### Citations

992 |
System Stability and Control
- Kundur, Power
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a critical 5sconcept in generator operation; in order to consider it in the estimation process, one has to account for the operating level of the generator at the particular estimation interval [5], =-=[13]-=--[15]. Contrary to off-line methods, on-line methods to identify machine parameters are very attractive to utilities because of their minimal interference in the normal operation of the generator. Ide... |

347 |
Introduction to Linear Algebra
- Strang
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d H = H + T + T = H = HH = H + + + H . (5.24) The solution to the system (5.20) can be calculated using a variety of techniques including the Cholesky factorization [106], the QR factorization [106], =-=[113]-=-, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) [106], [113]. The technique chosen in the implementation of the estimator is the SVD since it is the most accurate. Its computational time is greater than ... |

292 |
Communication Systems
- Haykin
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r belongs to the category of infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. IIR filters have input-output characteristics that are governed by linear difference equations with constant coefficients =-=[115]-=-. Further, these difference equations are recursive since each value of the filtered signal is computed using previously computed values of the filtered signal. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters o... |

247 |
Introduction to dynamic systems; theory, models and applications
- Luenberger
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s research work to identify unmeasurable signals in order to facilitate the estimation process. Various sources can be used to familiarize with the concept of an observer. DeRusso [67] and Luenberger =-=[68]-=- address the subject of observers and observer design. The two papers by Luenberger [69], [70] are state of the art in the field of control systems and they are the first to introduce what has later b... |

187 |
An Introduction To Observers
- Luenberger
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Various sources can be used to familiarize with the concept of an observer. DeRusso [67] and Luenberger [68] address the subject of observers and observer design. The two papers by Luenberger [69], =-=[70]-=- are state of the art in the field of control systems and they are the first to introduce what has later been known as the Luenberger observer. Luenberger observers are considered in Chapter 4. • Magn... |

172 | Regression and the Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse - Albert - 1972 |

117 | The Control Handbook - Levine - 1996 |

92 |
Power System Analysis
- Saadat
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...opic and, among others, they cover the dq0 transformation, the per unit representation, equivalent circuits, and analysis in both steady state and transient operation. Saadat in Power System Analysis =-=[22]-=- concentrates on the transient analysis of the synchronous generator and on balanced and unbalanced faults. Saadat offers coverage on the Park’s transformation and on deriving the generator equation i... |

90 |
Observers for multivariable systems
- Luenberger
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rocess. Various sources can be used to familiarize with the concept of an observer. DeRusso [67] and Luenberger [68] address the subject of observers and observer design. The two papers by Luenberger =-=[69]-=-, [70] are state of the art in the field of control systems and they are the first to introduce what has later been known as the Luenberger observer. Luenberger observers are considered in Chapter 4. ... |

65 |
Nouvelle m'ethodes pour la d'etermination des orbites des com`etes
- Legendre
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ical in a variety of applications. The L∞ method has been traditionally used extensively in astronomy for the determination of the orbits of planets by philosophers such as Laplace [110] and Legendre =-=[111]-=-. Legendre was also the first one to propose the least squares method to solve a system of inconsistent, overdetermined equations [111]. According to the original explanation by Legendre, “By this met... |

44 |
Linear Systems. Englewood Cliffs
- Kailath
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The plant parameters need to be known and the plant should be observable. A simple test for observability is the requirement that the subsystem of (4.2) described by (A, C) has full column rank [102]-=-=[105]-=-. The synchronous generator model of (3.11) can be shown to be observable. Various observer configurations have been proposed in the literature and are mainly categorized into open loop observers and ... |

31 |
Computer Analysis Methods for Power Systems
- Heydt
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Milne’s method and the Adams-Bashforth method. These, however, require more than 12sone starting value and are hence difficult to implement. Coverage and examples of the above methods are offered in =-=[43]-=-, [44]. Other methods such as the trapezoidal and the parabolic methods can also be found in the literature [43], [45]-[48]. Perhaps the most widely used method, because of its ease of programming and... |

30 |
State Variables for Engineers
- DeRusso
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... are utilized in this research work to identify unmeasurable signals in order to facilitate the estimation process. Various sources can be used to familiarize with the concept of an observer. DeRusso =-=[67]-=- and Luenberger [68] address the subject of observers and observer design. The two papers by Luenberger [69], [70] are state of the art in the field of control systems and they are the first to introd... |

25 |
System Identification: Theory for the User, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle
- Ljung
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m identification. These entities are the availability of a data set for the system, a set of candidate models, and an identification method or rule that will be used to identify the system parameters =-=[82]-=-. The system identification procedure is an iterative process with respect to the selection of the model of the system. A number of candidate models need to be tested so as to select the one that fits... |

25 |
Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines: Generalized Method of Analysis
- Park
- 1929
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re proceeding further with this derivation, it will be useful to refer to the Park’s transformation which will be an essential tool for this analysis. 2.4 Park’s transformation In the late 1920s Park =-=[84]-=-, [85] formulated a change of variables which replaced the variables associated with the stator windings of synchronous machines with variables associated with fictitious windings that are rotating wi... |

22 | Determining the initial states in forward-backward filtering - Gustafsson - 1996 |

21 |
Simulation of Symmetrical Induction Machinery
- Krause, Thomas
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... same as the one suggested by Park [84], [85], but rather an improvement of Park’s method as suggested by various researchers such as Lewis [91], Concordia (discussion in [91]), and Krause and Thomas =-=[92]-=-. Since Park was the first to propose the method of 25schanging the variables associated with the stator windings, the transformation is named after Park. direction of rotation d axis i a ϑ a axis b a... |

11 |
Maximum likelihood estimation of synchronous machine parameters from standstill time response data
- Keyhani, Tsai, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a 722 MVA generator. It is shown that the ML method gives estimates with very small error, while the noise has no noticeable effect on the estimator. The ML algorithm and SSFR data were also used in =-=[29]-=- to estimate parameters of a three phase salient pole 5 kVA synchronous machine. The equivalent circuit models were developed and on-line dynamic responses were performed to validate the identified mo... |

11 |
Two-reaction theory of synchronous machines
- Park
- 1929
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ceeding further with this derivation, it will be useful to refer to the Park’s transformation which will be an essential tool for this analysis. 2.4 Park’s transformation In the late 1920s Park [84], =-=[85]-=- formulated a change of variables which replaced the variables associated with the stator windings of synchronous machines with variables associated with fictitious windings that are rotating with the... |

11 |
Representation of induction motor loads during power system stability studies." AIEE Transactions PAS-76
- Brereton, Lewis, et al.
- 1957
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...agreement with IEC Standard 34-10 [86] and IEEE Standard 100-1984 [87]. Park’s transformation eliminates the time-varying inductances from the voltage equations. Stanley [88], Kron [89], and Brereton =-=[90]-=- also worked on this subject and developed similar equations transforming either the rotor or the stator variables to variables in fictitious windings in different reference frames. In the case of the... |

11 |
Theory of Errors and Generalized Matrix Inverses
- Bjerhammar
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ves the system so that the sum of the squares of the error of each equation is minimized. The method of least squares gives the best linear unbiased estimate for any distribution with finite variance =-=[108]-=-. The L∞ norm also known as the maximum or Chebyshev norm is given by, x max x , (5.7) ∞ ≤i≤n = 1 and minimizes the largest residual. This norm is useful in applications where there is a prescribed ma... |

10 |
Numerical Methods Using MATLAB
- Penny, Lindfield
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...difficult to implement. Coverage and examples of the above methods are offered in [43], [44]. Other methods such as the trapezoidal and the parabolic methods can also be found in the literature [43], =-=[45]-=--[48]. Perhaps the most widely used method, because of its ease of programming and accuracy, is the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration method. Many variations of this method are available in computer pa... |

9 |
Circuits of Electric Machinery
- Kron
- 1951
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xis are defined in agreement with IEC Standard 34-10 [86] and IEEE Standard 100-1984 [87]. Park’s transformation eliminates the time-varying inductances from the voltage equations. Stanley [88], Kron =-=[89]-=-, and Brereton [90] also worked on this subject and developed similar equations transforming either the rotor or the stator variables to variables in fictitious windings in different reference frames.... |

8 |
Identification of synchronous machine linear parameters from standstill step voltage input data
- Tumageanian, Keyhani
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the developed model matched closely with the measured responses. Another method used by Keyhani was the identification of synchronous machine linear parameters from standstill step voltage input data =-=[31]-=-. The procedure involves applying a step voltage as an input and estimation of the parameters of the time constant and equivalent circuit models. The initial values of the parameters to be estimated a... |

8 | On-line estimation of synchronous generator parameters using a damper current observer and a graphic user interface
- Kyriakides, Heydt, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oint. More information on orthogonal series expansions for various power system components such as synchronous generators and transmission lines can be found in [40]. Finally, Kyriakides and Heydt in =-=[41]-=- and [42] offer an algorithm for the estimation of synchronous generator parameters from measurements that are taken at the machine terminals while the generator serves its load. This report is an ext... |

8 |
A Handbook of Active Filters
- Johnson, Johnson, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of noise filtering. The filters considered for this work are digital discrete filters. Representative types of digital filters are the Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel, and moving average filters [58]-=-=[60]-=-. A filter almost always introduces a phase shift to the filtered signal. This phase shift is not desired, since the various frequency components of the signal are phase shifted by a different amount.... |

8 |
common format for transient data exchange (COMTRADE) for power systems[S].IEEE
- standard
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ying degrees of excitation and different saturation levels. The measurements are stored in a data file that can be read by the estimator. The data files are typically of the COMTRADE data file format =-=[116]-=-, which is an approved IEEE data format for storage of measurements. The data can either be in ASCII format or binary format. A short description of the COMTRADE data format that is also supported by ... |

7 |
Power Systems Harmonics; Computer Modelling and Analysis
- Acha, Madrigal
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ameters with respect to the operating point. More information on orthogonal series expansions for various power system components such as synchronous generators and transmission lines can be found in =-=[40]-=-. Finally, Kyriakides and Heydt in [41] and [42] offer an algorithm for the estimation of synchronous generator parameters from measurements that are taken at the machine terminals while the generator... |

7 |
Intelligent Observer and Control Design for Nonlinear Systems
- Schroder
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ates. The plant parameters need to be known and the plant should be observable. A simple test for observability is the requirement that the subsystem of (4.2) described by (A, C) has full column rank =-=[102]-=--[105]. The synchronous generator model of (3.11) can be shown to be observable. Various observer configurations have been proposed in the literature and are mainly categorized into open loop observer... |

6 |
An algebraic approach for identifying operating point dependent parameters of synchronous machines using orthogonal series expansions
- Melgoza, Heydt, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...en patterns not used in training. Rico, Heydt, Keyhani, Agrawal, and Selin attempted to estimate machine parameters using orthogonal series expansions such as Fourier, Walsh, and Hartley series [38], =-=[39]-=-. In [38] the authors propose the use of the Hartley series for fitting operating data such as voltage and current measurements and the use of linear state estimation to identify the coefficients of t... |

6 |
An Analysis of the Induction Motor
- Stanley
- 1938
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xis and q axis are defined in agreement with IEC Standard 34-10 [86] and IEEE Standard 100-1984 [87]. Park’s transformation eliminates the time-varying inductances from the voltage equations. Stanley =-=[88]-=-, Kron [89], and Brereton [90] also worked on this subject and developed similar equations transforming either the rotor or the stator variables to variables in fictitious windings in different refere... |

6 | Linear System Theory. Upper Saddle River - Rugh - 1996 |

5 | Procedure for Obtaining Synchronous Machine Parameters by Standstill Frequency Response Testing - Standard - 1987 |

5 |
Causes of Discrepancies on Calculation of Rotor Quantities and Exact Equivalent Diagrams of the Synchronous Machine
- Canay
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...by Dandeno [7], Schulz [8], and Dineley [9]. Jackson and Winchester [10] developed direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for round rotor synchronous generators. During the same period, Canay =-=[11]-=- focused on developing equivalent circuits for field and damper windings to estimate generator parameters. A significant contribution was made by Yu and Moussa in 1971 [12] who reported a systematic p... |

5 |
line synchronous machine parameter estimation from small disturbance operating data
- Tsai, Keyhani, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...were performed to validate the identified models. Tsai, Keyhani, Demcko, and Farmer used small-disturbance responses and the ML estimation technique to identify an on-line synchronous generator model =-=[30]-=-. The first step was to identify the machine linear model parameters. Consequently, the saturation models of the machine were identified using the estimated mutual inductances under a wide range of op... |

5 |
Time-domain identification of synchronous machine parameters from standstill tests
- Boije, Balda, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a linearly formulated least squares problem to obtain approximate parameter values. Consequently, a numerical search method is used to solve the nonlinear problem of magnitude and phase fitting. Boje =-=[34]-=- proposes time domain measurements for determining selected parameters of synchronous machines. These are proposed as an alternative to standstill frequency domain tests, since as the authors argue, t... |

5 |
Methodology Development for Estimation of Armature Circuit and Field Winding Parameters of Large Utility Generators
- Karayaka, Keyhani, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...obtained directly in parametric form. However, as with traditional SSFR testing, this method does not model the machine at normal operating conditions. Karayaka, Keyhani, Agrawal, Selin, and Heydt in =-=[35]-=--[37] concentrated on large synchronous utility generators to develop a procedure of parameter estimation from online measurements. In [35] a one-machine infinite bus system is simulated in the abc fr... |

5 |
Identification of Armature Circuit and Field Winding Parameters of Large Utility Generators
- Karayaka, Keyhani, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d some damper parameters are estimated using an Output Error Estimation (OEM) technique. It is found that even with highly corrupted data the estimated and actual parameters are in good agreement. In =-=[36]-=- the authors present a method to estimate machine parameters using synthetic data as previously, but also real time operating data from a utility generator. This study showed that noise-corrupted data... |

5 |
Two-pass recursive digital filter with zero phase shift. Acoust. Speech Signal Process
- 17Kormylo, Jain
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...zero phase shift filter is desired to be implemented so that there is no phase difference between the original and filtered signals. Information on zero phase shift filters can be found in [59], [61]-=-=[63]-=-. Zero phase digital filters effectively filter the signal in both the forward and the reverse directions. The resulting sequence has zero phase distortion and twice the filter order. Bad data detecti... |

5 | Lp State Estimators for Power Systems
- Logic, Kyriakides, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on is a contribution to electric power engineering and especially to the field of synchronous generators. A number of the research findings deserve mention in this section. References [41], [42], and =-=[77]-=--[81] document the author’s main publications related to this research. A method to estimate synchronous generator parameters will be shown in this report. The results from the parameter estimation sh... |

5 |
Guide for Synchronous Generator Modeling Practices in Stability Analyses
- “IEEE
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the representation of various types of generators (for example, hydro generators and turbine generators). Various recommended synchronous generator models are suggested in IEEE standards, such as in =-=[83]-=-. Models 2.1 and 2.2, as shown in Figs 2.2 and 2.3 respectively, have been selected as candidates to perform the system identification procedure. The criterion for the selection of the two models was ... |

4 |
Experimental Determination of Exact Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Synchronous Machines
- Yu, Moussa
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ring the same period, Canay [11] focused on developing equivalent circuits for field and damper windings to estimate generator parameters. A significant contribution was made by Yu and Moussa in 1971 =-=[12]-=- who reported a systematic procedure that can be implemented to determine the parameters of the equivalent circuits of synchronous generators. Off-line methods, however, are neither practical nor accu... |

4 |
A weighted-least-squares parameter estimator for synchronous machines
- Lee, Tan
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rence in the normal operation of the generator. Ideally, generator parameters may be calculated under different operating conditions, both in steady state and transient operation. In 1977 Lee and Tan =-=[16]-=- proposed an algorithm to determine the parameters of a salient pole generator from data obtained during a sudden short circuit. In 1981, Dandeno [17] used on-line frequency response measurements from... |

4 |
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Solid-Rotor Synchronous Machine Parameters from SSFR Test Data
- Keyhani, Hao, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...number of different techniques, has offered extensive literature on this topic. One of the methods used by Keyhani was the estimation of parameters from Standstill Frequency Response (SSFR) test data =-=[26]-=-, [27]. In this approach, curve fitting techniques are used to derive the transfer functions of the direct axis and quadrature axis using the available test data. The parameters of the model are then ... |

4 |
The Effects of Noise on Frequency-Domain Parameter Estimation of Synchronous Machine Models
- Keyhani, Hao, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of different techniques, has offered extensive literature on this topic. One of the methods used by Keyhani was the estimation of parameters from Standstill Frequency Response (SSFR) test data [26], =-=[27]-=-. In this approach, curve fitting techniques are used to derive the transfer functions of the direct axis and quadrature axis using the available test data. The parameters of the model are then calcul... |

4 |
Identification of Armature, Field, and Saturated Parameters of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator from Operating Data
- Karayaka, Keyhani, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ned directly in parametric form. However, as with traditional SSFR testing, this method does not model the machine at normal operating conditions. Karayaka, Keyhani, Agrawal, Selin, and Heydt in [35]-=-=[37]-=- concentrated on large synchronous utility generators to develop a procedure of parameter estimation from online measurements. In [35] a one-machine infinite bus system is simulated in the abc frame o... |

4 | programming from ground up - Schildt |

4 |
data identification in power system state estimation based on nieasurement compensation and linear residual calculation
- Slutsker
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion algorithms have been considered and implemented to remove outliers from the measurements. Such outliers appear in the form of spikes in the data sets and are inconsistent measurements. References =-=[64]-=--[66] 15spropose new methods for the implementation of bad data detection and rejection algorithms in power system state estimation problems. • Observers and observability The theory of observers and ... |

4 |
Representation of Saturation in Synchronous Machines
- Mello, Hannett
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ratic saturation functions to represent saturation and they fit the proposed functions with measured data from two generators. This is performed using the method of finite element analysis. Reference =-=[74]-=- compares two methods of saturation representation by examining results of calculations and available test data for a specific synchronous generator. Saturation in both the direct and quadrature axes ... |

4 |
Scientific Data Analysis: An Introduction to Overdetermined Systems
- Branham
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... norms permit isolated large residuals, in the case of experimental data L∞ is not a robust norm since it assigns high weight on large residuals that do not have an influence on the computed solution =-=[109]-=-. i In order to visualize the major norms that are usually used, the loci that occur from the calculation of each of the 1, 2, and infinite unit norms for a three dimensional vector are displayed in F... |

3 |
Synchronous Generator Transient Control – Pt I: Theory and Evaluation of Alternative Mathematical Models
- Dineley, Morris
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...E Standards [5], [6]. Several researchers between 1969 and 1971 developed methods to find additional parameter values based on the synchronous generator models by Dandeno [7], Schulz [8], and Dineley =-=[9]-=-. Jackson and Winchester [10] developed direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for round rotor synchronous generators. During the same period, Canay [11] focused on developing equivalent circu... |

3 |
Identification of parameters for power system stability analysis using kalman filter
- Namba, Nishiwaki, et al.
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ned during a sudden short circuit. In 1981, Dandeno [17] used on-line frequency response measurements from two large turbo generators to identify machine parameters; during the same period, Nishiwaki =-=[18]-=- used the extended Kalman filter to identify dynamic stability constants for small disturbances under steady state operating conditions. In 1982 Bollinger [19] proposed a technique to estimate system ... |

3 |
Maximum likelihood estimation of generator stability constants using SSFR test data
- Keyhani, Hao, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed a maximum likelihood estimation (ML) technique [26]. The results indicate that a unique and relatively accurate parameter set is estimated even though the data are corrupted with noise. Keyhani in =-=[28]-=- offers an evaluation of the performance of the ML method using case studies and SSFR data from tests on a 722 MVA generator. It is shown that the ML method gives estimates with very small error, whil... |

3 |
Estimating synchronous machine electrical parameters from frequency response tests
- Eitelberg, Harley
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...important conclusion of this paper is the fact that the developed ANN saturation model is capable of predicting the machine nonlinear changes which were not used in the training process. Eitelberg in =-=[33]-=- uses a linearly formulated least squares problem to obtain approximate parameter values. Consequently, a numerical search method is used to solve the nonlinear problem of magnitude and phase fitting.... |

3 |
Synchronous machine parameter estimation using the hartley series,” Energy Conversion
- Melgoza, Heydt, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... between patterns not used in training. Rico, Heydt, Keyhani, Agrawal, and Selin attempted to estimate machine parameters using orthogonal series expansions such as Fourier, Walsh, and Hartley series =-=[38]-=-, [39]. In [38] the authors propose the use of the Hartley series for fitting operating data such as voltage and current measurements and the use of linear state estimation to identify the coefficient... |

3 | Using visual C++ 6 - Bates, Tompkins - 1998 |

3 |
Electric power quality‖, West LaFayette, Indiana, Stars in a Circle Publications, pp 48
- Heydt
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...poses of noise filtering. The filters considered for this work are digital discrete filters. Representative types of digital filters are the Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel, and moving average filters =-=[58]-=--[60]. A filter almost always introduces a phase shift to the filtered signal. This phase shift is not desired, since the various frequency components of the signal are phase shifted by a different am... |

3 |
Saturation functions for synchronous generators from finite elements
- Minnich, Schulz, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...provement of synchronous machine models. Saturation and different methods to model it are considered in IEEE standards such as [5], as well as a number of research articles and books [11], [13]-[15], =-=[72]-=-, [73]. Fig. 1.2 shows a sample saturation 16scurve for a synchronous generator. Chapter 3 discusses magnetic saturation and its modeling in detail. Fig. 1.2. Sample saturation curve for a synchronous... |

2 |
Recent Trends and Progress in Synchronous Machine Modeling in the Electric Utility Industry
- Dandeno, Kundur, et al.
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ne tests, as described in IEEE Standards [5], [6]. Several researchers between 1969 and 1971 developed methods to find additional parameter values based on the synchronous generator models by Dandeno =-=[7]-=-, Schulz [8], and Dineley [9]. Jackson and Winchester [10] developed direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for round rotor synchronous generators. During the same period, Canay [11] focused o... |

2 |
Adaptation and validation of turbogenerator model parameters through on-line frequency response measurements
- Dandeno, Kundur, et al.
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tate and transient operation. In 1977 Lee and Tan [16] proposed an algorithm to determine the parameters of a salient pole generator from data obtained during a sudden short circuit. In 1981, Dandeno =-=[17]-=- used on-line frequency response measurements from two large turbo generators to identify machine parameters; during the same period, Nishiwaki [18] used the extended Kalman filter to identify dynamic... |

2 |
Validation of synchronous machine models and derivation of model parameters from test
- Mello, Hannett
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rs and is still a subject of active research due to the importance of the change of the generator parameters with operating conditions and the difficulty for modeling saturation accurately. Reference =-=[71]-=- identifies saturation representation as the most important factor in the improvement of synchronous machine models. Saturation and different methods to model it are considered in IEEE standards such ... |

2 |
Synchronous Machine Parameter Estimation Using a Visual Platform
- Kyriakides, Heydt
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a contribution to electric power engineering and especially to the field of synchronous generators. A number of the research findings deserve mention in this section. References [41], [42], and [77]-=-=[81]-=- document the author’s main publications related to this research. A method to estimate synchronous generator parameters will be shown in this report. The results from the parameter estimation show co... |

2 |
Synchronous Machines: Their Theory, Stability, and Excitation Systems
- Sarma
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of saturation under loaded conditions is the same as under no load conditions [13]. In reality, the load saturation curve is not exactly the same as the OCC, but lies somewhat to the right of the OCC =-=[95]-=-. The effects of saturation for the mutual inductances LAD and LAQ may be represented by two saturation factors, one for each inductance [5], [13], [14]. The saturated inductances are given by, L L AD... |

2 |
Analysis of saturated synchronous reactances of large turbine generator by considering cross-magnetizing reactances using finite elements
- Ide, Wakui, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., for the same amount of air gap flux density the teeth saturate more than the d axis. Further, saturation in the q axis occurs at a lower flux than saturation in the d axis [96]. References [72] and =-=[97]-=- describe saturation modeling in both the d and q axes by using finite element analysis. Finite element analysis is an accurate method of representing magnetic saturation, but the computational intens... |

1 |
Power system static state estimation, Pt. I: Exact model
- Schweppe, Wildes
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e implementation 4s1.3 Identification of synchronous generator parameters: an overview The power system state estimation problem has attracted the attention of many researchers since the late sixties =-=[1]-=--[3], [4]. The main aim was to develop a technique to monitor the power system and to calculate some of the system states by using other available data. The interest in generator parameter identificat... |

1 |
Power system static state estimation, Pt. II: Approximate model
- Schweppe, Rom
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...plementation 4s1.3 Identification of synchronous generator parameters: an overview The power system state estimation problem has attracted the attention of many researchers since the late sixties [1]-=-=[3]-=-, [4]. The main aim was to develop a technique to monitor the power system and to calculate some of the system states by using other available data. The interest in generator parameter identification ... |

1 |
State estimation in power systems, Pt. II: Implementation and applications
- Larson, Tinney, et al.
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntation 4s1.3 Identification of synchronous generator parameters: an overview The power system state estimation problem has attracted the attention of many researchers since the late sixties [1]-[3], =-=[4]-=-. The main aim was to develop a technique to monitor the power system and to calculate some of the system states by using other available data. The interest in generator parameter identification arose... |

1 |
Synchronous machine modeling
- Schulz
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... described in IEEE Standards [5], [6]. Several researchers between 1969 and 1971 developed methods to find additional parameter values based on the synchronous generator models by Dandeno [7], Schulz =-=[8]-=-, and Dineley [9]. Jackson and Winchester [10] developed direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for round rotor synchronous generators. During the same period, Canay [11] focused on developing... |

1 |
Direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for solid-rotor turbine generators
- Jackson, Winchester
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l researchers between 1969 and 1971 developed methods to find additional parameter values based on the synchronous generator models by Dandeno [7], Schulz [8], and Dineley [9]. Jackson and Winchester =-=[10]-=- developed direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for round rotor synchronous generators. During the same period, Canay [11] focused on developing equivalent circuits for field and damper wind... |

1 |
Benefit assessment of finite-element based generator saturation model
- Schulz, Farmer, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...itical 5sconcept in generator operation; in order to consider it in the estimation process, one has to account for the operating level of the generator at the particular estimation interval [5], [13]-=-=[15]-=-. Contrary to off-line methods, on-line methods to identify machine parameters are very attractive to utilities because of their minimal interference in the normal operation of the generator. Ideally,... |

1 |
A method for online identification of power system model parameters in the presence of noise
- Bollinger, Khalil, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eters; during the same period, Nishiwaki [18] used the extended Kalman filter to identify dynamic stability constants for small disturbances under steady state operating conditions. In 1982 Bollinger =-=[19]-=- proposed a technique to estimate system parameters by utilizing wide bandwidth noise signals in an excitation signal which acts as a disturbance to the system. 1.4 Literature review topics: The liter... |

1 |
Electric Motor Repair
- Rosenberg
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n Handbook provides information for the construction and operation of synchronous machines [20]. Another useful handbook in the field of electrical machinery is the Electric Motor Repair by Rosenberg =-=[21]-=-. It is a handbook for the “practically minded” concentrating on the winding, repair, and troubleshooting of a large number of AC and DC motors and controllers. Power System Stability and Control by K... |

1 |
Development of a neural network based saturation model for synchronous generator analysis
- Tsai, Keyhani, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... derived from the measured time domain data. Tsai, Keyhani, Demcko, and Selin presented a new approach to develop a model of the saturated synchronous generator using artificial neural networks (ANN) =-=[32]-=-. ANN are possible to be trained after being arranged in a certain pattern. The pattern used in this network is a feed-forward network and the learning scheme is of the error backpropagation form. Mor... |

1 |
Getting Started with MATLAB 5
- Pratap
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd practical applications on a number of topics applicable to this research work. Moreover, state estimation and the pseudoinverse are extensively covered as mentioned in the previous section. Pratap =-=[52]-=- offers a helpful guide for MATLAB. Visual C++ and MFC programming are treated in several books [53]-[57]. No book suffices in itself because of 14sthe vast capabilities of this programming language a... |

1 |
Visual C++ 5.0; Developer’s Guide
- Bennett
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...timation and the pseudoinverse are extensively covered as mentioned in the previous section. Pratap [52] offers a helpful guide for MATLAB. Visual C++ and MFC programming are treated in several books =-=[53]-=--[57]. No book suffices in itself because of 14sthe vast capabilities of this programming language and the specialized functions of this application. • Noise filtering In between the data acquisition ... |

1 |
Using Microsoft C/C++ 7
- Atkinson, Atkinson, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion and the pseudoinverse are extensively covered as mentioned in the previous section. Pratap [52] offers a helpful guide for MATLAB. Visual C++ and MFC programming are treated in several books [53]-=-=[57]-=-. No book suffices in itself because of 14sthe vast capabilities of this programming language and the specialized functions of this application. • Noise filtering In between the data acquisition and t... |

1 | Bad data detection of unequal magnitudes in state estimation of power systems - Durán-Paz, Pérez-Hidalgo, et al. - 2002 |

1 |
Multiple bad data detection in power system state estimation using linear programming
- Peterson, Girgis
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lgorithms have been considered and implemented to remove outliers from the measurements. Such outliers appear in the form of spikes in the data sets and are inconsistent measurements. References [64]-=-=[66]-=- 15spropose new methods for the implementation of bad data detection and rejection algorithms in power system state estimation problems. • Observers and observability The theory of observers and obser... |

1 |
Identification of synchronous generator saturation models based on on-line digital measurements
- Wang, Chiang, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent of synchronous machine models. Saturation and different methods to model it are considered in IEEE standards such as [5], as well as a number of research articles and books [11], [13]-[15], [72], =-=[73]-=-. Fig. 1.2 shows a sample saturation 16scurve for a synchronous generator. Chapter 3 discusses magnetic saturation and its modeling in detail. Fig. 1.2. Sample saturation curve for a synchronous gener... |

1 |
Synchronous generator saturation modeling from operating data
- Keyhani, Tsai
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aturation representation by examining results of calculations and available test data for a specific synchronous generator. Saturation in both the direct and quadrature axes is considered. Authors in =-=[75]-=- describe a maximum likelihood 17sestimation algorithm to identify saturated inductances of a synchronous machine. The saturation was modeled from operating data that were generated from small voltage... |

1 |
Analysis of synchronous reactances as a function of airgap MMF
- Lopez, Macdonald
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...isturbances. An alternative method to model saturation by using a linearized generator model and stochastic approximation to solve for the parameters of the model is presented in [73]. The authors in =-=[76]-=- present a saturation representation by using a finite element numerical analysis technique. However, the method does not apply to all operating conditions. 1.5 Statement of originality The research w... |

1 | Damper winding representation and magnetic saturation in synchronous generator modeling - Kyriakides, Heydt - 2003 |

1 | An observer for the estimation of synchronous generator damper currents for use in parameter identification - Kyriakides, Heydt - 2003 |

1 | A graphical user interface for synchronous machine parameter identification - Kyriakides, Heydt - 2001 |

1 |
A basic analysis of synchronous machines, Pt. 1
- Lewis
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rmation that will be used in this chapter is not exactly the same as the one suggested by Park [84], [85], but rather an improvement of Park’s method as suggested by various researchers such as Lewis =-=[91]-=-, Concordia (discussion in [91]), and Krause and Thomas [92]. Since Park was the first to propose the method of 25schanging the variables associated with the stator windings, the transformation is nam... |

1 |
Saturated synchronous reactances of synchronous machines
- El-Serafi, Abdallah
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e margins of the steady state stability are calculated through knowledge of the power/load angle characteristics. Further, xd plays an important role in the determination of the short circuit current =-=[94]-=-. Since both xd and xq are affected by saturation, it is necessary to model saturation so as to increase the reliability of the estimated parameters and benefit from such an estimation in improving th... |

1 |
A new method to evaluate the q-axis saturation characteristic of cylindrical-rotor synchronous generator
- Kar, Murata, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... rotor teeth and therefore, for the same amount of air gap flux density the teeth saturate more than the d axis. Further, saturation in the q axis occurs at a lower flux than saturation in the d axis =-=[96]-=-. References [72] and [97] describe saturation modeling in both the d and q axes by using finite element analysis. Finite element analysis is an accurate method of representing magnetic saturation, bu... |

1 |
Modelling of magnetic saturation in smooth air-gap synchronous machines
- Levi
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te element analysis is an accurate method of representing magnetic saturation, but the computational intensity of this method makes it impractical for on-line applications. References [74], [96], and =-=[98]-=--[100], describe alternative methods to calculate the q axis saturation characteristic for both round rotor 39sand salient pole synchronous generators. The ideas discussed in [96] and [100] will be us... |

1 | A two-factor saturation model for synchronous machines with multiple rotor circuits - Tahan, Kamwa - 1995 |

1 |
Methods for determining the Q-axis saturation characteristics of salient-pole synchronous machines from the measured D-axis characteristics
- El-Serafi, Kar
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ement analysis is an accurate method of representing magnetic saturation, but the computational intensity of this method makes it impractical for on-line applications. References [74], [96], and [98]-=-=[100]-=-, describe alternative methods to calculate the q axis saturation characteristic for both round rotor 39sand salient pole synchronous generators. The ideas discussed in [96] and [100] will be used in ... |

1 |
marquis de Bowditch
- Laplace
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... norm is often critical in a variety of applications. The L∞ method has been traditionally used extensively in astronomy for the determination of the orbits of planets by philosophers such as Laplace =-=[110]-=- and Legendre [111]. Legendre was also the first one to propose the least squares method to solve a system of inconsistent, overdetermined equations [111]. According to the original explanation by Leg... |