]-=- fall in this category), and (b) informed embedding implies that the watermark embedder exploits the properties of the host media during the embedding process (quantization index modulation based wate... |

52 | S.: Analysis of sparse representation and blind source separation - Li, Cichocki, et al. - 2004 |

48 | Independent component analysis in the presence of gaussian noise by maximizing joint likelihood. Neurocomputing - Hyvärinen - 1998 |

43 |
MPEG Digital Audio Coding
- Noll
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rrelation. The suitable selection of nonlinearities i.e., ϕ1 () ⋅ and ϕ 2 () ⋅ can be achieved using tools like maximum likelihood and mutual information from estimation theory and information theory =-=[7]-=-. Maximum non-Gaussianity is another important requirement of ICA-based hidden components estimation [14–19, 26, 27]. Fourth-order statistics also called kurtosis, k, is generally used as a non-Gaussi... |

20 | Robust techniques for independent component analysis (ICA) with noisy data - Cichocki, Douglas, et al. - 1998 |

18 | StirMark benchmark: audio watermarking attacks - Steinbach, Petitcolas, et al. - 2001 |

17 |
Source separation without priore knowledge : the maximum likehood solution
- GAETA, LACOUME
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...for example, Bell et al’s [26] ICA scheme is based on the idea of information maximization or “infomax” among the estimated independent components, Comon [15] used higher-order cumulants, Gaeta et al =-=[20]-=- used ML method, and extensions of infomax, higher-order cumulants, ML method etc. can be found in [14, 16, 26, 27]. 4. PROPOSED ICA BASED WATERMARK DETECTOR The proposed ICA-based watermark detector ... |

11 | Robust Audio Watermarking for Copyright Protection - Wu, Kuo - 1999 |

11 |
Watermark detection and extraction using independent component analysis method
- Yu, Ma
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...owever, existing ICA based data-hiding schemes are either not applicable to SS-based watermarking [8–11] or use an informed detector for watermark extraction process [12–13]. For example, Yu et al in =-=[12]-=- have proposed ICA based watermark detector that can be used for SSbased watermarking but their detector uses the watermark and private data during watermark extraction process. Similarly, Sener et al... |

9 | separation of binary sources with less sensors than sources - Pajunen, Blind - 1997 |

6 |
Fast independent component analysis with noisy data using gaussian moments
- Hyvärinen
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... proposed elegant BSS algorithms based on ICA model for noisy data [17, 19, 21–25, 27], and these algorithms can be used for watermark estimation. However, we have selected the FastICA for noisy data =-=[17]-=- in our implementations due to its better computational performance and separation quality over existing algorithms [28, 29]. 5. SIMULATION RESULTS In order to evaluate the detection-performance of th... |

6 | Extraction of a Single Source from Multichannel Data Using Sparse Decomposition, Neurocomputing, accepted for publication - Zibulevsky, Zeevi - 2001 |

6 | Comparison of blind source separation algorithms
- Li, Powers, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for watermark estimation. However, we have selected the FastICA for noisy data [17] in our implementations due to its better computational performance and separation quality over existing algorithms =-=[28, 29]-=-. 5. SIMULATION RESULTS In order to evaluate the detection-performance of the proposed ICA-based watermark detector (ICAWD), we applied the conventional normalized correlation based watermark detector... |

5 | Robust audio watermarking using frequency-selective spread spectrum
- Malik, Ansari, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o two major groups: (a) blind embedding implies that the watermark embedder does not use the host signal information during the watermark embedding process (spread spectrum based watermarking schemes =-=[1, 2, 3, 6]-=- fall in this category), and (b) informed embedding implies that the watermark embedder exploits the properties of the host media during the embedding process (quantization index modulation based wate... |

4 |
Fvotte, Proposals for Performance Measurement
- Gribonval, Benaroya, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion of watermark-mixing matrix is insufficient to separate the underlying independent components perfectly. In the case of SS-based watermarking, the equation x = Â′′ s has an affine set of solutions =-=[28]-=-. A preferred solution in this affine set is generally selected using probabilistic prior model of the independent components. The performance of the proposed ICA-based watermark estimator depends on ... |

2 |
Blind Audio Watermark Decoding using Independent Component Analysis
- Sener, Gunsel
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...have proposed ICA based watermark detector that can be used for SSbased watermarking but their detector uses the watermark and private data during watermark extraction process. Similarly, Sener et al =-=[13]-=- have presented ICA based watermark detector which is also applicable to SS-based watermark detection, but their proposed detector also uses watermark during the detection process, therefore, cannot b... |

1 | Multimedia Authenticity with - Noel, Szu - 2000 |

1 | Independent Component Analysis Applied to - Serrano, Fuentes - 2001 |

1 | Watermarking of Audio Signals using using Independent Component Analysis - Toch, Lowe, et al. - 2003 |

1 | ICA for Watermarking Digital - Bounkong, Toch, et al. - 2002 |