#### DMCA

## 20 STATISTICAL COGNITION: TOWARDS EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN STATISTICS AND STATISTICS EDUCATION 4

### Cached

### Download Links

Citations: | 11 - 3 self |

### Citations

2796 |
Logic and conversation
- Grice
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the perception of randomness. When ordinary language is used for reasoning, conceptions and misconceptions are often shaped by the nature of the social interaction and the conversation taking place (=-=Grice, 1975-=-). “Respondents [students] deviate from the judgments predicted by the normative model considered relevant by the experimenter [teacher] by using rules of conversational inference very different than ... |

2440 |
Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases
- Tversky, Kahneman
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the publication of psychological research assessing intuitive statistical reasoning (e.g., Edwards, 1968; Meehl, 1954; =-=Tversky & Kahneman, 1974-=-) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982; Sedlmeier, 1999). These developments shaped two lines of theory, research... |

2331 |
Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases
- Kahneman, Slovic, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...search assessing intuitive statistical reasoning (e.g., Edwards, 1968; Meehl, 1954; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002; =-=Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982-=-; Sedlmeier, 1999). These developments shaped two lines of theory, research, and applications: the descriptive and the prescriptive approaches. “Man as an intuitive statistician” (Peterson & Beach, 19... |

1811 | Situated cognition and the culture of learning - Brown, Collins, et al. - 1989 |

631 | The empirical case for two systems of reasoning
- Sloman
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m the format given in the task (e.g., probabilities) into natural frequencies (Gigerenzer & Hoffrage, 1995). The heuristics and biases cognitive psychology literature has adopted dual-process theory (=-=Sloman, 1996-=-; Stanovich & West, 2000), which identifies two quite different cognitive modes, System 1 (S1) and System 2 (S2), approximately corresponding to the common sense notions of intuitive and analytical th... |

600 |
Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment
- Nisbett, ROss
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hermore, in the asymmetric case, the two values may be described as ‘occurrence’, ‘non-occurrence’. A ‘non-occurrence’ or ‘negative’ event has less impact on people’s attention than a positive event (=-=Nisbett & Ross, 1980-=-). Participants’ perception of correlation was much more biased for asymmetric variables, for which they tended to perceive only one or two cells of the full 2×2 table that is required for the normati... |

428 | Extensional Versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment
- Tversky, Kahneman
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oning (of laypeople and experts) is compared. For example, people’s performance in solving conjunction tasks has been compared to the predictions of the conjunction rule: P(A&B)≤P(A) and P(A&B)≤P(B) (=-=Tversky & Kahneman, 1983-=-). Normative standards have been used similarly in research on people’s judgments of disjunctive probabilities (Bar-Hillel & Neter, 1993), conditional probabilities (Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman,... |

378 | How to Improve Bayesian Reasoning Without Instruction: Frequency Formats - Gigerenzer, Hoffrage - 1995 |

339 |
The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature
- Pinker
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xtbooks, are only vaguely aware of the substantial cognitive literature on statistical reasoning and the contributions it can make. Students young or old don’t enter the learning arena ‘tabula rasa’ (=-=Pinker, 2002-=-), but already holding beliefs about scientific concepts and processes. They also have everyday meanings for words that are used in a more specialized way in science. These beliefs might help or hinde... |

314 | The belief in the law of small numbers
- Tversky, Kahneman
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 817). 2. “The believer in the law of small numbers … rarely attributes a deviation of results from expectations to sampling variability, because he finds a causal ‘explanation’ for any discrepancy” (=-=Tversky & Kahneman, 1982-=-, p. 29). 3. “[Statistical] power is neglected by psychologists because, given their typically mistaken understanding of statistical significance, it is an unnecessary concept” (Oakes, 1986, p. 83). 4... |

262 |
Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment
- Gilovich, Griffin, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h the publication of psychological research assessing intuitive statistical reasoning (e.g., Edwards, 1968; Meehl, 1954; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., =-=Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002-=-; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982; Sedlmeier, 1999). These developments shaped two lines of theory, research, and applications: the descriptive and the prescriptive approaches. “Man as an intuitive ... |

192 | Theoretical risks and tabular asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the slow progress of soft psychology.
- Meehl
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... “… the almost universal reliance on merely refuting the null hypothesis … is basically unsound, poor scientific strategy and one of the worst things that ever happened in the history of psychology” (=-=Meehl, 1978-=-, p. 817). 2. “The believer in the law of small numbers … rarely attributes a deviation of results from expectations to sampling variability, because he finds a causal ‘explanation’ for any discrepanc... |

180 |
Null hypothesis testing: Problems, prevalence, and an alternative
- Anderson, Burnham, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...empirical research from 1940 (Hubbard & Ryan, 2000). There has been controversy about NHST since its inception, and the number of published works critical of it has increased dramatically since then (=-=Anderson, Burnham, & Thompson, 2000-=-). The most common arguments against NHST refer to a catalogue of misconceptions about p-values. This catalogue (which is descriptive) has been built over many years from teachers’ observations (e.g.,... |

176 |
Conservatism in human information processing
- Edwards
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...portant goal yet to be achieved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the publication of psychological research assessing intuitive statistical reasoning (e.g., =-=Edwards, 1968-=-; Meehl, 1954; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982; Sedlmeier, 1999). These developmen... |

157 |
B: Enabling the implementation of evidence based practice: a conceptual framework. Qual Health Care
- Kitson, Harvey, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ractice requires integration of three core elements: relevant evidence, the context or environment into which the research is to be placed, and the method or way in which the process is accomplished (=-=Kitson, Harvey, & McCormack, 1998-=-). There is some correspondence between these elements and our normative, descriptive and prescriptive facets, respectively. If a statistician is advising a researcher about data analysis for a report... |

152 |
How to Lie with Statistics
- Huff
- 1954
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ning of the 20th century, H. G. Wells emphasised the importance of teaching statistical reasoning to produce an educated citizen, with statistical reasoning being as important as reading and writing (=-=Huff, 1973-=-, p. 6). In the early 1980s the concept of ‘statistical numeracy’ was first introduced as a sub-category of ‘numeracy’: Statistical numeracy requires a feel for numbers, and appreciation of appropriat... |

124 |
Statistics as principled argument
- Abelson
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of (normative) statistics is essential in schools—for the developing of good statistical reasoning—and in university—for doing research and interpreting its results. However, there is evidence (e.g., =-=Abelson, 1995-=-; Sedlmeier & Gigerenzer, 1989), as well as widespread classroom experience, to suggest that the teaching of statistics is often not very successful. In a literature review of the teaching of statisti... |

121 | Beyond significance testing: Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research. - Kline - 2004 |

114 |
Statistical inference: a commentary for the social and behavioural sciences
- Oakes
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...llatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987), effects of sample size (Bar-Hillel, 1979), judgment of randomness (Falk & Konold, 1994, 1997), interpreting p-values in hypothesis testing (Falk, 1986; =-=Oakes, 1986-=-)—to mention but a few cases. A normative model can thus provide a theoretical framework for describing how people should perform a task. It can also identify a set of logically possible deviations fr... |

108 | Do studies of statistical power have an effect on the power of studies
- Sedlmeier, Gigerenzer
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...statistics is essential in schools—for the developing of good statistical reasoning—and in university—for doing research and interpreting its results. However, there is evidence (e.g., Abelson, 1995; =-=Sedlmeier & Gigerenzer, 1989-=-), as well as widespread classroom experience, to suggest that the teaching of statistics is often not very successful. In a literature review of the teaching of statistical reasoning to students at c... |

106 |
Probabilistic reasoning in clinical medicine: Problems and opportunities
- Eddy
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thus again behaving like null hypothesis statistical testers. There is also overwhelming evidence that people often confuse P(H|D) and P(D|H) and use, incorrectly, P(D|H) as their estimate of P(H|D) (=-=Eddy, 1982-=-; Haller & Krauss, 2002; Oakes, 1986). Thus, although people demonstrate severe misconceptions of the NHST model, by ignoring base rates and the relevance of alternative hypotheses, and by using P(D|H... |

105 | Inference by eye: Confidence intervals and how to read pictures of data - Cumming, Finch - 2005 |

105 | Adult's statistical literacy. Meanings, components, responsibilities
- Gal
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on of figures, and a judicious understanding of widely used concepts such as means and percentages. (Cockcroft, 1982, paragraph 781) The broader term ‘statistical literacy’ (Ben-Zvi & Garfield, 2004; =-=Gal, 2002-=-; Wallman, 1993) later replaced statistical numeracy, and became an important goal yet to be achieved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the publication of ps... |

104 |
Judgment of contingency between responses and outcomes
- Jenkins, Ward
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hree facets of statistical cognition, and the research needed for EBP. Adults’ perception of the correlation between dichotomous variables had been examined in a number of studies (Beyth-Marom, 1982; =-=Jenkins & Ward, 1965-=-; Shaklee & Tucker, 1980; Smedslund, 1963; Ward & Jenkins, 1965). Usually, participants were given pairs of values, and asked to estimate the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the ... |

90 | The origin of the idea of chance in children - Piaget, Inhelder - 1975 |

83 |
The social context of reasoning: Conversational inferences and rational judgment
- Hilton
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dgments predicted by the normative model considered relevant by the experimenter [teacher] by using rules of conversational inference very different than those assumed by the experimenter [teacher]” (=-=Hilton, 1995-=-, p. 266). Recognition of linguistic and conversational factors, as well as being alert to possible discrepancies between statistical and conversational meanings, is likely to have practical pedagogic... |

77 | Hypothesis evaluation from a Bayesian perspective - Fischhoff, Marom, et al. - 1983 |

74 |
The Base-Rate Fallacy in Probability Judgments
- Bar-Hillel
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ted at least in part because of users’ misconceptions. That is, that their normative status has been in part determined by obstacles that are descriptive in nature. Research on the base rate fallacy (=-=Bar-Hillel, 1980-=-) demonstrated how people tend to ignore base-rates, thus behaving like null hypothesis statistical testers. Research on pseudo-diagnosticity (Beyth-Marom, 1990; Beyth-Marom & Fischhoff, 1983) indicat... |

73 |
eds.) Decision Making. Descriptive, normative, and prescriptive interactions
- Bell, Raiffa, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing: Descriptive, Normative and Prescriptive Interactions” was the name of a conference held in Boston at the Harvard Business School in 1983, the product of which was an edited book with this title (=-=Bell, Raiffa, & Tversky, 1988-=-). Those authors suggested the following taxonomy: Descriptive: (1) Decisions people make; (2) How people decide. Normative: (1) Logically consistent decision procedures; (2) How people Prescriptive: ... |

68 |
The Earth Is Round (p<.05
- Cohen
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce testing” (p. 175). However, there are others who hold the position that, even if used and interpreted properly, NHST contributes little knowledge and “is not the way any [proper] science is done” (=-=Cohen, 1994-=-, p. 999). A stronger expression of this position is that the procedure is itself fundamentally flawed; that NHST has a “flawed logical structure” (Falk & Greenbaum, 1995, p. 75). There is also a thir... |

61 |
Clinical versus statistical prediction
- Meehl
- 1954
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t to be achieved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the publication of psychological research assessing intuitive statistical reasoning (e.g., Edwards, 1968; =-=Meehl, 1954-=-; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982; Sedlmeier, 1999). These developments shaped two... |

60 |
First courses in statistical science: The status of educational reform efforts
- Garfield, Hogg, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...seems to be known about how to teach probability and statistics effectively” (p. 45). More recent research has had some impact on college teaching, but many courses remain unaffected by its outcomes (=-=Garfield, Hogg, Schau, & Whittinghill, 2002-=-; Ben-Zvi & Garfield, 2004). In other sciences, at least some educators are aware of the relevance ofmisconceptions (the descriptive facet) to the effective teaching of science (the prescriptive face... |

57 |
Learning theory and the study of instruction
- Glaser, Bassok
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pproaches and tools for reaching this goal, and the pedagogical prescriptions for the teaching of statistics, should be based on the art, science, and profession of teaching. Learning by doing (e.g., =-=Glaser & Bassok, 1989-=-; Smith, 1998), authentic learning (e.g., Donovan, Bransford, & Pellegrino, 1999; Mehlinger, 1995) and situated cognition (e.g., Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) are examples of educational or instruct... |

53 |
Teaching and assessing statistical reasoning
- Garfield, Gal
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cal tasks, and (c) developing and testing pedagogical tools and ways of communication for the benefit of practitioners and teachers. Statistical reasoning, a term already widely used (Garfield, 2002; =-=Garfield & Gal, 1999-=-), concerns the mental processes which shape the process and representations of statistical cognition. As such, it is concerned mainly with the descriptive facet. However, statistical cognition, like ... |

53 |
Enhancing statistical literacy: Enriching our society
- Wallman
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es, and a judicious understanding of widely used concepts such as means and percentages. (Cockcroft, 1982, paragraph 781) The broader term ‘statistical literacy’ (Ben-Zvi & Garfield, 2004; Gal, 2002; =-=Wallman, 1993-=-) later replaced statistical numeracy, and became an important goal yet to be achieved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the publication of psychological res... |

52 |
learning and the quality of intelligent behaviour
- Biggs, Collis
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ol curriculum has prompted more attention to understanding developmental aspects of statistical literacy. A number of models of cognitive development in probability and statistics have been proposed (=-=Biggs & Collis, 1991-=-; Jones, Langrall, Thornton, & Mogill, 1997; Mooney, 2002; Watson & Callingham, 2003). According to these, instructional materials should be appropriate for students’ age and cognitive development. Fo... |

52 | Making sense of randomness: implicit encoding as a basis for judgment - Falk, Konold - 1997 |

46 |
Eight common but false objections to the discontinuation of significance testing in the analysis of research data
- Schmidt, Hunter
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Statistical Education (IASE/ISI), November, 200821 claimed CIs lead to better research decision making than NHST, and that students can more easily and successfully learn about CIs than NHST (e.g., =-=Schmidt & Hunter, 1997-=-). Our worry is that the evidence base especially for the second and third lines of discussion is sadly deficient, and that the three lines are not sufficiently integrated. The first discussion, or fa... |

44 |
The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking
- Ben-Zvi, Garfield
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of variety of interpretation of figures, and a judicious understanding of widely used concepts such as means and percentages. (Cockcroft, 1982, paragraph 781) The broader term ‘statistical literacy’ (=-=Ben-Zvi & Garfield, 2004-=-; Gal, 2002; Wallman, 1993) later replaced statistical numeracy, and became an important goal yet to be achieved. The need to enhance statistical literacy has been gradually recognised with the public... |

44 |
The Display of Information and the Judgment of Contingency
- Ward, Jenkins
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or EBP. Adults’ perception of the correlation between dichotomous variables had been examined in a number of studies (Beyth-Marom, 1982; Jenkins & Ward, 1965; Shaklee & Tucker, 1980; Smedslund, 1963; =-=Ward & Jenkins, 1965-=-). Usually, participants were given pairs of values, and asked to estimate the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the variables. Most research evidence found estimates were biased r... |

39 |
Improving Statistical Reasoning : Theoretical Models and Practical Implications. Mahwah, N..J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
- Sedlmeier
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cal reasoning (e.g., Edwards, 1968; Meehl, 1954; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) and studying the cognitive processes involved (e.g., Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982; =-=Sedlmeier, 1999-=-). These developments shaped two lines of theory, research, and applications: the descriptive and the prescriptive approaches. “Man as an intuitive statistician” (Peterson & Beach, 1967) was the first... |

39 |
The Concept of Correlation in Adults
- Smedslund
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...research needed for EBP. Adults’ perception of the correlation between dichotomous variables had been examined in a number of studies (Beyth-Marom, 1982; Jenkins & Ward, 1965; Shaklee & Tucker, 1980; =-=Smedslund, 1963-=-; Ward & Jenkins, 1965). Usually, participants were given pairs of values, and asked to estimate the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the variables. Most research evidence found e... |

37 |
The challenge of developing statistical reasoning
- Garfield
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ment in statistical tasks, and (c) developing and testing pedagogical tools and ways of communication for the benefit of practitioners and teachers. Statistical reasoning, a term already widely used (=-=Garfield, 2002-=-; Garfield & Gal, 1999), concerns the mental processes which shape the process and representations of statistical cognition. As such, it is concerned mainly with the descriptive facet. However, statis... |

34 | How Secondary Students Interpret Instances of Biological Adaptation - Clough, Wood-Robinson - 1985 |

33 |
The interpretation of level of significance by psychological researchers
- Rosenthal, Gaito
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...theory began, it is obvious that the normative tradition has a much longer history than either the descriptive or prescriptive traditions. Descriptive research dates back at least to the 1960s (e.g., =-=Rosenthal & Gaito, 1963-=-; Peterson & Beach, 1967). Prescriptive research on statistical practice and education is more recent, with formal societies and dedicated journals dating from around the mid 1980s. We have demonstrat... |

28 | Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars. Manuscript submitted for publication - Belia, Fidler, et al. - 2003 |

28 | Misinterpretations of significance. A problem students share with their teachers
- Heiko, KRAUSS
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bservations (e.g., Schmidt & Hunter, 1997), surveys of journal reporting practices (e.g., Finch, Cumming, and Thomason, 2001; Fidler et al., 2005) and empirical studies with researchers and students (=-=Haller & Krauss, 2002-=-; Kalinowski, Fidler, &Cumming, 2008; Oakes, 1986). That the misconceptions are widespread and robust is well known and often demonstrated. They have also been compiled and summarised often. Kline (2... |

28 |
A framework for assessing and nurturing young children thinking in probability
- Jones, Langrall, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pted more attention to understanding developmental aspects of statistical literacy. A number of models of cognitive development in probability and statistics have been proposed (Biggs & Collis, 1991; =-=Jones, Langrall, Thornton, & Mogill, 1997-=-; Mooney, 2002; Watson & Callingham, 2003). According to these, instructional materials should be appropriate for students’ age and cognitive development. For example, the model suggested by Jones and... |

27 |
How alike is it? versus how likely is it?: A disjunction fallacy in probability judgments
- Bar-Hillel, Neter
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...edictions of the conjunction rule: P(A&B)≤P(A) and P(A&B)≤P(B) (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). Normative standards have been used similarly in research on people’s judgments of disjunctive probabilities (=-=Bar-Hillel & Neter, 1993-=-), conditional probabilities (Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987), effects of sample size (Bar-Hillel, 1979), judgment of randomness (Falk & Konold, 1994, 1997), interpreting p-values in ... |

25 |
A misconception in Biology: Amino acids and translation
- Fisher
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with formal concepts to be taught they were regarded as ‘misconceptions’ or ‘alternative conceptions’. Misconceptions may come from strong word association, confusion, conflict, or lack of knowledge (=-=Fisher, 1985-=-). They usually share the following characteristics: (a) they are at variance with normative conceptions held by experts in the field; (b) they tend to be pervasive (shared by many different individua... |

25 |
Learning statistics by doing statistics
- Smith
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... reaching this goal, and the pedagogical prescriptions for the teaching of statistics, should be based on the art, science, and profession of teaching. Learning by doing (e.g., Glaser & Bassok, 1989; =-=Smith, 1998-=-), authentic learning (e.g., Donovan, Bransford, & Pellegrino, 1999; Mehlinger, 1995) and situated cognition (e.g., Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) are examples of educational or instructional theorie... |

21 |
Teaching as a Research Based Profession: possibilities and prospects. London: Teacher Training Agency
- Hargreaves
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...practitioners to make more use of research evidence that is already available. By contrast, in education greater emphasis has been placed on the absence of good quality research that can support EBP (=-=Hargreaves, 1996-=-). Davies (1999) emphasized that EBP in education should both draw on evidence from existing world-wide research and literature on education, and also encourage and guide further educational research.... |

21 | Students’ probabilistic thinking in instruction - Jones, Langrall, et al. - 1999 |

21 | A framework for characterizing middle school students’ statistical thinking
- Mooney
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pmental aspects of statistical literacy. A number of models of cognitive development in probability and statistics have been proposed (Biggs & Collis, 1991; Jones, Langrall, Thornton, & Mogill, 1997; =-=Mooney, 2002-=-; Watson & Callingham, 2003). According to these, instructional materials should be appropriate for students’ age and cognitive development. For example, the model suggested by Jones and his colleague... |

21 |
Evidence-Based Practice – A Critical Appraisal
- Trinder, Reynolds
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values” (p. 147). Psychology, nursing, social work, and other professional disciplines are progressively advocating and adopting EBP (=-=Trinder & Reynolds, 2000-=-). Evidence-Based Medicine, Evidence-Based Child Health, EvidenceBased Communication Assessment and Intervention, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Evidence-Based Library and Info... |

20 | Replication, and researchers’ understanding of confidence intervals and standard error bars - Cumming, Williams, et al. - 2004 |

20 |
The historical growth of statistical significance testing in psychology—and its future prospects
- Hubbard, Ryan
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... contribution. NHST in its contemporary form (a hybrid of two schools of thought, one associated with Fisher, the other with Neyman and Pearson) was gradually applied in empirical research from 1940 (=-=Hubbard & Ryan, 2000-=-). There has been controversy about NHST since its inception, and the number of published works critical of it has increased dramatically since then (Anderson, Burnham, & Thompson, 2000). The most com... |

19 |
Misconceptions of physical science concepts among elementary school teachers
- Lawrenz
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing methods have to be developed. For example, some educators recommend that teachers should be given numerous examples of how to identify misconceptions held by pupils and strategies to change them (=-=Lawrenz, 1986-=-; Smith & Anderson, 1984). Others have suggested starting the teaching with students’ ideas and then devising teaching strategies to take some account of them (Engel Clough & Wood-Robinson, 1985). Mos... |

18 |
Perception of Correlation Re-examined
- Beyth-Marom
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... influence of the three facets of statistical cognition, and the research needed for EBP. Adults’ perception of the correlation between dichotomous variables had been examined in a number of studies (=-=Beyth-Marom, 1982-=-; Jenkins & Ward, 1965; Shaklee & Tucker, 1980; Smedslund, 1963; Ward & Jenkins, 1965). Usually, participants were given pairs of values, and asked to estimate the direction and/or strength of the rel... |

18 |
Reporting of statistical inference
- Finch, Cumming, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ceptions about p-values. This catalogue (which is descriptive) has been built over many years from teachers’ observations (e.g., Schmidt & Hunter, 1997), surveys of journal reporting practices (e.g., =-=Finch, Cumming, and Thomason, 2001-=-; Fidler et al., 2005) and empirical studies with researchers and students (Haller & Krauss, 2002; Kalinowski, Fidler, &Cumming, 2008; Oakes, 1986). That the misconceptions are widespread and robust ... |

18 |
D: A rule analysis of judgments of covariation between events. Memory Cogn
- Shaklee, Tucker
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ical cognition, and the research needed for EBP. Adults’ perception of the correlation between dichotomous variables had been examined in a number of studies (Beyth-Marom, 1982; Jenkins & Ward, 1965; =-=Shaklee & Tucker, 1980-=-; Smedslund, 1963; Ward & Jenkins, 1965). Usually, participants were given pairs of values, and asked to estimate the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the variables. Most research... |

18 |
Plants as producers: A case study of elementary science teaching
- Smith, Anderson
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e to be developed. For example, some educators recommend that teachers should be given numerous examples of how to identify misconceptions held by pupils and strategies to change them (Lawrenz, 1986; =-=Smith & Anderson, 1984-=-). Others have suggested starting the teaching with students’ ideas and then devising teaching strategies to take some account of them (Engel Clough & Wood-Robinson, 1985). Most research on naïve conc... |

17 |
Diagnosticity and Pseudodiagnosticity
- Beyth-Marom, Fischhoff
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he base rate fallacy (Bar-Hillel, 1980) demonstrated how people tend to ignore base-rates, thus behaving like null hypothesis statistical testers. Research on pseudo-diagnosticity (Beyth-Marom, 1990; =-=Beyth-Marom & Fischhoff, 1983-=-) indicated that people often base their updating of a hypothesis on the magnitude of P(D|H), ignoring P(D|~H), thus again behaving like null hypothesis statistical testers. There is also overwhelming... |

16 | Children's viewpoints of heat: A second look - Erickson - 1980 |

16 |
Misconceptions of statistical significance
- Falk
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bilities (Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987), effects of sample size (Bar-Hillel, 1979), judgment of randomness (Falk & Konold, 1994, 1997), interpreting p-values in hypothesis testing (=-=Falk, 1986-=-; Oakes, 1986)—to mention but a few cases. A normative model can thus provide a theoretical framework for describing how people should perform a task. It can also identify a set of logically possible ... |

14 | A case study in the failure of psychology as a cumulative science: The spontaneous recovery of verbal learning - Rossi - 1997 |

12 |
Significance tests die hard
- Falk, Greenbaum
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the way any [proper] science is done” (Cohen, 1994, p. 999). A stronger expression of this position is that the procedure is itself fundamentally flawed; that NHST has a “flawed logical structure” (=-=Falk & Greenbaum, 1995-=-, p. 75). There is also a third position, which draws the previous two together, and illustrates how the descriptive can contribute to the normative. This is the position that NHST is so widely misint... |

12 |
Understanding conditional probabilities
- Pollatsek, Well, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...&B)≤P(B) (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). Normative standards have been used similarly in research on people’s judgments of disjunctive probabilities (Bar-Hillel & Neter, 1993), conditional probabilities (=-=Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987-=-), effects of sample size (Bar-Hillel, 1979), judgment of randomness (Falk & Konold, 1994, 1997), interpreting p-values in hypothesis testing (Falk, 1986; Oakes, 1986)—to mention but a few cases. A no... |

11 | On the psychology of prediction: Whose is the fallacy - Cohen - 1979 |

10 |
The role of sample size in sample evaluation
- Bar-Hillel
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...milarly in research on people’s judgments of disjunctive probabilities (Bar-Hillel & Neter, 1993), conditional probabilities (Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987), effects of sample size (=-=Bar-Hillel, 1979-=-), judgment of randomness (Falk & Konold, 1994, 1997), interpreting p-values in hypothesis testing (Falk, 1986; Oakes, 1986)—to mention but a few cases. A normative model can thus provide a theoretica... |

9 |
Statistics with confidence (2nd ed
- Altman, Machin, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er a quick review of the three facets of CI research. Normative research includes CI theory in mathematical statistics, and presentations intended to help researchers use CIs for data analysis (e.g., =-=Altman, Machin, Bryant, & Gardner, 2000-=-). The descriptive facet includes study of how researchers understand and interpret CIs. Prescriptive research includes study of how best to improve statistical practice: It provides evidence about wh... |

9 | Inference by eye: pictures of confidence intervals and thinking about levels of confidence. Teaching Statistics 29 - Cumming |

9 | The rationality debate: Application of cognitive psychology to mathematics education - Leron, Hazzan - 2006 |

4 |
Random means hard to digest
- Falk, Konold
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f disjunctive probabilities (Bar-Hillel & Neter, 1993), conditional probabilities (Pollatsek, Well, Konold, Hardiman, & Cobb, 1987), effects of sample size (Bar-Hillel, 1979), judgment of randomness (=-=Falk & Konold, 1994-=-, 1997), interpreting p-values in hypothesis testing (Falk, 1986; Oakes, 1986)—to mention but a few cases. A normative model can thus provide a theoretical framework for describing how people should p... |

4 |
Toward improved statistical reporting
- Fidler, Cumming, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gue (which is descriptive) has been built over many years from teachers’ observations (e.g., Schmidt & Hunter, 1997), surveys of journal reporting practices (e.g., Finch, Cumming, and Thomason, 2001; =-=Fidler et al., 2005-=-) and empirical studies with researchers and students (Haller & Krauss, 2002; Kalinowski, Fidler, &Cumming, 2008; Oakes, 1986). That the misconceptions are widespread and robust is well known and oft... |

3 |
Mis/Understanding Diagnosticity : direction and magnitude of change”, in Borcherding et al
- Beyth-Marom
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ture. Research on the base rate fallacy (Bar-Hillel, 1980) demonstrated how people tend to ignore base-rates, thus behaving like null hypothesis statistical testers. Research on pseudo-diagnosticity (=-=Beyth-Marom, 1990-=-; Beyth-Marom & Fischhoff, 1983) indicated that people often base their updating of a hypothesis on the magnitude of P(D|H), ignoring P(D|~H), thus again behaving like null hypothesis statistical test... |

3 |
The new stats: Attitudes for the twenty-first century
- Fidler, Cumming
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... CIs because, as we mentioned earlier, persisting criticism of NHST is leading to recommendations that CIs be much more widely used in psychology and other disciplines (Cumming & Fidler, in press;32 =-=Fidler & Cumming, 2008-=-). This highly desirable reform of statistical practice is being hampered by lack of evidence about effective ways to overcome CI misconceptions. 9. BARRIERS TO INTEGRATION Despite the mutual influenc... |

2 |
What is Evidence Based Education? The British
- Davies
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ession that might contribute to improved decision making in their professional practice. Similarly, a desire to ensure that students meet high standards has increased the demand for EBP in education (=-=Davies, 1999-=-). Statisticians and statistics educators should likewise adopt EBP by, wherever possible, using relevant evidence from research to guide what they do. Within medical EBP, successful implementation of... |

2 | Can kindergarten children be successfully involved in probabilistic tasks - Kafoussi - 2004 |

1 | Overcoming the inverse probability fallacy: A comparison of two teaching interventions. Manuscript in preparation - Kalinowski, Fidler, et al. - 2008 |

1 | School reform in the information age - D - 1995 |

1 | Retrieved on October 15, 2007 from http://www.oed.com - Dictionary - 2007 |