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## Play to test (2005)

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Venue: | In FATES’05 |

Citations: | 19 - 9 self |

### Citations

1901 |
Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming
- Puterman
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...izes the expected total cost which is the sum of the costs incurred during the execution. We observe that a reachability game can be viewed as a negative Markov decision process with infinite horizon =-=[22]-=-; the stopping condition is the first arrival at a final state. This allows us, in Section 3, to solve any reachability problem using the well known value iteration method. Theorem 7.3.10 in [22] guar... |

1737 |
The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior
- Neumann, Morgenstern
- 1948
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The game that we are describing is an example of so-called games against nature which is a classical area in optimization and decision making under uncertainty going back all the way to von Neumann =-=[22]-=-. Only one of the two players, namely the tester, has a goal. The other player is disinterested and makes random choices. We make a common assumption that the random choices are made with respect to a... |

542 | The spec# programming system: An overview.
- Barnett, KRM, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines [15]. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in AsmL [16] or in Spec# =-=[6]-=-. The theoretical foundations of the tool are described in [8]. In [20] several algorithms are described that generate optimal length-bounded strategies from test graphs, where optimality is measured ... |

436 | Evolving algebra 1993: Lipari guide.
- Gurevich
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e are other model-based testing tools [4, 17–19, 24]. To the best of our knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines =-=[15]-=-. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in AsmL [16] or in Spec# [6]. The theoretical foundations of the tool are described in [8]. In [20] several algorithms are described that generate optimal le... |

337 |
Variance-penallzed Markov decision processes.
- Filar, Kallenberg, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in state u, except that there is no move from state 0. (We could have added an edge (0, 0) in which case there would be no exception.) So PS is a probability matrix (also called a stochastic matrix) =-=[12]-=- since all entries are nonnegative and each row sum equals 1. A strategy S is called reasonable if for every v ∈ V there exists a number k such the probability to reach the goal state within at most k... |

166 | Alternating refinement relations.
- Alur, Henzinger, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...]. A recent overview of using games in testing is given in [27]. An implementation that conforms to the given specification can be viewed as a refinement of the specification. In study [11], based on =-=[3]-=-, the game view is proposed as a general framework for dealing with refining and composing systems. Models with controllable and observable actions correspond to interface automata in [11]. Model-base... |

84 | Generating finite state machines from abstract state machines. In:
- Grieskamp, Gurevich, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the tester can indicate a collection of predicates and other functions with finite (and typically small) domains and then follow only the values of these functions during the exploration of the model =-=[13]-=-. These and other ways of reducing the state space are part of a finite state machine (FSM) generation algorithm implemented in the Spec Explorer tool; the details fall outside the scope of this paper... |

73 | TGV: theory, principles and algorithms,
- Jard
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ond to interface automata in [9]. Model-based testing allows one to test a software system using a specification (a.k.a. model) of the system under test [5]. There are other model-based testing tools =-=[4,16,17,18,21]-=-. To the best of our knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines [14]. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in As... |

71 |
Testing probabilistic and nondeterministic processes.
- Yi, Larsen
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dard formulation: M n+1 � [u] = min c(a)+ a∈Au � pa(u, v)M n � [v] . 4 Related work Extension of the FSM-based testing theory to nondeterministic and probabilistic FSMs got some attention a while ago =-=[13, 24]-=-. The use of games for testing is pioneered in [2]. A recent overview of using games in testing is given in [23]. An implementation that conforms to the given specification can be viewed as a refineme... |

56 | Simple stochastic parity games
- Chatterjee, Jurdziński, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... DP has an optimal solution � . By expanding � ¦ � £ we get for each active state� an inequality of the form � � �������¤���s� ¢¢� � � § � ¡ � ��� ��� � �s¢£� � ¨s¡ ¢ ¨¤� ¢ where all ¡ ��� � � £ 11 , =-=(7)-=-s12 and for each passive stateswe get an inequality of the form �s¢£� § � ¡ � ��� � � � � � � ¨s¢ ¢ where all ¡ � � � � £ . (8) �s� � ¢�� � � � £ ¥ Let be an active state. From (7) follows that some ,... |

51 | Computing minimum and maximum reachability times in probabilistic systems
- Alfaro
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r, for this subclass of negative MDPs the total reward optimization problem is known to be solvable by linear programming and yields a unique optimal solution [10, Theorem 9]. From Alfaro’s Theorem 9 =-=[10]-=- we get the following corollary for test graphs. A careful self-contained proof of the corollary is given in [7].sCorollary 1. The following statements are equivalent for all test graphs G. (a) G is t... |

46 | Distinguishing tests for nondeterministic and probabilistic machines.
- Alur, Couroubetis, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hing that comes to your mind, but it is useful to see software testing as a game that the tester plays with the implementation under test (IUT). We are not the first to see software testing as a game =-=[2]-=- but our experience with building testing tools at Microsoft leads us to a particular framework. An industrial tester typically writes an elaborate test harness around the IUT and provides an applicat... |

37 |
Model-based testing of object-oriented reactive systems with Spec Explorer.
- Campbell, Grieskamp, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of a finite state machine (FSM) generation algorithm implemented in the Spec Explorer tool; the details fall outside the scope of this paper. The theoretical foundations of the tool are described in =-=[8]-=-. The tool is available from [1]. The game that we are describing is an example of so-called games against nature which is a classical area in optimization and decision making under uncertainty going ... |

36 | Game models for open systems.
- Alfaro
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a positive integer but the IUT throws an exception or returns −1, then, again, you have discovered a conformance violation. This kind of conformance relation is close to the one studied by de Alfaro =-=[11]-=-. In a given passive state the next observable action and its result are not determined uniquely in general. What are the possible sources of the apparent nondeterminism? One possible source is that t... |

36 |
TorX: automated model based testing,”
- Tretmans, Brinksma
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ond to interface automata in [9]. Model-based testing allows one to test a software system using a specification (a.k.a. model) of the system under test [5]. There are other model-based testing tools =-=[4,16,17,18,21]-=-. To the best of our knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines [14]. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in As... |

35 | Towards a tool environment for model-based testing with AsmL,”
- Barnett, Grieskamp, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th controllable and observable actions correspond to interface automata in [11]. Model-based testing allows one to test a software system using a specification (a.k.a. model) of the system under test =-=[5]-=-. There are other model-based testing tools [4, 17–19, 24]. To the best of our knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Mac... |

31 | Experiments with test case generation and runtime analysis
- Artho, Drusinksy, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g =0. Consider a strategy S over G. We denote by P S the following n × n matrix of non-negative reals: ⎧ ⎨ p(u, v), if u ∈ V PS[u, v] = ⎩ p and (u, v) ∈ E ; 1, if u ∈ V a and v = S(u) or if u = v =0; =-=(4)-=- 0, otherwise. PS[u, v] is the probability of the move (u, v) when the game R(u, S) is in state u, except that there is no move from state 0. (We could have added an edge (0, 0) in which case there wo... |

25 | Optimal strategies for testing nondeterministic systems
- Nachmanson, Veanes, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e initial state is s 1, and that is also the only final state with the above finality condition. 2 Reachability games and linear programming We use a modification of the definition of a test graph in =-=[20]-=- to describe nondeterministic systems. A test graph G has a set V of vertices or states and a set E of directed edges or transitions. The set of states splits into three disjoint subsets: the set V a ... |

21 | Testing deterministic implementations from nondeterministic FSM specifications.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be discovered with at least two concurrent users accessing the bag. 5 Related work Extension of the FSM-based testing theory to nondeterministic and probabilistic FSMs got some attention a while ago =-=[14, 21, 28]-=-. The use of games for testing is pioneered in [2]. A recent overview of using games in testing is given in [27]. An implementation that conforms to the given specification can be viewed as a refineme... |

18 |
Instrumenting scenarios in a model-driven development environment.
- Grieskamp, Tillmann, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... space are part of a cohesive finite state machine (FSM) generation algorithm implemented in the Spec Explorer tool; the details fall outside the scope of this paper. The tool is briefly described in =-=[12]-=-; a better description of it is in preparation. The tool is available from [1]. The game that we are describing is an example of so-called games against nature which is a classical area in optimizatio... |

12 | Model Driven Testing - AGEDIS Architecture, Interfaces, and Tools.
- Hartman, Nagin
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ond to interface automata in [9]. Model-based testing allows one to test a software system using a specification (a.k.a. model) of the system under test [5]. There are other model-based testing tools =-=[4,16,17,18,21]-=-. To the best of our knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines [14]. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in As... |

10 |
The Spec# programming system
- Barnett, Leino, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... knowledge, Spec Explorer is currently alone in supporting the game approach to testing. Our models are Abstract State Machines [14]. In Spec Explorer, the user writes models in AsmL [15] or in Spec# =-=[6]-=-. The technical development in Section 2 is based on classical techniques that were used to prove that linear programming works for MDPs with the discounted reward criterion [10, Theorem 2.3.1], even ... |

8 | UniTesK: Model Based Testing in Industrial Practice
- Kuliamin, Petrenko, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

5 |
Semantic essence of AsmL. Theoretical Computer Science, 343(3):370–412, 2005. Available at http://research.microsoft.com/~gurevich/opera/169. pdf (viewed June 7, 2009). [17] Yuri Gurevich and Tatiana Yavorskaya. On bounded exploration and bounded nondeter
- Gurevich, Rossman, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve mode; observable actions are prefixed by a question mark. Example: Chat Session We illustrate here how to model a simple reactive system. This example is written in the AsmL specification language =-=[16]-=-. The chat session lets a client post messages for the other clients. The state of the system is given by the tuple (clients,queue,recipients), where clients is the set of all clients of the session, ... |

5 | Runtime refinement checking of concurrent data structures.
- Tasiran, Qadeer
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Bag A multi-threaded implementation of a bag (multiset). Several concurrent users are allowed to add, delete and lookup elements from a shared bag. The example is a variation of a case study used in =-=[23]-=-. The different test graph sizes for Chat and Bag arise by varying the exploration settings using the Spec Explorer tool in a way that was illustrated on a smaller scale with that Chat model in Sectio... |

4 |
optimization, and games
- Testing
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng theory to nondeterministic and probabilistic FSMs got some attention a while ago [13, 24]. The use of games for testing is pioneered in [2]. A recent overview of using games in testing is given in =-=[23]-=-. An implementation that conforms to the given specification can be viewed as a refinement of the specification. In study [9], based on [3], the game view is proposed as a general framework for dealin... |

3 |
Testing non-deterministic state machines with faultcoverage
- Gujiwara, Bochman
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be discovered with at least two concurrent users accessing the bag. 5 Related work Extension of the FSM-based testing theory to nondeterministic and probabilistic FSMs got some attention a while ago =-=[14, 21, 28]-=-. The use of games for testing is pioneered in [2]. A recent overview of using games in testing is given in [27]. An implementation that conforms to the given specification can be viewed as a refineme... |