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## The Earlier the Better: A Theory of Timed Actor Interfaces

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Citations: | 7 - 3 self |

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3251 | Model checking
- Clarke, Grumberg, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wo key principles in developing large and complex software systems. Although a large number of methods employing these principles exist in the literature to deal with functional properties (e.g., see =-=[5, 32, 33, 11]-=-), less attention has been paid to timing and performance. This paper contributes toward filling this gap. Our approach can be termed model based. High-level models that are suitable for (often automa... |

2650 | Timed Automata
- Alur
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctor B if, for the same input, A produces no fewer events and no later, in the worst case, than those produced by B. For example, an actor that non-deterministically delays its input by some time t ∈ =-=[1, 2]-=- refines an actor that deterministically delays its input by a constant time 5. This is in sharp contrast with most standard notions of refinement which rely on the principle that the implementation s... |

1433 |
Introduction to Lattices and Order,
- Davey, Priestley
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... dots on a horizontal time line: τ1 = 3 · 5 · 7 · ɛ, τ2 = 3 · 5 · 7 · 8 · 9 · ɛ and τ3 = 0 · 3 · 5 · 7 · 9 · ɛ. τ1 is a prefix of τ2: τ1 ≼ τ2; and τ3 is earlier than τ2: τ3 ≤ τ2. But τ1 ̸≤ τ2. Recall =-=[12]-=- that a poset (partially ordered set) is a set equipped with a partial order, i.e., a reflexive, transitive, and antisymmetric binary relation. A chain is a countable sequence (possibly infinite) of o... |

1003 |
The semantics of a simple language for parallel programming,”
- Kahn
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...seen as type theories focusing on dynamic and concurrent behavior. Our interfaces, that we call actor interfaces, are inspired by actor-oriented models of computation [1, 29] such as process networks =-=[25]-=- and data flow [17]. ∗Marc Geilen is with the Eindhoven University of Technology, m.c.w.geilen@tue.nl. Stavros Tripakis is with the University of California, Berkeley, stavros@eecs.berkeley.edu. Maart... |

961 |
2002): Types and Programming Languages
- Pierce
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wo key principles in developing large and complex software systems. Although a large number of methods employing these principles exist in the literature to deal with functional properties (e.g., see =-=[5, 32, 33, 11]-=-), less attention has been paid to timing and performance. This paper contributes toward filling this gap. Our approach can be termed model based. High-level models that are suitable for (often automa... |

684 | Principles of Program Analysis
- Nielson, Nielson, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wo key principles in developing large and complex software systems. Although a large number of methods employing these principles exist in the literature to deal with functional properties (e.g., see =-=[5, 32, 33, 11]-=-), less attention has been paid to timing and performance. This paper contributes toward filling this gap. Our approach can be termed model based. High-level models that are suitable for (often automa... |

622 | Synchronous data flow.
- Lee, Messerschmitt
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nement process. The next layer is an application model consisting of actors DEC (decoder), SRC (sample-rate converter), and actor D1 explained below. DEC and SRC are timed synchronous data flow (SDF) =-=[28]-=- actors. SDF actors communicate by conceptually unbounded FIFO queues. They “fire” as soon as a fixed number of tokens become available at their input queues and, after a fixed duration, produce a fix... |

454 | Interface automata.
- Alfaro, Henzinger
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ional in the sense that checking refinement between models consisting of many components is preserved by refinement of individual system components. Our treatment follows so-called interface theories =-=[14]-=-, which can be seen as type theories focusing on dynamic and concurrent behavior. Our interfaces, that we call actor interfaces, are inspired by actor-oriented models of computation [1, 29] such as pr... |

409 |
Network Calculus: A theory of deterministic queues for the Internet. Number 2050 in LNCS.
- Boudec, Thiran
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s such as Markov decision processes, or stochastic process algebras or games (e.g., see [34, 24, 22, 16]). Worst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) =-=[8]-=- or real-time calculus (RTC) [39]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these frameworks [21, 40]. Semantically, these relations correspond to trace containment at the outputs and as ... |

380 | Synchronization and linearity : an algebra for discrete events systems. New-York
- Baccelli, Cohen, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...finement is not considered in this work, and although it could be defined as language containment, this would not follow the earlier-is-better principle. (max, +) algebra and its relatives (e.g., see =-=[4]-=-) are used as an underlying system theory for different discrete event system frameworks, including NC, RTC and SDF. (max, +) algebra is mostly limited to deterministic, (max, +)-linear systems. Our f... |

361 | Probabilistic simulations for probabilistic processes.
- Segala, Lynch
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bout non-deterministic models and worst-case performance bounds and as such differs from probabilistic frameworks such as Markov decision processes, or stochastic process algebras or games (e.g., see =-=[34, 24, 22, 16]-=-). Worst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [8] or real-time calculus (RTC) [39]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these framew... |

322 | A framework for comparing models of computation,”
- Lee, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...work-on-chip (NoC) communication. In this layer DEC2 is replaced by the composition of DEC3, D3 and NC. DEC3 is identical to DEC2 except for its firing durations which are reduced to e3 = [670, 2700, =-=[30]-=- 18 , 2700, [30] 18 ]µs, because the communication is modeled separately. NC is an SDF actor that models the NoC behavior. It can be shown that the composition of DEC3, NC and D3 refines DEC2. This an... |

287 | Transductions and Context-Free Languages.
- Berstel
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...finite representations, but a finite representation (e.g., a counter machine) can still represent an infinite-state system. 3 Note that automata in the implicit-tick model are essentially transducers =-=[6]-=- with input alphabet 2P and output alphabet 2Q . Every transition in such a transducer is labeled by a pair (P ′, Q ′) with P ′ ⊆ P and Q ′ ⊆ Q. Often such pairs are denoted P ′/Q′, a notation that th... |

264 |
A characterization of the minimum cycle mean in a digraph,
- Karp
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y M ′. We assign a weight to each transition P ′ /Q ′ −→ of M ′: weight 1 if q ∈ Q ′ and weight 0 otherwise. With these weights M ′ can be viewed as a weighted directed graph. We run Karp’s algorithm =-=[26]-=- to compute the minimum cycle mean and maximum cycle mean of M ′, denoted MCMmin and MCMmax, respectively. MCMmin (resp., MCMmax) is the minimum (resp., maximum) over all simple cycles κ in M ′′ of th... |

238 | Cyclo-Static Dataflow.
- Bilsen
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...corresponding event in τ. As a result, APP refines SPEC. The motivation for the third layer is buffer considerations. In this layer, the SDF actor DEC is replaced by the cyclo-static data flow (CSDF) =-=[7]-=- actor DEC2. This substitution results in smaller buffers on the queue from SRC to DEC2 [45]. CSDF actors generalize SDF actors by allowing the token consumption/production rates to vary periodically,... |

231 |
The Book of Traces.
- Diekert
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...kclosed, since we can obtain the same event trace from different words by commuting transitions happening between two successive ticks. To solve this problem we use results from trace language theory =-=[18]-=-. Consider an ETA M with input and output ports P and Q, respectively. Σ = P ∪ Q ∪ {t} is a finite alphabet. We define I = (P ∪ Q) × (P ∪ Q) to be an irreflexive and symmetric binary relation on Σ, ca... |

221 |
Embedded Multiprocessors: Scheduling and Synchronization.
- Sriram, SS
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulating throughput are based on Maximum Cycle Ratio analysis (in timed synchronous dataflow literature sometimes incorrectly called Maximum Cycle Mean analysis) of an equivalent homogeneous SDF graph =-=[36]-=- on an explicit state-space exploration of the operational semantics or on a (max, +) formulation of the semantics. We have seen in Equation 3 that for an SDF graph without open inputs, the following ... |

198 |
First version of a dataflow procedure language,”
- Dennis
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es focusing on dynamic and concurrent behavior. Our interfaces, that we call actor interfaces, are inspired by actor-oriented models of computation [1, 29] such as process networks [25] and data flow =-=[17]-=-. ∗Marc Geilen is with the Eindhoven University of Technology, m.c.w.geilen@tue.nl. Stavros Tripakis is with the University of California, Berkeley, stavros@eecs.berkeley.edu. Maarten Wiggers is with ... |

166 |
Concurrent object-oriented programming.
- Agha
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...face theories [14], which can be seen as type theories focusing on dynamic and concurrent behavior. Our interfaces, that we call actor interfaces, are inspired by actor-oriented models of computation =-=[1, 29]-=- such as process networks [25] and data flow [17]. ∗Marc Geilen is with the Eindhoven University of Technology, m.c.w.geilen@tue.nl. Stavros Tripakis is with the University of California, Berkeley, st... |

166 | Alternating refinement relations.
- Alur, Henzinger, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...but uses timed automata [2] instead of discrete automata. However, a notion of refinement is not defined in [15]. [13] extends [15] with a notion of refinement in the spirit of alternating simulation =-=[3]-=-, adapted for timed systems. Other refinement variants for timed automata include the simulation-relation in [38], the trace-inclusion based refinement in [10] and the one used for conformance testing... |

145 | Real-time calculus for scheduling hard real-time systems.
- Thiele, Chakraborty, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ses, or stochastic process algebras or games (e.g., see [34, 24, 22, 16]). Worst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [8] or real-time calculus (RTC) =-=[39]-=-. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these frameworks [21, 40]. Semantically, these relations correspond to trace containment at the outputs and as such do not follow the earlier-is... |

119 | Timed interfaces.
- Alfaro, Henzinger, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [42], where discrete time is implicitly measured by synchronous rounds. Our work has been inspired by [42] which also uses a relational framework, although different from the one used in this paper. =-=[15]-=- follows [14] but uses timed automata [2] instead of discrete automata. However, a notion of refinement is not defined in [15]. [13] extends [15] with a notion of refinement in the spirit of alternati... |

99 |
Real-Time computing systems
- Hard
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ors [1]. Service curves have limited expressiveness: they cannot generally capture, for instance, languages produced by automata actors. The same can be said of real-time scheduling theory (e.g., see =-=[8]-=-). Automata-based models have been used for scheduling and resource modeling, e.g., as in [30], where tasks are described as ω-regular languages representing sets of admissible schedules. Refinement i... |

76 | Black-box conformance testing for real-time systems.
- Krichen, Tripakis
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...apted for timed systems. Other refinement variants for timed automata include the simulation-relation in [38], the trace-inclusion based refinement in [10] and the one used for conformance testing in =-=[27]-=-. The refinement notions used in all works above differ from ours in a fundamental way: in our case, earlier is better, whereas in the above works, if the implementation can produce an output a at som... |

71 | Process algebra for performance evaluation
- Hermanns, Herzog, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bout non-deterministic models and worst-case performance bounds and as such differs from probabilistic frameworks such as Markov decision processes, or stochastic process algebras or games (e.g., see =-=[34, 24, 22, 16]-=-). Worst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [8] or real-time calculus (RTC) [39]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these framew... |

57 | Testing preorders for probabilistic processes can be characterized by simulations.
- Jonsson, Wang
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bout non-deterministic models and worst-case performance bounds and as such differs from probabilistic frameworks such as Markov decision processes, or stochastic process algebras or games (e.g., see =-=[34, 24, 22, 16]-=-). Worst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [8] or real-time calculus (RTC) [39]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these framew... |

55 | Efficient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Dataflow Graphs.
- Wiggers
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cy. 2 Motivating Example To illustrate the use of our framework, we present an example of an MP3 play-back application. The application is based on a fragment of the car radio case study presented in =-=[45]-=-. Our goal is to show how such an application can be handled within our framework, using stepwise refinement from specification to implementation, such that performance guarantees are preserved during... |

54 |
Use of Petri Nets for Performance Evaluation
- Sifakis
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nistic specification models such as SDF to implementations that have variable timing. Time Petri nets have also been used for performance evaluation although in a non-compositional context (e.g., see =-=[35]-=-). There are different ways to mathematically model the event sequence abstraction. The event sequences used in this paper can be seen as a special case of the general tagged signals of [30], with sig... |

45 | Verifying abstractions of timed systems.
- Tasiran, Alur, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... [13] extends [15] with a notion of refinement in the spirit of alternating simulation [3], adapted for timed systems. Other refinement variants for timed automata include the simulation-relation in =-=[38]-=-, the trace-inclusion based refinement in [10] and the one used for conformance testing in [27]. The refinement notions used in all works above differ from ours in a fundamental way: in our case, earl... |

36 | Throughput-buffering trade-off exploration for cyclo-static and synchronous dataflow graphs.
- Stuijk, Geilen, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...qual, the maximal buffer occupation can be determined from an exploration of the state-space of the operational semantics of SDF, as is the underlying method for the exact SDF buffer size analysis of =-=[37]-=-. 9.1.8 Time non-deterministic SDF The formal semantics of SDF typically (as well as in our case) assumes constant firing durations. Often these durations are (implicitly) understood to be worst-case ... |

35 | Refinement Calculus.
- Back, Wright
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ompositionality have been two key principles in developing large and complex systems. Although a large number of methods employing these principles exist to deal with functional properties (e.g., see =-=[5, 9, 24, 25]-=-), less attention has been paid to timing and performance. This paper contributes toward filling this gap. Our approach can be termed model based. High-level models that are suitable for analysis are ... |

34 | Timed I/O Automata: A Complete Specification Theory for Real-time Systems.
- David, Larsen, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onal framework, although different from the one used in this paper. [15] follows [14] but uses timed automata [2] instead of discrete automata. However, a notion of refinement is not defined in [15]. =-=[13]-=- extends [15] with a notion of refinement in the spirit of alternating simulation [3], adapted for timed systems. Other refinement variants for timed automata include the simulation-relation in [38], ... |

34 | An interface algebra for real-time components.”
- Henzinger, Matic
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [8] or real-time calculus (RTC) [39]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these frameworks =-=[21, 40]-=-. Semantically, these relations correspond to trace containment at the outputs and as such do not follow the earlier-is-better principle. An important feature of NC and RTC is that they can model reso... |

29 | Real-time interfaces for composing real-time systems.
- Thiele, Wandeler, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rst-case performance bounds can be derived using techniques from the network calculus (NC) [7] or real-time calculus (RTC) [27]. Refinement relations have been considered recently in these frameworks =-=[17, 28]-=-. Semantically, these relations correspond to trace containment at the outputs and as such do not follow the earlier-is-better principle. An important feature of NC and RTC is that they can model reso... |

28 | A relational model of non-deterministic dataflow,
- Hildebrandt, Panangaden, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of such a system may not be unique, even if the system is deterministic, or that the behavior may not be constructively computable from the behavior of the actor, depending on the nature of the actor=-=[23]-=-. To effectively apply feedback we will typically require additional constraints on the actor. In the following proposition we describe a case in which a solution can be constructively characterized b... |

24 | Self-timed scheduling analysis for real-time applications’,
- MOREIRA, BEKOOIJ
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ′ ⊑ y ′′ and xAy ′′ . Now y ⊑ y ′′ ↑ Q ′ and xA\Q ′ (y ′′ ↑ Q ′ ). 7 Performance Metrics We often care about the performance of our systems in terms of specific metrics such as throughput or latency =-=[8, 39, 31, 19]-=-. In this section we show that our notion of refinement is strong enough to provide guarantees on performance under the refinement process. Throughout this section, we assume that T = R≥0 . We begin b... |

24 | Implementing synchronous models on loosely time triggered architectures.
- Tripakis, Pinello, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...T lb (∆d, x, q) = T lb (y(q)) = T ub (∆d, x, q) = T ub (y(q)) = 1. Similarly, T lb (∆ [d1,d2]x, q) = T ub (∆ [d1,d2], x, q) = 1. We next turn to latency. Different definitions are possible (e.g., see =-=[31, 19, 43]-=-). We define latency as the smallest upper bound on observed time differences between related input and output events. The pairs of events that we want to relate are explicitly specified as follows: D... |

24 | Automata based interfaces for control and scheduling.
- Weiss, Alur
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...can be captured, for instance, by automata. The same can be said of real-time scheduling theory (e.g., see [9]). Automata-based models have been used for scheduling and resource modeling, e.g., as in =-=[44]-=-, where tasks are described as ω-regular languages representing sets of admissible schedules. Refinement is not considered in this work, and although it could be defined as language containment, this ... |

15 | Enabling application-level performance guarantees in network-based Systems on Chip by applying dataflow analysis
- Hansson, Wiggers, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hat AA refines APP2. The final implementation (not shown in the figure) can be compositionally shown to refine the AA model. For instance, the NC actor conservatively abstracts the NoC implementation =-=[16]-=-. It is important to mention that although implementations are time-non-deterministic for multiple reasons, e.g., software execution times or run-time scheduling, the models in Figure 1 are time-deter... |

12 | Classes and inheritance in actor-oriented design
- Lee, Liu, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...face theories [14], which can be seen as type theories focusing on dynamic and concurrent behavior. Our interfaces, that we call actor interfaces, are inspired by actor-oriented models of computation =-=[1, 29]-=- such as process networks [25] and data flow [17]. ∗Marc Geilen is with the Eindhoven University of Technology, m.c.w.geilen@tue.nl. Stavros Tripakis is with the University of California, Berkeley, st... |

10 | Latency Minimization for Synchronous Data Flow Graphs.
- Ghamarian
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ′ ⊑ y ′′ and xAy ′′ . Now y ⊑ y ′′ ↑ Q ′ and xA\Q ′ (y ′′ ↑ Q ′ ). 7 Performance Metrics We often care about the performance of our systems in terms of specific metrics such as throughput or latency =-=[8, 39, 31, 19]-=-. In this section we show that our notion of refinement is strong enough to provide guarantees on performance under the refinement process. Throughout this section, we assume that T = R≥0 . We begin b... |

9 | Compositionality in synchronous data flow: Modular code generation from hierarchical sdf graphs.
- Tripakis, Bui, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...replace SDF actors by CSDF actors in applications, which partly motivated our definition of refinement. Additional motivation for refining SDF to CSDF or other less “monolithic” models is provided in =-=[41]-=-, in the context of modular code generation. Proposition 4. The refinement relation on actors is a pre-order, i.e. it is reflexive and transitive . Proof. Straightforward, using Lemma 2. The refinemen... |

8 | Game refinement relations and metrics
- Alfaro, Majumdar, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

6 |
A refinement-based process algebra for timed automata. Formal Aspects of Computing,
- Cattani, Kwiatkowska
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t in the spirit of alternating simulation [3], adapted for timed systems. Other refinement variants for timed automata include the simulation-relation in [38], the trace-inclusion based refinement in =-=[10]-=- and the one used for conformance testing in [27]. The refinement notions used in all works above differ from ours in a fundamental way: in our case, earlier is better, whereas in the above works, if ... |

3 |
Monotonicity and run-time scheduling
- Wiggers, Bekooij, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o equivalently be expressed in a dual form as arrival functions [8]. Counter and dater functions are similar structures known from (max, +) algebra [4]. Our work has also been inspired by the work in =-=[46]-=-, where task graph implementations are conservatively abstracted to timed dataflow specifications. 44 Actors We consider actor interfaces (in short actors) as relations between finite or infinite seq... |

1 |
A theory of synchronous relational interfaces. UC Berkeley tech. report available at http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2010
- Tripakis, Lickly, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hough such automata have no explicit notion of time, discrete time can be implicitly modeled by adding a special “tick” output. A synchronous and symbolic version of the theory of [14] is proposed in =-=[42]-=-, where discrete time is implicitly measured by synchronous rounds. Our work has been inspired by [42] which also uses a relational framework, although different from the one used in this paper. [15] ... |