#### DMCA

## Progressive Structural Analysis for Dynamic Abstract Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Mathematical Expressions

### Citations

124 |
LaTeX: A Document Preparation System. User's Guide & Reference Manual.
- Lamport
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...able to make corrections if the symbol is not recognized correctly. At the end of user input, the MET is then converted into an appropriate representative format such as MathML (W3C, 2007a) or Latex (=-=Lamport, 1985-=-). Fig. 2. Progressively recognizing the mathematical expression “a 2 + b 2 ”. The PSA approach comprises three sub-processes, namely Related Symbol Identification, MET Update and Representative Forma... |

77 | Mathematical expression recognition: a survey.
- Chan, Yeung
- 2000
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Citation Context ...tions, accents, etc. Finally, the Lexed BST is translated into an Operator Tree which describes the order and scope of operations in the input expression. A survey of earlier methods can be found in (=-=Chan and Yeung, 2000b-=-). 4sInstead of using two-dimensional grammars, Chan and Yeung (Chan and Yeung, 2000a) first transformed a mathematical expression into a one-dimensional representation and then parsed recursively usi... |

73 | Recognizing mathematical expressions using tree transformation,”
- Zanibbi, Blostein, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g (Ba-Quy Vuong), asschui@ntu.edu.sg (Siu-Cheung Hui), Y.L.He.01@cantab.net (Yulan He). 2sproaches (Chou, 1989; Fateman et al., 1996; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; Toyota et al., 2006), tree transformation (=-=Zanibbi et al., 2002-=-), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998) and Minimum Spanning Tree (Tapia and Rojas, 2003, 2005). Some of the techniques such as the grammar-based approaches are slow, while others ar... |

62 |
Recognition of equations using a two-dimensional stochastic context-free grammar.
- Chou
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cognition. These include grammar-based ap∗ Corresponding author. Email addresses: VUON0001@ntu.edu.sg (Ba-Quy Vuong), asschui@ntu.edu.sg (Siu-Cheung Hui), Y.L.He.01@cantab.net (Yulan He). 2sproaches (=-=Chou, 1989-=-; Fateman et al., 1996; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; Toyota et al., 2006), tree transformation (Zanibbi et al., 2002), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998) and Minimum Spanning Tree (Tapia... |

33 | Recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions in the e-chalk system — an extension. In:
- Tapia, Rojas
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 1989; Fateman et al., 1996; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; Toyota et al., 2006), tree transformation (Zanibbi et al., 2002), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998) and Minimum Spanning Tree (=-=Tapia and Rojas, 2003-=-, 2005). Some of the techniques such as the grammar-based approaches are slow, while others are sensitive to users’ writing errors. Apart from their underlying processing methods, all these techniques... |

32 | Optical character recognition and parsing of typeset mathematics.
- Fateman, Tokuyasu, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hese include grammar-based ap∗ Corresponding author. Email addresses: VUON0001@ntu.edu.sg (Ba-Quy Vuong), asschui@ntu.edu.sg (Siu-Cheung Hui), Y.L.He.01@cantab.net (Yulan He). 2sproaches (Chou, 1989; =-=Fateman et al., 1996-=-; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; Toyota et al., 2006), tree transformation (Zanibbi et al., 2002), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998) and Minimum Spanning Tree (Tapia and Rojas, 2003, 2005... |

29 | Mathematics recognition using graph rewriting - Grbavec, Blostein - 1995 |

25 | An efficient syntactic approach to structural analysis of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions,”
- Chan, Yeung
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s: Progressive structural analysis, Structural analysis, mathematical expressions recognition, Mathematical expression tree, Grouping determination 1 Introduction Mathematical expression recognition (=-=Chan and Yeung, 2000a-=-) consists of two major processes: symbol recognition and structural analysis. Symbol recognition involves the recognition of individual handwritten symbols, whereas structural analysis interprets the... |

24 | On-line handwritten formula recognition using statistical methods.
- Kosmala, Rigoll
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...), Y.L.He.01@cantab.net (Yulan He). 2sproaches (Chou, 1989; Fateman et al., 1996; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; Toyota et al., 2006), tree transformation (Zanibbi et al., 2002), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (=-=Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998-=-) and Minimum Spanning Tree (Tapia and Rojas, 2003, 2005). Some of the techniques such as the grammar-based approaches are slow, while others are sensitive to users’ writing errors. Apart from their u... |

21 | Optical formula recognition. In:
- Lavirotte, Pottier
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cture into a one-dimensional representation and then parsed by a formula description grammar. A more complicated grammar-based approach, graph grammar rewriting technique (Grbavec and Blostein, 1995; =-=Lavirotte and Pottier, 1997-=-; Raja et al., 2006), was proposed by first creating an initial graph using compass point directions from each symbol. Then, hand-crafted grammar rules are used to specify a graph fragment for matchin... |

15 | Elastic Structural Matching for On-line Handwritten Alphanumeric Character Recognition
- Chan, Yeung
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Symbol Recognition: It gathers the latest written stroke and 9 1srecognizes the latest written symbol in real-time. A modified elastic matching method based on original Elastic Structural Matching (=-=Chan and Yeung, 1998-=-) is implemented for mathematical symbol recognition. To recognize multi-stroke symbols, a list of historical written strokes for possible groupings is maintained. (2) Progressive Structural Analysis:... |

11 | Towards a parser for mathematical formula recognition
- Raja, Rayner, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...representation and then parsed by a formula description grammar. A more complicated grammar-based approach, graph grammar rewriting technique (Grbavec and Blostein, 1995; Lavirotte and Pottier, 1997; =-=Raja et al., 2006-=-), was proposed by first creating an initial graph using compass point directions from each symbol. Then, hand-crafted grammar rules are used to specify a graph fragment for matching and a non-termina... |

7 |
Structural analysis of mathematical formulae with verification based on formula description grammar
- Toyota, Uchida, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...author. Email addresses: VUON0001@ntu.edu.sg (Ba-Quy Vuong), asschui@ntu.edu.sg (Siu-Cheung Hui), Y.L.He.01@cantab.net (Yulan He). 2sproaches (Chou, 1989; Fateman et al., 1996; Chan and Yeung, 2000a; =-=Toyota et al., 2006-=-), tree transformation (Zanibbi et al., 2002), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Kosmala and Rigoll, 1998) and Minimum Spanning Tree (Tapia and Rojas, 2003, 2005). Some of the techniques such as the gramma... |

1 |
Ajax - a new approach to web applications. Daptivepath.com
- Garrett
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...entiation and integration in calculus are supported. The computation results are displayed on Web browser through the MathML mathematical representation. • AJAX-Based Communicator. AJAX (White, 2006; =-=Garrett, 2005-=-; Pascarello and James, 2006) is used for the implementation of the communication mechanism between client and server. It helps to maintain continuous data flow between client and server without the n... |

1 |
Measuring the benefits of ajax. Developer.com
- White
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n, and differentiation and integration in calculus are supported. The computation results are displayed on Web browser through the MathML mathematical representation. • AJAX-Based Communicator. AJAX (=-=White, 2006-=-; Garrett, 2005; Pascarello and James, 2006) is used for the implementation of the communication mechanism between client and server. It helps to maintain continuous data flow between client and serve... |