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## Internet traffic engineering by optimizing OSPF weights (2000)

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Venue: | in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM |

Citations: | 403 - 13 self |

### Citations

802 | How to model an internetwork.
- Zegura, Calvert, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... particular we wanted to answer this question for a proposed AT&TWorldNet backbone. In addition, we studied synthetic internetworks, generated as suggested by Calvert, Bhattacharjee, Daor, and Zegura =-=[4]-=-, [5]. Finding a perfect answer is hard in the sense that it is NP-hard to find an optimal setting of the OSPF weights for an arbitrary network. Instead we resorted to a local search heuristic, not gu... |

743 | Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture.
- Rosen, Viswanathan, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h to give good load balancing as defined, for example, in our objective function. This is one of the reasons for introducing the more flexible Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technologies ([1], =-=[3]-=-). With MPLS one can in principle decide the path for each individual packet. Hence, we can simulate a solution to the general routing problem by distributing the packets on the paths between a source... |

493 | Modeling Internet Topology.
- Calvert, Doar, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...icular we wanted to answer this question for a proposed AT&TWorldNet backbone. In addition, we studied synthetic internetworks, generated as suggested by Calvert, Bhattacharjee, Daor, and Zegura [4], =-=[5]-=-. Finding a perfect answer is hard in the sense that it is NP-hard to find an optimal setting of the OSPF weights for an arbitrary network. Instead we resorted to a local search heuristic, not guarant... |

379 | Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence,”Computers
- Glover
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and heuristics allowing non-improving moves have been considered. Unfortunately, non-improving moves can lead to cycling, and one must provide mechanisms to avoid it. Tabu search algorithms (Glover =-=[10]-=-), for example, make use of a tabu list that records some attributes of solutions encountered during the recent iterations and forbids any solution having the same attributes. We developed a search st... |

141 | An incremental algorithm for a generalization of the shortest path problem.
- Ramalingam, Reps
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...us it makes sense to try to be lazy and not recompute everything from scratch, but to reuse as much as possible. With respect to shortest paths, this idea is already well studied (Ramalingam and Reps =-=[12]-=-), and we can apply their algorithm directly. Their basic result is that, for the recomputation, we only spend time proportional to the number of arcs incident to nodes x whose distance d t x to t cha... |

77 |
Gt-itm: Georgia tech internetwork topology models (software),” Georgia Tech,” http://www. cc. gatech. edu/fac/Ellen. Zegura/gt-itm/gt-itm/tar. gz
- Zegura
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... horizontal line shows our threshold of 10 2 3 for regarding the network as congested. The second graph shows the max-utilization. The synthetic internetworks were produced using the generator GT-ITM =-=[14]-=-, based on a model of Calvert, Bhattacharjee, Daor, and Zegura [5], [6]. This model places nodes in a unit square, thus getting a distance ffi (x; y) between each pair of nodes. These distances lead t... |

47 |
Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS", draftietf-mpls-traffic-eng-00.txt
- Awduche, Malcolm, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sume there are no limitations to how we can distribute the flow between the paths from s to t. The above definition of the general routing problem is equivalent to the one used e.g. in Awduche et al. =-=[1]-=-. Its most controversial feature is the assumption that we have an estimate of a demand matrix. This demand maINFOCOM 2000 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 cost 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 load Fig. 1. Arc cost \Phi a (`(... |

38 |
A polynomial time algorithm for linear programming,
- Khachiyan
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) to (6) define the cost on each arc. The above program is a complete linear programming formulation of the general routing problem, and hence it can be solved optimally in polynomial time (Khachiyan =-=[7]-=-), thus settling Proposition 1. In our experiments, we solved the above problems using the LP-solver PCx [8] on the NEOS server [9]. We shall use \Phi OPT to denote the optimal general routing cost. B... |

30 |
Hashing vectors for tabu search,
- Woodruff, Zemel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...euristic is original in its use of hash tables to avoid cycling and for search diversification. A first attempt of using hashing tables to avoid cycling in local search was made by Woodruff and Zemel =-=[6]-=-, in conjunction with tabu search. Our approach goes further and avoids completely the problem specific definitions of solution attributes and tabu mechanisms, leading to an algorithm that is conceptu... |

27 | Experimental analysis of dynamic algorithms for the single-source shortest-path problem.
- Frigioni, Ioffreda, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re typically only very few changes, so the gain was substantial - in the order of factor 20 for a 100 node graph. Similar positive experiences with this laziness have been reported in Frigioni et al. =-=[13]. The set -=-of changed distances immediately gives us a set of "update" arcs to be added to or deleted from A t . We will now present a lazy method for finding the changes of loads. We will operate with... |

15 | Multiprotocol label switching architecture,” RFC 3031 - Callon, Viswanathan, et al. - 2001 |

11 |
Configuring OSPF.
- Cisco
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he implementation. Here, as a simplifying approximation, we assume that it is an even split. The quality of OSPF routing depends highly on the choice of weights. Nevertheless, as recommended by Cisco =-=[3]-=-, these are often just set inversely proportional to the capacities of the links, without taking any knowledge of the demand into account. It is widely believed that the OSPF protocol is not flexible ... |

4 |
Requirements for traffic engineering over MPLS. Network Working Group, Request for Comments
- Awduche, Malcolm, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssume there are no limitations to how we can distribute the flow between the paths from� to� . The above definition of the general routing problem is equivalent to the one used e.g. in Awduche et al. =-=[1]-=-. Its most controversial feature is the assumption that we have an estimate of a demand matrix. This demand matrix could, as in our case for the proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone, be based on concrete m... |

2 |
OSPF: Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocal
- Moy
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cols today do not support a free distribution of flow between source and destination as defined above in the general routing problem. The most common protocol today is Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) =-=[2]-=-. In this protocol, the network operator assigns a weight to each link, and shortest paths from each router to each destination are computed using these weights as lengths of the links. In each router... |

1 |
PCx user
- Czyzyk, Mehrotra, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...general routing problem, and hence it can be solved optimally in polynomial time (Khachiyan [7]), thus settling Proposition 1. In our experiments, we solved the above problems using the LP-solver PCx =-=[8]-=- on the NEOS server [9]. We shall use \Phi OPT to denote the optimal general routing cost. B. OSPF routing In OSPF routing, we choose a weight w(a) for each arc. The length of a path is then the sum o... |

1 |
Universal hashing and k-wise independent random variables via integer arithmetic without primes
- Dietzfelbibger
- 1046
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... paths form n to t of equal length. solutions to our problem are jAj-dimensional integer vectors. Our approach maps these vectors to integers, by means of a hashing function h, chosen as described in =-=[11]-=-. Let l be the number of bits used to represent these integers. We use a boolean table T to record if a value produced by the hashing function has been encountered. As we need an entry in T for each p... |

1 | Conjuring OSPF - C&co - 1997 |

1 | Modeling intemet topologyv - Zegura - 1997 |

1 | Future paths for integer programming and finks to artificial intelligence - Glover - 1986 |

1 | Requirements for traffic engineering ove MPLS,” Network Working Group, Request for Comments! ht tp : / / search. iet f . org/ rf c/rf c2702. txt, Septembei - Malcolm, ODell, et al. |

1 | Conjguring OSPF - Cisco - 1997 |

1 | How to model an intemetwork - Zegura, Calvert, et al. - 1996 |

1 | Modeling intemet topology - Zegura - 1997 |

1 | Experimenth analysis of dynamic algorithms for the single-source shortest path problem - Pasqualone |

1 | OSPF: Anatomy of an lnternet Routing Protocal - unknown authors - 1999 |