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## Property-based Software Engineering Measurement (1996)

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Venue: | IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering |

Citations: | 202 - 23 self |

### Citations

1563 | On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules
- Parnas
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... cohesion and coupling of a software design or code. Several techniques have been introduced, with the goal of producing software which is better with respect to these concepts. As an example, Parnas =-=[P72]-=- design principles attempt to decrease coupling between modules, and increase cohesion within modules. These concepts are used as a guide to choose among alternative techniques or artifacts. For insta... |

1209 |
A Complexity Measure
- McCabe
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... no definition-use relationship exists), is equal to the sum of the numbers of definition-use relationships of each module. As a conclusion, DF is a complexity measure according to our definition. In =-=[McC76]-=-, McCabe proposed a control flow complexity measure. Given a control flow graph G =s(which corresponds---unchanged---to a system for our framework), Cyclomatic Complexity is defined as v(G) = |R| - |E... |

1077 | A metrics suite for object oriented design
- Chidamber, Kemerer
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gments are disjoint subgraphs. On the other hand, other measures, that are meant to capture other concepts, are indeed size measures. For instance, in the object-oriented suite of measures defined in =-=[CK94]-=-, Weighted Methods per Class (WMC) is defined as the sum of the complexities of methods in a class. Implicitly, the program is seen as a directed acyclic graph (a hierarchy) whose terminal nodes are m... |

293 |
Elements of Software Science
- Halstead
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in the literature can be classified as size measures, according to our properties Size.1 - Size.3. With reference to code measures, we have: LOC, #Statements, #Modules, #Procedures, Halstead's Length =-=[H77]-=-, #Occurrences of Operators, #Occurrences of Operands, #Unique Operators, #Unique Operands. In each of the above cases, the representation of a program as a system is quite straightforward. Each count... |

222 |
Software structure metrics based on information flow
- Henry, Kafura
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ially in large systems, this correction does not have a significant impact on the value of the measure. University of Maryland CS-TR-3368 - 14 G 1 G 2 G Figure 5. Control flow graph. Henry and Kafura =-=[HK81]-=- proposed an information flow complexity measure. In this context, elements are subprogram variables or parameters, modules are subprograms, relationships are either fan-in's or fan-out's. For a subpr... |

209 | Software measurement: A necessary scientific basis - Fenton - 1994 |

159 | Measuring functional cohesion
- Bieman, Ott
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns are not considered cohesive; they may contribute to coupling, instead.) All three measures satisfy the above properties Cohesion.1 - Cohesion.4. Other examples of cohesion measures can be found in =-=[BO94]-=-, where new functional cohesion measures are introduced. Given a procedure, function, or main program, only data tokens (i.e., the occurrence of a definition or use of a variable or a constant) are ta... |

44 | Defining and Validating HighLevel Design Metrics”, Computer Science - Briand, Morasca, et al. - 1994 |

44 |
Measuring software design quality
- Card, Glass
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ever, fan-in and fan-out taken as separate measures, without exponent 2, are complexity measures according to our definition since all the required properties hold. Similar measures have been used in =-=[C90]-=- and referred to as structural complexity (SC) and defined as: SC = i[1..n] fan-out 2 (subroutine i ) n Once again, property Complexity.5 does not hold because fan-out is squared in the formula. A met... |

44 |
Deriving Structurally Based Software Measures
- Fenton, Melton
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ware complexity measures, because they have been studied more extensively and thoroughly than other kinds of measures. Besides, we compare our approach with the axioms introduced by Fenton and Melton =-=[FM90]-=- for software coupling measures. As already mentioned, our approach generalizes previous work on properties for defining complexity measures. Unlike previous approaches, it is not constrained to deal ... |

43 | An Entropy-based Measure of Software Complexity - Harrison - 1992 |

36 |
Control flow, data flow and program complexity
- Oviedo
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...res on a ratio scale. Comprehensive comparisons and discussions of previous work in the area of complexity properties are provided in Section 4. Examples and counterexamples of complexity measures In =-=[O80]-=-, Oviedo proposed a data flow complexity measure (DF). In this case, systems are programs, modules are program blocks, elements are variable definitions or uses, and relationships are defined between ... |

28 | A mathematical perspective for software measures research
- Melton, Gustafson, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te to understandability. There are other factors that have a strong influence on understandability, such as the amount of available context information and knowledge about a system. In the literature =-=[MGB90]-=-, it has been argued that the inner loop of the ShellSort algorithm, taken in isolation, is less understandable than the whole algorithm, since the role of the inner loop in the algorithm cannot be fu... |

22 |
On Weyuker’s axioms for software complexity measures
- Chemiavsky, Smith
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... actually addresses a given concept (e.g., complexity). However, given any set of properties, it is almost always possible to build a measure that satisfies them, but is of no practical interest (see =-=[CS91]-=-). At any rate, this is not a sensible reason to reject a set of properties associated with a concept (how many sensless measures could be defined that satisfy the three properties that characterize d... |

17 |
An Axiomatic Theory of Software Complexity Measures
- Prather
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al property. The above properties Complexity.1 - Complexity.5 imply it. Actually, our properties imply the stronger form of W9, the unnumbered property following W9 in Weyuker's paper [W88] (see also =-=[P84]) &qu-=-ot; S P , SQ Complexity(S P ) + Complexity(S Q )sComplexity(S P;Q ) Weyuker rejects it on the basis that it might lead to contradictions: she argues that the effort needed to implement or understand t... |

16 |
Properties of Control-Flow Complexity Measures
- Lakshmanian, Jayaprakash, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...inct system concepts (e.g., system monotonicity). Others do not differentiate the various concepts associated with syntactically-based measures (e.g., renaming). Lakshmanian et al. Lakshmanian et al. =-=[LJS91]-=- have attempted to define necessary properties for software complexity measures based on control flow graphs. In order to make these properties comparable to ours, we will use a notation similar to th... |

4 |
Software Metrics, A Rigorous Approach," Chapman&Hall
- Fenton
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of the modules, due to the presence of common elements (e.g., lines of code, operators, class methods). Properties Size.1 - Size.3 hold when applying the admissible transformation of the ratio scale =-=[F91]-=-. Therefore, there is no contradiction between our concept of size and the definition of size measures on a ratio scale. Examples and counterexamples of size measures Several measures introduced in th... |

2 | A Goal-Driven Definition Process for Product Metrics Based on Properties - Briand, Morasca, et al. - 1994 |

1 | Algebraic Models and Metric Validation," in Formal Aspects of Measurement - Shepperd |