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## Personal Identification Based on Iris Texture Analysis (2003)

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- [www.sinobiometrics.com]
- [www.itsi.pollub.pl]
- [visgraph.cs.ust.hk]
- DBLP

### Other Repositories/Bibliography

Venue: | IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence |

Citations: | 162 - 11 self |

### Citations

2251 | Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: recognition using class specific linear projection. TPAMI
- Belhumeur, Hespanha, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for projected vectors that best discriminate different classes in terms of maximizing the ratio of between-class to withinclass scatter. Further details of Fisher linear discriminant may be found in =-=[38],-=- [39]. The new feature vector f can be denoted as: f W T V; ð7Þ where W is the projection matrix and V is the original feature vector derived in Section 3.3.2. The proposed algorithm employs the ne... |

768 |
Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters
- Daugman
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hm are presented as follows. 3.3.1 Spatial Filters In the spatial domain, one can extract information of an image at a certain orientation and scale using some specific filters, such as Gabor filters =-=[33]-=-, [34], [35], [36], [37]. Recently, Gabor filter based methods have been widely used in computer vision, especially for texture analysis [35], [36], [37]. Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modu... |

593 | High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence
- Daugman
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he angular direction has higher discriminability and information in other directions is a helpful supplement for more accurate recognition. 4.3.4 Comparison with Existing Methods The previous methods =-=[17]-=-, [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31] for iris recognition mainly focus on feature representation and matching. Therefore, we only analyze and compare th... |

545 |
Bootstrap methods for standard errors, confidence intervals, and other measures of statistical accuracy
- Efron, Tibshirani
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uding biometric samples from all subjects in the world. Thus, using modern statistical methods to measure the performance of biometric algorithms is a desirable approach. In this paper, the bootstrap =-=[43]-=-, which provides a powerful approach to estimating the underlying distribution of the observed data using computer-intensive methods, is adopted to estimate the error rates of a biometric method. The ... |

375 | Image representation using 2d gabor wavelets
- Lee
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... presented as follows. 3.3.1 Spatial Filters In the spatial domain, one can extract information of an image at a certain orientation and scale using some specific filters, such as Gabor filters [33], =-=[34]-=-, [35], [36], [37]. Recently, Gabor filter based methods have been widely used in computer vision, especially for texture analysis [35], [36], [37]. Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modulated ... |

320 |
Iris recognition: an emerging biometric technology
- Wildes
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...freckles, coronas, stripes, etc. These visible characteristics, which are generally called the texture of the iris, are unique to each subject [5], [6], [7], [12], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], =-=[21]-=-. Individual differences that exist in the development of anatomical structures in the body result in such uniqueness. Compared with other biometric features (such as face, . The authors are with the ... |

280 | Gabor Feature Based Classification Using the Enhanced Fisher Linear Dsicriminant Model for Face Recognition
- Liu, Wechsler
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rojected vectors that best discriminate different classes in terms of maximizing the ratio of between-class to withinclass scatter. Further details of Fisher linear discriminant may be found in [38], =-=[39].-=- The new feature vector f can be denoted as: f W T V; ð7Þ where W is the projection matrix and V is the original feature vector derived in Section 3.3.2. The proposed algorithm employs the nearest ... |

213 | Filterbank-based fingerprint matching
- Jain, Prabhakar, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s follows. 3.3.1 Spatial Filters In the spatial domain, one can extract information of an image at a certain orientation and scale using some specific filters, such as Gabor filters [33], [34], [35], =-=[36]-=-, [37]. Recently, Gabor filter based methods have been widely used in computer vision, especially for texture analysis [35], [36], [37]. Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modulated by oriented ... |

197 | A human identification technique using images of the iris and wavelet transform
- Boles, Boashash
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...viewpoint of feature extraction, previous iris recognition methods can be roughly divided into three major categories: phase-based methods [16], [17], [18], [19], zero-crossing representation methods =-=[22]-=-, [25], and texture-analysisbased methods [20], [23], [28], [29], [30]. Daugman [17], [18], [19] used multiscale quadrature wavelets to extract texture phase structure information of the iris to gener... |

96 |
Statistical Richness of Visual Phase Information: Update on Recognizing Persons by Iris Patterns
- Daugman
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teristics such as freckles, coronas, stripes, etc. These visible characteristics, which are generally called the texture of the iris, are unique to each subject [5], [6], [7], [12], [15], [16], [17], =-=[18]-=-, [19], [20], [21]. Individual differences that exist in the development of anatomical structures in the body result in such uniqueness. Compared with other biometric features (such as face, . The aut... |

93 | Efficient iris recognition through improvement of feature vector and classifier
- Lim, Lee, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... on the iris to represent the whole iris, which resulted in a lower accuracy as shown in Fig. 13. Different from these two methods, our current method captures much more local information. Lim et al. =-=[23] m-=-ade use of the fourth-level high frequency information of 2D Haar wavelet decomposition of an iris image for feature extraction. As we know, the fourth-level details of an image’s wavelet decomposit... |

86 |
Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis
- Daugman
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...inute characteristics such as freckles, coronas, stripes, etc. These visible characteristics, which are generally called the texture of the iris, are unique to each subject [5], [6], [7], [12], [15], =-=[16]-=-, [17], [18], [19], [20], [21]. Individual differences that exist in the development of anatomical structures in the body result in such uniqueness. Compared with other biometric features (such as fac... |

79 | T.: Brief review of invariant texture analysis methods
- Zhang, Tan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ows. 3.3.1 Spatial Filters In the spatial domain, one can extract information of an image at a certain orientation and scale using some specific filters, such as Gabor filters [33], [34], [35], [36], =-=[37]-=-. Recently, Gabor filter based methods have been widely used in computer vision, especially for texture analysis [35], [36], [37]. Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modulated by oriented comple... |

73 | Demodulation by complex-valued wavelets for stochastic pattern recognition
- Daugman
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n in iris texture will affect the results of iris matching. For the purpose of achieving more accurate recognition results, it is necessary to compensate for the iris deformation. Daugman [17], [18], =-=[19]-=- solved this problem by projecting the original iris in a Cartesian coordinate system into a doubly dimensionless pseudopolar coordinate system. The iris in the new coordinate system can be represente... |

72 | A Nonparametric Statistical Comparison of Principal Component and Linear Discriminant Subspaces for Face Recognition
- Beveridge, She, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ame size as the original sample x by drawing with replacement. Using the resulting bootstrap samples, one can easily estimate the statistics of interest. More details of the bootstrap may be found in =-=[40]-=-, [41], [43]. We exploit both interval estimation (a confidence interval) and commonly used point estimation (only a numerical value) of statistical measures to characterize the performance of the met... |

69 |
Designing Gabor filters for optimal texture separability
- Clausi, Jernigan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nted as follows. 3.3.1 Spatial Filters In the spatial domain, one can extract information of an image at a certain orientation and scale using some specific filters, such as Gabor filters [33], [34], =-=[35]-=-, [36], [37]. Recently, Gabor filter based methods have been widely used in computer vision, especially for texture analysis [35], [36], [37]. Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modulated by ori... |

68 | Iris recognition using circular symmetric filters
- Ma, Wang, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...method will generate a false nonmatch. Therefore, there is no reason to expect that their method outperforms ours. The proposed method is a significant extension of our earlier algorithm presented in =-=[30]-=-. Compared with this earlier method, the current method utilizes multichannel spatial filters to extract texture features of the iris within a wider frequency range. This indicates that the extracted ... |

58 | Automated Biometrics: Technologies and Systems - Zhang - 2000 |

45 | Iris recognition based on multichannel gabor filtering
- Ma, Wang, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...analysis and zero-crossing representation respectively. Here, we will present a detailed comparison between the current method and their methods (and our previous work) described in [18], [20], [22], =-=[29]-=-, [30] on the CASIA Iris Database. For the purpose of comparison, we implement these methods according to the published papers [12], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22]. Because the method by Wil... |

19 |
Iris recognition with low template size, in
- Sanchez-Reillo, Sanchez-Avila
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dentification and verification goes back to the late 19th century [8], [21], but most work on iris recognition [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], =-=[24]-=-, [25], [26], [28], [29], [30], [31] is done in the last decade. Existing methods for iris recognition mainly concentrate on iris representation and matching which is also one of the focuses of this p... |

19 | Iris-based biometric recognition using dyadic wavelet transform - Sanchez-Avila, Sanchez-Reillo - 2002 |

16 |
Can iris patterns be used to identify people
- Johnson
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...any interlacing minute characteristics such as freckles, coronas, stripes, etc. These visible characteristics, which are generally called the texture of the iris, are unique to each subject [5], [6], =-=[7]-=-, [12], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21]. Individual differences that exist in the development of anatomical structures in the body result in such uniqueness. Compared with other biometric fea... |

12 |
Confidence Interval and Test Size Estimation for Biometric Data,” Nat’l Biometric Test Center (collectedworks
- Wayman
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e., Gabor filters in the horizontal direction) and the defined spatial filters using the same parameters as Gabor filters. Similar to the scheme for showing the ROC curve with confidence intervals in =-=[42]-=-, we denote confidence intervals of the FMR and FNMR, respectively. Fig. 11 shows the verification results of the proposed method using different filters, which reveals that the defined filters outper... |

9 |
Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application, fourth ed
- Adler
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...provides many interlacing minute characteristics such as freckles, coronas, stripes, etc. These visible characteristics, which are generally called the texture of the iris, are unique to each subject =-=[5]-=-, [6], [7], [12], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21]. Individual differences that exist in the development of anatomical structures in the body result in such uniqueness. Compared with other bio... |

8 |
La Couleur de l’Iris
- Bertillon
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion 4 reports experiments and results. Section 5 concludes this paper. 2 RELATED WORK Using iris patterns as an approach to personal identification and verification goes back to the late 19th century =-=[8]-=-, [21], but most work on iris recognition [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [28], [29], [30], [31] is done in the last decade. ... |

4 |
Method of Measuring the Focus of Close-Up
- Zhang, Salganicoff
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...back to the late 19th century [8], [21], but most work on iris recognition [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [28], [29], [30], =-=[31]-=- is done in the last decade. Existing methods for iris recognition mainly concentrate on iris representation and matching which is also one of the focuses of this paper. Unlike fingerprints, it is dif... |

3 | Best Practice Standards for Testing and Reporting - Mansfield, Wayman - 2002 |

3 |
Method and Apparatus for Removal of Bright or Dark Spots by the Fusion of Multiple Images
- Camus, Salganicoff, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xture features under infrared lighting, capturing iris images of high quality is one of the major challenges for practical applications. Fortunately, much work has been done on iris image acquisition =-=[9]-=-, [10], [11], [12], [20], [21], which has made noninvasive imaging at a distance possible. When designing an image acquisition apparatus, one should consider three main aspects, namely, the lighting s... |

2 |
Method and Apparatus for Illuminating and Imaging Eyes through Eyeglasses
- Rozmus, Salganicoff
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...res under infrared lighting, capturing iris images of high quality is one of the major challenges for practical applications. Fortunately, much work has been done on iris image acquisition [9], [10], =-=[11]-=-, [12], [20], [21], which has made noninvasive imaging at a distance possible. When designing an image acquisition apparatus, one should consider three main aspects, namely, the lighting system, the p... |

1 | A New Sensor for Live - Tan, Wang, et al. - 2001 |

1 |
Evaluation Techniques for Biometric-Based Authentication
- Bolle, Pankanti, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ze as the original sample x by drawing with replacement. Using the resulting bootstrap samples, one can easily estimate the statistics of interest. More details of the bootstrap may be found in [40], =-=[41]-=-, [43]. We exploit both interval estimation (a confidence interval) and commonly used point estimation (only a numerical value) of statistical measures to characterize the performance of the methods f... |