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## On the Individuality of Fingerprints (2001)

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Venue: | IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence |

Citations: | 157 - 15 self |

### Citations

219 | Latent Fingerprint Matching.
- Jain, Feng
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...unt of information present in the minutiae representation of fingerprints, it is desirable to explore alternate complementary representations of fingerprints for automatic matching. See, for example, =-=[40]-=-. The proposed model does not completely take into account the individuality of the fingerprints due to their di#erent global ridge configurations. How to e#ectively incorporate fingerprint class info... |

127 | FVC2000: fingerprint verification competition,”
- Maio, Maltoni, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ses are consistent with those obtained on similar databases by several other state-of-the-art 7 automatic fingerprint verification systems reported in the FVC2000 Fingerprint Verification Competition =-=[12]-=-. On the other hand, the performance claims by several fingerprint verification system vendors vary over a large range (a false acceptance rate of 10 9 to 10 3 ) due to the absence of standardized tes... |

110 | An Identity Authentication System Using Fingerprints,
- Jain, Hong, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...c and accurate probability of correspondence between fingerprints. The probabilities obtained using this model will be compared against empirical values using an automatic fingerprint matching system =-=[4]-=-. To estimate the probability of correspondence, we make the following assumptions: (i) We consider only two types of minutiae features: ridge endings and ridge bifurcations. Additionally, we do not d... |

70 |
Classification and Uses of Finger Prints
- Henry
- 1900
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...egions, leading to a probability of occurrence of a particular fingerprint configuration of P (Fingerprint Configuration) = 1 16s1 256s1 36 24 = 1.09 10 -41 . (2) A number of subsequent models (Henry =-=[14]-=-, Balthazard [16] (cf. [20]), Bose [20], Wentworth and Wilder [27], Cummins and Midlo [6], and Gupta [17]) are interrelated and are based on 9 a fixed probability, p, for the occurrence of a minutiae.... |

57 |
Finger Prints, Palms and Soles: An Introduction to Dermatoglyphics (Blakiston,
- Cummins, Midlo
- 1943
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n's probability of a six-ridge-square region of 1 2 by 1 36 . A number of subsequent models by Henry (cf. [8]), Balthazard (cf. [8]), Bose (cf. [8]), Wentworth and Wilder (cf. [8]), Cummins and Midlo =-=[5]-=-, and Gupta (cf. [8]) are interrelated and are based on a fixed probability,sp, for the occurrence of a minutiae. They compute the probability of a particular N-minutiae fingerprint configuration as P... |

55 |
Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis, Second edition,
- Rice
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... i.e., a solution to the formulation (iii), then the solution to formulations (ii) and (iii) are 1 - (1 - p) N and 1 - (1 - p)(1 - 2p)...(1 - (N - 1)p), respectively, in a target population of size N =-=[31]. Core End-=-ing Ridge Ridge Bifurcation Pores Delta Figure 1: A fingerprint image of type "right loop". The overall ridge structure, singular points, and sweat pores are shown. Our interest in the finge... |

47 | Recognizing persons by their iris patterns
- Daugman
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... underestimates the probability of a false association because it does not consider realistic intra-class variations in impressions of a finger (see also, Stoney et al. [20] and Wayman [19]). Daugman =-=[7]-=- analyzed the probability of a false match in an iris recognition system based on an empirical impostor distribution of the IrisCode match scores from 340 irises. Under the assumption that the imposte... |

42 |
Suspect Identities. A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification, Cambridge, MA/London:
- Cole
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... amount of detail in a single fingerprint that is available for comparison and 2) measure the amount of detail in correspondence between two fingerprints. What do we mean by fingerprint individuality =-=[8]-=-? If two fingerprints originating from two different fingers are examined at a very high level of detail (resolution), we may find that the fingerprints are indeed different. However, most human exper... |

26 |
A Critical Analysis of Quantitative Fingerprint Individuality Models
- Stoney, Thornton
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ndividuality estimates as the probability of fingerprint configuration. A summary of these studies is presented below. The fingerprint individuality problem was first addressed by Galton in 1892 (cf. =-=[8]-=-), who considered a square region spanning six-ridges in a given fingerprint. He assumed that, on an average, a fingerprint can be covered by 24 such sixridge wide independent square regions. Galton e... |

24 |
Galton F, Fingerprints
- Galton
- 1892
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...int individuality estimates as the probability of fingerprint configuration. A summary of these studies is presented below. The fingerprint individuality problem was first addressed by Galton in 1892 =-=[10]-=-, who considered a square region spanning six-ridges in a given fingerprint. He assumed that, on an average, a fingerprint can be covered by 24 such six-ridge wide independent square regions. Galton e... |

21 |
Individuality of handwriting: A validation study.
- Srihari, Cha, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... does not meet the scientific evidence criteria established in the Daubert case) in several cases between the years 1995 and 2001. For a recent empirical study on the individuality of handwriting see =-=[39]-=-. Several courts have now ruled that handwriting identification does not meet the Daubert criteria. Fingerprint identification was first challenged by the defense lawyers under Daubert in the 1999 cas... |

16 |
Development of a mathematical formula for the calculation of fingerprint probabilities based on individual characteristics
- Osterburg, Parthasarathy, et al.
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Amy (cf. [8]), and Kingston's (cf. [8]) models are more complex in that they compute the probability of a fingerprint configuration based on several additional fingerprint features. Osterburg et al. =-=[6-=-] divided fingerprints into discrete cells of size 1 mm 1 mm. They computed the frequencies of 13 types of minutiae events (including an empty cell) from 39 fingerprints (8,591 cells) and estimated t... |

16 |
On the automatic comparison of finger ridge patterns.
- Trauring
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s in multiple impressions of a finger. We will refer to the quantifications of fingerprint individuality which explicitly consider the intraclass variations as probability of correspondence. Trauring =-=[10]-=- was the first to concentrate explicitly on measuring the amount of detail needed to establish correspondence between two prints from the same finger using an automatic fingerprint identification syst... |

14 |
The Occurrence of Fingerprint Characteristics as a Two Dimensional Process
- Sclove
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ll) from 39 fingerprints (8,591 cells) and estimated the probability that 12 ridge endings will match between two fingerprints based on an average fingerprint area of 72 mm 2 as 1:25 10 20 . Sclove [=-=7]-=- modified Osterburg et al.'s model by incorporating the observed dependence of minutiae occurrence in cells and came up with an estimate of probability of fingerprint configuration that is slightly hi... |

13 | Fingerprint features—statistical analysis and system performance estimates,” - Roddy, Stosz - 1997 |

13 |
Computer Assisted Analysis of Minutiae Occurrences on Fingerprints
- Champod, Margot
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts are being matched manually. The probability of observing a given fingerprint feature is estimated by manually extracting the features from a small number of fingerprint images. Champod and Margot =-=[24]-=- used an AFIS to extract minutiae from 977 fingerprint images scanned at a relatively high resolution of 800 dpi. They generated frequencies of minutiae occurrence and minutiae densities after manuall... |

13 | Biometrics Systems: Anatomy of Performance,”
- Jain, Pankanti
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iminability of the di#erent patterns (e.g., minutiae from di#erent fingers). The e#ective estimation of discriminatory information can only be achieved by taking into account intra-pattern variations =-=[33]-=-. There are several sources of variability in the multiple impressions of a finger [4]: non-uniform contact (with the sensor), irreproducible contact, inconsistent contact, and imaging artifacts. This... |

10 |
Probabilistic Analysis of Partial Fingerprint Patterns
- Kingston
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh [13], Pearson [15], and Kingston =-=[9]-=- objected to Galton's assumption that the probability of occurrence of any particular ridge configuration in a six-ridge square is 1 2 , and claimed that Eq. (1) grossly underestimates the fingerprint... |

8 |
Distribution of Epidermal Ridge Minutiae
- Stoney
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ae in a fingerprint with the restriction that two minutiae cannot be very close to each other. This assumption approximates the slightly overdispersed uniform distribution of minutiae found by Stoney =-=[9]-=-. (iii) Correspondence of a minutiae pair is an independent event and each correspondence is equally important. (iv) We do not explicitly take into account fingerprint image quality in individuality d... |

7 |
A Quantitative Assessment of Fingerprint Individuality
- Stoney
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...number of positions (di#erent translations and rotations of the input fingerprint to match with the template), and number of comparisons performed with other fingerprints for identification. Stoney's =-=[22]-=- model is di#erent from other models in that it attempts to characterize a significant component of pairwise minutiae dependence. Stoney [22] and Stoney and Thornton [20] studied probabilities of occu... |

6 |
On Evidential Value of Fingerprints”, Sankhya
- Roxburgh
- 1933
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the 24 regions. Eq. (1) gives the probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh =-=[13]-=-, Pearson [15], and Kingston [9] objected to Galton’s assumption that the probability of occurrence of any particular ridge configuration in a six-ridge square is 1, and claimed that Eq. (1) 2 grossly... |

5 | The Breadths of Epidermal Ridges on the Fingertips and Palms: A Study of Variations - Cummins, Waits, et al. - 1941 |

4 |
Criminal Action No
- Mitchell
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...led that handwriting identification does not meet the Daubert criteria. Fingerprint identification was first challenged by the defense lawyers under Daubert in the 1999 case of USA vs. Byron Mitchell =-=[2]-=- on the basis that the fundamental premises of fingerprint identification have not been objectively tested and its potential error rate is not known. The defense motion to exclude fingerprint evidence... |

4 |
Statistical Survey of Ridge Characteristics
- Gupta
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t Configuration) = 1 16s1 256s1 36 24 = 1.09 10 -41 . (2) A number of subsequent models (Henry [14], Balthazard [16] (cf. [20]), Bose [20], Wentworth and Wilder [27], Cummins and Midlo [6], and Gupta =-=[17]-=-) are interrelated and are based on 9 a fixed probability, p, for the occurrence of a minutiae. They compute the probability of a particular N-minutiae fingerprint configuration as P (Fingerprint Conf... |

4 |
Department of Justice document SL000386,
- S
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ngerprint individuality has not been rigorously studied or tested. In March 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice admitted that no such testing has been done and acknowledged the need for such a study =-=[30]. In response t-=-o this, the National Institute of Justice issued a formal solicitation for "Forensic Friction Ridge (Fingerprint) Examination Validation Studies" whose goal is to conduct "basic researc... |

4 | Fingerprinting's Reliability Draws Growing Court Challenges - Newman - 2001 |

3 | report by Frank Torpay of Mitre Corporation using data extracted from the FBI’s Identification Division Automated Services database of 22, 000, 000 human-classified fingerprints - Unpublished - 1995 |

3 |
Recherches Sur L’identification des Traces Papillaries”, Annales de Medecine Legale
- Amy
- 1948
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...R is the number of semicircular ridges in a fingerprint (R = 10), T is the corrected number of minutiae types (T = 2.412), and C is the number of possible positions for the configuration (C = 1). Amy =-=[11]-=- (cf. [20]) considered the variability in minutiae type, number, and position in his model for computing the probability of a fingerprint configuration. He further recognized that K multiple compariso... |

3 |
Daubert Hearing on Fingerprinting: When Bad Science Leads to Good Law: The Disturbing Irony of the Daubert Hearing in the Case of
- Wayman
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s model grossly underestimates the probability of a false association because it does not consider realistic intra-class variations in impressions of a finger (see also, Stoney et al. [20] and Wayman =-=[19]-=-). Daugman [7] analyzed the probability of a false match in an iris recognition system based on an empirical impostor distribution of the IrisCode match scores from 340 irises. Under the assumption th... |

3 |
Twin Test: On Discriminability of Fingerprints
- Jain, Prabhakar, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s closely coupled with the composition of the target population, it is also important to know if and how the invariant fingerprint information is related to the genetic constitution of the individual =-=[41]-=-. How does the fingerprint individuality estimate su#er when the fingerprint is of exceptionally poor quality? What attributes of the applications (e.g., adversarial), of the subjects (e.g., European ... |

2 |
What Counts for Identity
- Cole
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d in recent court cases. The notion of fingerprint individuality has been widely accepted based on manual inspection (by experts) of millions of fingerprints. However, the underlying scientific basis =-=[3]-=- of fingerprint individuality has not been rigorously studied or tested. What do we mean by fingerprint individuality? Fingerprint individuality problem can be formulated in many different ways. Two t... |

2 |
Goverment’s post-Daubert Hearing Memorandum,” United States District Court for the Eastern
- Stiles
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...entification system. He observed that corresponding fingerprint features could be displaced from each other by as much as 1:5 times the inter-ridge distance. Using an AFIS, Meagher et al. (cf. Stiles =-=[11]-=-) empirically matched about 50,000 rolled fingerprints belonging to the same fingerprint class (left loop) with each other to compute the impostor distribution without considering realistic intra-clas... |

2 |
Galton’s Work on Evidential Value of Fingerprints”, Sankhya
- Pearson
- 1933
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Eq. (1) gives the probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh [13], Pearson =-=[15]-=-, and Kingston [9] objected to Galton's assumption that the probability of occurrence of any particular ridge configuration in a six-ridge square is 1 2 , and claimed that Eq. (1) grossly underestimat... |

2 |
De l‘identification par les empreintes ditalis
- Balthazard
- 1911
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o a probability of occurrence of a particular fingerprint configuration of P (Fingerprint Configuration) = 1 16s1 256s1 36 24 = 1.09 10 -41 . (2) A number of subsequent models (Henry [14], Balthazard =-=[16]-=- (cf. [20]), Bose [20], Wentworth and Wilder [27], Cummins and Midlo [6], and Gupta [17]) are interrelated and are based on 9 a fixed probability, p, for the occurrence of a minutiae. They compute the... |

2 |
50K Fingerprint Comparison Test”, United States of America vs
- Meagher, Buldowle, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ompared in Table 2. There have been few studies which empirically estimate the probability of finding a fingerprint in a large database that successfully matches the input fingerprint. Meagher et al. =-=[26]-=- (for more details see Stiles [35]) matched about 50,000 rolled fingerprints belonging to the same fingerprint class (left loop) with each other to compute the impostor distribution. However, the genu... |

1 |
On Evidential Value of Fingerprints", Sankhya
- Roxburgh
- 1933
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the 24 regions. Eq. (1) gives the probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh =-=[13]-=-, Pearson [15], and Kingston [9] objected to Galton's assumption that the probability of occurrence of any particular ridge configuration in a six-ridge square is 1 2 , and claimed that Eq. (1) grossl... |

1 |
50K Fingerprint Comparison Test", United States of America vs
- Meagher, Buldowle, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pared in Table 2. There have been a few studies which empirically estimate the probability of finding a fingerprint in a large database that successfully matches the input fingerprint. Meagher et al. =-=[26]-=- (for more details see Stiles [35]) matched about 50,000 rolled fingerprints belonging to the same fingerprint class (left loop) with each other to compute the impostor distribution. However, the genu... |

1 |
Judge Rules Fingerprints Cannot Be Called a Match
- Newman
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thout the credible (peer-reviewed) published estimates of matcher accuracies, the fingerprint experts cannot testify with certainty whether two fingerprint impressions originated from the same finger =-=[37]-=-. The two fundamental premises on which fingerprint identification is based are: (i) fingerprint details are permanent, and (ii) fingerprints of an individual are unique. The validity of the first pre... |

1 |
ªIndividuality of Handwriting: A Validation Study,º
- Srihari, Cha, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...does not meet the scientific evidence criteria established in the Daubert case) in several cases between the years 1995 and 2001. For a recent empirical study on the individuality of handwriting, see =-=[4]-=-. Several courts have now ruled that handwriting identification does not meet the Daubert criteria. Fingerprint identification was first challenged by the defense lawyers under Daubert in the 1999 cas... |

1 |
of Justice document SL000386
- Dept
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fingerprint individuality has not been rigorously studied or tested. In March 2000, the US Department of Justice admitted that no such testing has been done and acknowledged the need for such a study =-=[7]-=-. In response to this, the National Institute of Justice issued a formal solicitation for ªForensic Friction Ridge (Fingerprint) Examination Validation Studiesº whose goal was to conduct ªbasic resear... |

1 |
ªBiometrics Systems: Anatomy of Performance,º IEICE
- Jain, Pankanti
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...inability of the different patterns (e.g., minutiae from different fingers). The effective estimation of discriminatory information can only be achieved by taking into account intrapattern variations =-=[12]-=-. There are several sources of variability in the multiple impressions of a finger [10]: nonuniform contact (with the sensor), irreproducible contact, inconsistent contact, and imaging artifacts. This... |

1 |
ªFingerprint FeaturesÐStatistical Analysis and System Performance Estimatesº Proc
- Roddy, Stosz
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ork, island, dot, broken ridge, bridge, spur, enclosure, delta, double fork, trifurcation, and multiple events) [14]. Later models considered additional features (e.g., ridge counts [13], sweat pores =-=[15]-=-) to determine the probability of occurrence of a particular fingerprint configuration. Most of the early individuality studies examined the distinctiveness of a portion/feature of the fingerprint. Un... |

1 |
ªOn Evidential Value of Fingerprints,º Sankhya
- Roxburgh
- 1933
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...4 regions. Equation (1) gives the probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh =-=[17]-=-, Pearson [18], and Kingston [19] objected to Galton's assumption that …1†1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 24, NO. 8, AUGUST 2002 the probability of occurrenc... |

1 |
The Life and Letters of Francis Galton, vol IIIA
- Pearson
- 1930
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation (1) gives the probability that a particular fingerprint configuration in an average size fingerprint (containing 24 regions defined by Galton) will be observed in nature. Roxburgh [17], Pearson =-=[18]-=-, and Kingston [19] objected to Galton's assumption that …1†1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 24, NO. 8, AUGUST 2002 the probability of occurrence of any parti... |

1 |
ªDe lõÁdentification par les Empreintes Ditalis,º Comptes Rendus, des Academies des Sciences
- Balthazard
- 1911
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng to a probability of occurrence of a particular fingerprint configuration of P …Fingerprint Configuration† ˆ 1 16 1 256 1 36 24 ˆ 1:09 10 �41 : A number of subsequent models (Henry [20], Balthazard =-=[21]-=- (cf. [13]), Bose (cf. [13]), Wentworth and Wilder [22], Cummins and Midlo [23], and Gupta [24]) are interrelated and are based on a fixed probability, p, for the occurrence of a minutia. They compute... |

1 |
ªStatistical Survey of Ridge Characteristics,º Int'l
- Gupta
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onfiguration† ˆ 1 16 1 256 1 36 24 ˆ 1:09 10 �41 : A number of subsequent models (Henry [20], Balthazard [21] (cf. [13]), Bose (cf. [13]), Wentworth and Wilder [22], Cummins and Midlo [23], and Gupta =-=[24]-=-) are interrelated and are based on a fixed probability, p, for the occurrence of a minutia. They compute the probability of a particular Nminutiae fingerprint configuration as …2† P …Fingerprint Conf... |

1 |
ªRecherches sur L'identification des Traces Papillaries,º Annales de Medecine Legale
- Amy
- 1948
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...R is the number of semicircular ridges in a fingerprint (R ˆ 10), T is the corrected number of minutiae types (T ˆ 2:412), and C is the number of possible positions for the configuration (C ˆ 1). Amy =-=[25]-=- (cf. [13]) considered the variability in minutiae type, number, and position in his model for computing the probability of a fingerprint configuration. He further recognized that K multiple compariso... |

1 |
ªAutomatic Comparison of Finger-Ridge Patterns,º Nature
- Trauring
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... multiple impressions of a finger. We will refer to the quantifications of fingerprint individuality which explicitly consider the intraclass variations as the probability of correspondence. Trauring =-=[29]-=- was the first to concentrate explicitly on measuring the amount of detail needed to establish a correspondence between two prints from the same finger (intraclass variation) using an AFIS and observi... |

1 |
ª50K Fingerprint Comparison Test,º USA vs
- Meagher, Buldowle, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ompared in Table 2. There have been few studies which empirically estimate the probability of finding a fingerprint in a large database that successfully matches the input fingerprint. Meagher et al. =-=[30]-=- (for more details, see Stiles [31]) matched about 50,000 rolled fingerprints belonging to the same fingerprint class (left loop) with each other to compute the impostor distribution. However, the gen... |

1 |
ªGoverment's Post-Daubert Hearing Memorandum,º US District Court for the Eastern District
- Stiles
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... few studies which empirically estimate the probability of finding a fingerprint in a large database that successfully matches the input fingerprint. Meagher et al. [30] (for more details, see Stiles =-=[31]-=-) matched about 50,000 rolled fingerprints belonging to the same fingerprint class (left loop) with each other to compute the impostor distribution. However, the genuine distribution was computed by m... |

1 |
ªRecognizing Persons by Their Iris Patterns,º Biometrics
- Daugman
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s in the third column. Note that all probabilities represent a full (N minutiae) match as opposed to a partial match (see Table 3). finger (see also Stoney and Thornton [13] and Wayman [32]). Daugman =-=[33]-=- analyzed the probability of a false match in an iris recognition system based on an empirical impostor distribution of the IrisCode match scores from 340 irises. Under the assumption that the imposte... |

1 |
ªDistribution of Epidermal Ridge Minutiae,º Am
- Stoney
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...at two minutiae cannot be very close to each other. While minutiae locations are not uniformly distributed, our assumption approximates the slightly overdispersed uniform distribution found by Stoney =-=[34]-=-. Sclove [27] showed that the minutiae tend to cluster. We have not explicitly modeled the clustering tendency of minutiae. Therefore, the assumption of independence of minutiae locations will bias th... |

1 |
ªFilterbankBased Fingerprint Matching,º
- Jain, Prabhakar, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 10�7 ). Given this liberal operating point of an automatic matcher, it may be desirable to explore additional complementary representations of fingerprints for automatic matching. See, for example, =-=[39]-=-. Let us now consider the fingerprint matching scenarios for criminal applications. Neither the minutiae-based representation nor the simple similarity metric model proposed in our work completely cap... |

1 |
ªTwin Test: On Discriminability of Fingerprints,º Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Audioand Video-Based Person Authentication
- Jain, Prabhakar, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s closely coupled with the composition of the target population, it is also important to know if and how the invariant fingerprint information is related to the genetic constitution of the individual =-=[40]-=-. How does the fingerprint individuality estimate suffer when the fingerprint is of exceptionally poor quality? What attributes of the applications (e.g., adversarial), of the subjects (e.g., European... |