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## Generating Finite State Machines from Abstract State Machines (2002)

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Venue: | in Proceedings of International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA |

Citations: | 81 - 22 self |

### Citations

869 |
Design and Validation of Computer Protocols
- Holzmann
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te. You want to walk through the graph in a cheapest possible way traversing every edge at least once. That is the well known Chinese Postman Problem [17] that naturally arises in conformance testing =-=[21]-=- [23]. The problem has an efficient solution in the case when the finite state machine is deterministic and strongly connected. In general, the deterministic case has been studied extensively in the l... |

433 | Evolving algebras 1993: Lipari guide
- Gurevich
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ndations of Software Engineering at Microsoft Research has developed an industrialstrength high-level executable specification language AsmL [13]. AsmL builds on the concept of abstract state machine =-=[18]-=- and provides a modern specification environment that is object-oriented and componentbased. Here we are concerned with using AsmL specifications as a source for algorithmic generation of test suites.... |

331 | Principles and Methods of Testing Finite State Machines - A Survey
- Lee, Yannakakis
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...unctional testing of hardware circuits. The theory has recently been adapted to the context of communication protocols. The bulk of the work in this area - 12 -shas dealt with deterministic FSMs. See =-=[22]-=- [28] for comprehensive surveys and [25] for an overview of the literature. The Extended Finite State Machine (EFSM) approach has been introduced mainly to cope with the state explosion problem of the... |

220 |
Automating the Generation and Sequencing of Test Cases from Model-based Specifications
- Dick, Faivre
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ur extraction algorithm. 5. Related Work As far as we know, the first automated technique for extracting FSMs from model-based specifications for the purpose of test case generation was introduced in =-=[11]-=-. The approach of [11] is based on a finite partitioning of the state space of the model using full disjunctive normal forms (full DNFs) of the conditions in the spec and is called the DNF approach. T... |

197 |
Graph theory and its applications
- Gross, Yellen
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...corresponding action at the corresponding hyperstate. You want to walk through the graph in a cheapest possible way traversing every edge at least once. That is the well known Chinese Postman Problem =-=[17]-=- that naturally arises in conformance testing [21] [23]. The problem has an efficient solution in the case when the finite state machine is deterministic and strongly connected. In general, the determ... |

181 |
Software Testing Techniques. Van Nostrande Reinhold
- Beizer
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...be a black box. In the first case, one may consider node coverage and link coverage. In the second case, one may consider statement coverage or branch coverage at the clause level of the action specs =-=[1]-=-. Several notions of structural ASM specification coverage are defined in [14]. 3. FSM Extraction from ASMs In this section, we concentrate on the finite state machine extraction problem. The extracti... |

174 |
Tenth Problem
- Matiyasevich
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...be (the index of) the hyperstate where p(x1,..,xk)=0. It is known that there is no algorithm that, given a polynomial p(x1,..,xk) with integer coefficients and variables, decides whether p has a root =-=[24]-=-. This is the famous Diophantine Equation Problem. By the construction above, it reduces to the first and second link discovery problems and to the hyperstate reachability problem, so these three prob... |

130 | Sequential Abstract State Machines capture Sequential Algorithms
- Gurevich
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ification, choice, etc. But Theorem 2 remains true if we restrict attention to any language that expresses the program in the proof for each n. For example, we can use the language of sequential ASMs =-=[19]-=- where the only dynamic symbols are propositional variables (nullary relational symbols in terms of [19]). We presume that any - 11 -svalues of the propositional variables give rise to a legal (not ne... |

94 |
Formal Methods for Protocol Testing: A Detailed Study
- Sidhu, Leung
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rongly connected. In general, the deterministic case has been studied extensively in the literature and there exist several other methods for exploiting the structure of a deterministic FSM, see e.g. =-=[28]-=-. The most common of them is the transition-tour method, also known as the T-method, and one version of the T-method uses the Postman Tour. We have integrated an efficient Postman Tour algorithm [29] ... |

77 | Protocol testing: Review of methods and relevance for software testing
- Bochmann, Petrenko
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on. In general, the two main approaches for test case generation are those based on labeled transition systems (LTSs) and those based on finite state machines. A review of both approaches is given in =-=[2]-=-. In the following we look briefly at both. Conformance testing plays a central role in testing communication protocols where it is important to have a precise model of the observable behavior of the ... |

77 | An experiment in automatic generation of test suites for protocols with verification technology
- Fernandez, Jard, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... exploit the FSM graph structure to produce test suites for the desired coverage. In the LTS approach, verification techniques can be used to deal with state explosion and to generate test cases. TGV =-=[12]-=- is an industrial tool that utilizes the LTS approach to generate test cases from SDL and Lotos specifications. FSM based testing was initially driven by problems arising in functional testing of hard... |

70 |
Testing transition systems: An annotated bibliography
- Brinksma, Tretmans
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...model of the observable behavior of the system. This has lead to a testing theory based on labeled transition systems. See an overview of the approach in [30] and an overview of related literature in =-=[4]-=-. Labeled transition systems are in general nondeterministic; the ability to deal with nondeterminism is a virtue of the LTS approach. Another virtue is compositionality. On the other hand, the FSM ap... |

59 | Automatic generation of Functional vectors using the extended finite state Machine Model
- Cheng, Krishnakumar
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...be modeled has variables with values in large, even infinite, domains, for example integers. In an EFSM, such variables are allowed, and the transitions may depend on and update their values. See [3] =-=[7]-=- [22]. In EFSMs, the control part is finite and is separated from the data part, which distinguishes them from ASMs. An interesting problem in our FSM generation algorithm is to fiddle with the hypers... |

57 |
The state-based testing of object-oriented programs
- Turner, Robson
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roximation. A more liberal condition leads to a better approximation but you may have to terminate the algorithm by force. Finite automaton based testing for object oriented software is introduced in =-=[31]-=-. Article [5] introduces techniques for "factoring" large, possibly nondeterministic, FSMs into smaller deterministic ones. Some of these techniques have been implemented in the KVEST tool [6]. In mod... |

36 | Automatic Testing with Formal Methods
- Tretmans, Belinfante
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocols where it is important to have a precise model of the observable behavior of the system. This has lead to a testing theory based on labeled transition systems. See an overview of the approach in =-=[30]-=- and an overview of related literature in [4]. Labeled transition systems are in general nondeterministic; the ability to deal with nondeterminism is a virtue of the LTS approach. Another virtue is co... |

29 | ASM-Based Testing: Coverage Criteria and Automatic Test Sequence Generation
- Gargantini, Riccobene
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...verage. In the second case, one may consider statement coverage or branch coverage at the clause level of the action specs [1]. Several notions of structural ASM specification coverage are defined in =-=[14]-=-. 3. FSM Extraction from ASMs In this section, we concentrate on the finite state machine extraction problem. The extraction algorithm works with a given ASM spec and is itself described as an ASM. Th... |

26 | Fault model-driven test derivation from finite state models: Annotated bibliography
- Petrenko
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The theory has recently been adapted to the context of communication protocols. The bulk of the work in this area - 12 -shas dealt with deterministic FSMs. See [22] [28] for comprehensive surveys and =-=[25]-=- for an overview of the literature. The Extended Finite State Machine (EFSM) approach has been introduced mainly to cope with the state explosion problem of the FSM approach. Typically the problem ari... |

24 | On-the-fly conformance testing using SPIN - Vries, Tretmans - 2000 |

23 | Automating test case generation from Z specifications with Isabelle
- Helke, Neustupny, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tive normal forms (full DNFs) of the conditions in the spec and is called the DNF approach. The modeling language used of [11] is VDM but the approach is more general. The DNF approach is extended in =-=[20]-=- and applied to Z specs where the explosion of the size of the partitioning is ameliorated by employing DNFs that are not necessarily full. While our partition of the state space is similar to that of... |

18 |
KVEST: Automated Generation of Test Suites from Formal Specifications. FM’99: Formal Methods. LNCS 1708
- Bourdonov, Kossatchev, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ced in [31]. Article [5] introduces techniques for "factoring" large, possibly nondeterministic, FSMs into smaller deterministic ones. Some of these techniques have been implemented in the KVEST tool =-=[6]-=-. In model checking, data abstraction is used to cope with state explosion. Typically your original model M is an FSM but it may be too large. Data abstraction groups states of M and produces a reduce... |

14 |
Conformance Testing Methodologies and Architecture for OSI
- Linn, Uyar
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ou want to walk through the graph in a cheapest possible way traversing every edge at least once. That is the well known Chinese Postman Problem [17] that naturally arises in conformance testing [21] =-=[23]-=-. The problem has an efficient solution in the case when the finite state machine is deterministic and strongly connected. In general, the deterministic case has been studied extensively in the litera... |

12 | High-level executable specification of the universal plug and play architecture
- Glässer, Gurevich, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r peer-to-peer network connectivity of various intelligent appliances, wireless devices and PCs; see the website [26] of the industrial UPnP Forum. A distributed ASM model of the UPnP is described in =-=[15]-=- [16]. Here we consider a CD player. In the full model (see [16]) this device has two services, ChangeDisc and PlayCD. We use the the first one as our running example; see Figure 1. It allows a user (... |

11 |
Application of finite automatons for program testing
- Burdonov, Kossatchev, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...more liberal condition leads to a better approximation but you may have to terminate the algorithm by force. Finite automaton based testing for object oriented software is introduced in [31]. Article =-=[5]-=- introduces techniques for "factoring" large, possibly nondeterministic, FSMs into smaller deterministic ones. Some of these techniques have been implemented in the KVEST tool [6]. In model checking, ... |

10 | Abstract Interpretation Based Program Testing
- Cousot, Cousot
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...el checking may yield an over-approximation (with extra transitions) of the ideal data abstraction [8]. An over-abstraction also arises when one uses the method of abstract interpretation of programs =-=[9]-=-. In contrast, the output of our algorithm may under-approximate the true FSM so that some reachable hyperstates or some links between reachable hyperstates may be missing. The reason is that we work ... |

4 |
Automatic Test Generation for EFSM-Based Systems. Publication departam. #1043, Available at: www. Umontreal.Ca/Labs/Teleinfo/Publistindex.html
- Bourhfir, Dssouli, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to be modeled has variables with values in large, even infinite, domains, for example integers. In an EFSM, such variables are allowed, and the transitions may depend on and update their values. See =-=[3]-=- [7] [22]. In EFSMs, the control part is finite and is separated from the data part, which distinguishes them from ASMs. An interesting problem in our FSM generation algorithm is to fiddle with the hy... |

3 |
Universal Plug and Play
- Glässer, Gurevich, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r-to-peer network connectivity of various intelligent appliances, wireless devices and PCs; see the website [26] of the industrial UPnP Forum. A distributed ASM model of the UPnP is described in [15] =-=[16]-=-. Here we consider a CD player. In the full model (see [16]) this device has two services, ChangeDisc and PlayCD. We use the the first one as our running example; see Figure 1. It allows a user (the c... |

2 |
Model-Based Testing
- Robinson
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...directly deal with nondeterminism is the main drawback of the FSM based approaches. More work related to finite state machine based software testing can be found on the homepage of ModelBased Testing =-=[27]-=-. 6. Future Work Here are some but definitely not all problems to be addressed. • We discussed above the problem of non-discovery of hyperstates and links. We are currently investigating other methods... |

2 |
An algorithm for the directed Chinese Postman Problem (with applications
- Thimbleby
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [28]. The most common of them is the transition-tour method, also known as the T-method, and one version of the T-method uses the Postman Tour. We have integrated an efficient Postman Tour algorithm =-=[29]-=- with our extraction algorithm. 5. Related Work As far as we know, the first automated technique for extracting FSMs from model-based specifications for the purpose of test case generation was introdu... |