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## Testing deterministic implementations from nondeterministic fsm specifications. In: (1996)

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Venue: | Proc. of the 9th Intern Workshop on Protocol Test Systems. |

Citations: | 21 - 1 self |

### Citations

4816 |
Introduction to automata theory, languages, and computation (Addison-Wesley
- Hopcroft, Ullman
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hines, the two notions of a cover coincide. To construct deterministic transfer sequences, we delete outputs from the FSM A and apply a standard technique for determinizing of the obtained automaton (=-=Hopcroft and Ullman, 1979-=-). A state s is a d-reachable state in A if and only if there exists a set {s} among the states of the deterministic automaton. An input sequence that takes the automaton to the state {s} is a determi... |

340 |
Switching and Finite Automata Theory.
- Kohavi
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e union of ridentifiers over all states of the FSM A is said to be an r-characterization set W of A. It is a generalization of a classical notion of a characterization set of a deterministic machine (=-=Kohavi, 1978-=-). The equivalence and reduction relations serve the conformance relations between implementations and their FSM specifications for deriving test suites. Let a specification FSM A be defined over an i... |

191 |
Asynchronous Sequential Switching Circuits.
- Unger
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l machine A with harmonized traces can often be treated as a special complete nondeterministic machine a by treating its transitions on unspecified inputs as 'don't care' transitions to a trap state (=-=Unger, 1969-=-). Such transitions are labeled with an input not specified at the current state of A and all outputs of some superset of Y. The superset Y' of Y represents all outputs in the class of implementation ... |

130 | Test selection based on finite state models. - Fujiwara, Bochmann, et al. - 1991 |

110 |
Introduction to the Theory of Finite-State Machines,
- Gill
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion machine. The latter is treated as a black-box, so little is usually known about the implementation machine prior to testing; yet one typically assumes an upper bound on the number of its states (=-=Gill, 1962-=-). It is required to determine by testing whether the two are equivalent. A corresponding test suite is said to be complete with respect to equivalence relation in the class of implementation machines... |

97 |
Formal methods for protocol testing: A detailed study.
- Sidhu, Leung
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...number of states. The problem of deriving such a test suite for a given deterministic specification machine has recently attracted close attention in the literature (Vasilevski, 1973), (Chow, 1978), (=-=Sidhu and Leung, 1989-=-), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (Ural, 1992), (Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general p... |

86 |
Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines. Automata study, Annals of mathematics studies
- Moore
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion, fault detection, I/O nondeterministic FSMs, equivalence and reduction relations 1 INTRODUCTION Conformance testing of protocol implementations is often formalized as the FSM equivalence problem (=-=Moore, 1956-=-) and (Hennie, 1964). In particular, we are given two machines defined over the same input alphabet, one is referred to as the specification machine, the other is referred to as the implementation mac... |

84 |
Fault-detecting experiments for sequential circuits. In:
- Hennie
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on, I/O nondeterministic FSMs, equivalence and reduction relations 1 INTRODUCTION Conformance testing of protocol implementations is often formalized as the FSM equivalence problem (Moore, 1956) and (=-=Hennie, 1964-=-). In particular, we are given two machines defined over the same input alphabet, one is referred to as the specification machine, the other is referred to as the implementation machine. The latter is... |

81 | A.: Protocol testing: review of methods and relevance for software testing. In:
- Bochmann, Petrenko
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eterministic specification machine has recently attracted close attention in the literature (Vasilevski, 1973), (Chow, 1978), (Sidhu and Leung, 1989), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (Ural, 1992), (=-=Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994-=-), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation between FSMs (Petrenko, Bochma... |

52 |
A Method for Minimizing the Number of Internal States in Incompletely Sequential Networks”,
- Grasselli, Luccio
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the nondeterministic FSM may correspond to the same state of its reduction. The situation is similar to the case of compatible states of a partial deterministic FSM in context of state minimization (=-=Grasselli and Luccio, 1965-=-). We now establish necessary and sufficient conditions when two states of the FSM cannot correspond to a single state in any deterministic reduction of the FSM. Given an FSM A , states s and r of A a... |

43 |
Formal methods for test sequence generation.
- Ural
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for a given deterministic specification machine has recently attracted close attention in the literature (Vasilevski, 1973), (Chow, 1978), (Sidhu and Leung, 1989), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (=-=Ural, 1992-=-), (Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation... |

32 |
Testing finite state machines: fault detection.
- Yannakakis, Lee
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ine has recently attracted close attention in the literature (Vasilevski, 1973), (Chow, 1978), (Sidhu and Leung, 1989), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (Ural, 1992), (Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994), (=-=Yannakakis and Lee, 1995-=-), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation between FSMs (Petrenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1993) and (... |

30 | On fault coverage of tests for finite state specifications.
- Petrenko, Bochmann
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... attention in the literature (Vasilevski, 1973), (Chow, 1978), (Sidhu and Leung, 1989), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (Ural, 1992), (Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (=-=Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996-=-). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation between FSMs (Petrenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1993) and (Petrenko, Yevtushenko, and Bochmann... |

23 | Selecting test sequences for partiallyspecified nondeterministic finite state machines.
- Luo, Petrenko, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omes essential in situations where undefined transitions are treated as 'forbidden' transitions, as explained in (Yevtushenko and Petrenko, 1990), (Petrenko, 1991), (Petrenko and Yevtushenko, 1992), (=-=Luo, Petrenko, and Bochmann, 1994-=-), and (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995). The difference from the latter work is that we consider here a wider class of partial machines that are not necessarily reduced. (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995) gives no ... |

21 |
Nondeterministic state machines in protocol conformance testing.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te nondeterministic FSM. Thus, the test derivation problem for the reduction relation is of both, theoretical and practical interests. Not much work, however, has been done to solve this problem. In (=-=Petrenko, Yevtushenko, Lebedev, and Das, 1993-=-), it is demonstrated that the problem can be solved at least for a narrow subclass of nondeterministic FSMs. In this paper, we present a refined method for test derivation based on that work and anal... |

21 |
Abstract automata.
- Starke
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...set of output symbols; and h - a behavior function h: S��X��P(S��Y), where P(S��Y) is the set of all nonempty subsets of S��Y, such that |{s' | (s',y) ��h(s,x )}|1 for all (s,x=-= )��S��X and all y��Y. (Starke, 1972). The m-=-achine A becomes deterministic when | h(s,x )|=1 for all (s,x)��S��X. In a deterministic FSM, instead of the behavior function which is required for expressing a nondeterministic behavior, we ... |

20 | Testing in context: framework and test derivation.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...col implementation. Most existing protocols allow these options. The nondeterministic machine paradigm is also useful for embedded testing. As shown in (Petrenko, Yevtushenko, and Dssouli, 1994) and (=-=Petrenko, Yevtushenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1996-=-), testing a deterministic FSM embedded within a given system of communicating FSMs can be reduced to that of an appropriate nondeterministic FSM. Thus, the test derivation problem for the reduction r... |

16 |
Checking experiments with protocol machines
- Petrenko
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... from the set X A * of specified input sequences becomes essential in situations where undefined transitions are treated as 'forbidden' transitions, as explained in (Yevtushenko and Petrenko, 1990), (=-=Petrenko, 1991-=-), (Petrenko and Yevtushenko, 1992), (Luo, Petrenko, and Bochmann, 1994), and (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995). The difference from the latter work is that we consider here a wider class of partial machines... |

15 |
Conformance relations and test derivation.
- Petrenko, Bochmann, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d Petrenko, 1994), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation between FSMs (=-=Petrenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1993-=-) and (Petrenko, Yevtushenko, and Bochmann, 1994). Specifically, we assume that an implementation machine is deterministic, but its specification machine is not necessarily deterministic. In this case... |

12 |
Test suite generation for a fsm with a given type of implementation errors.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...* of specified input sequences becomes essential in situations where undefined transitions are treated as 'forbidden' transitions, as explained in (Yevtushenko and Petrenko, 1990), (Petrenko, 1991), (=-=Petrenko and Yevtushenko, 1992-=-), (Luo, Petrenko, and Bochmann, 1994), and (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995). The difference from the latter work is that we consider here a wider class of partial machines that are not necessarily reduced.... |

12 | Failure diagnosis of automata. - Vasilevski - 1973 |

6 |
Testing strategies for communicating fsms.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...avior which contains options left for the protocol implementation. Most existing protocols allow these options. The nondeterministic machine paradigm is also useful for embedded testing. As shown in (=-=Petrenko, Yevtushenko, and Dssouli, 1994-=-) and (Petrenko, Yevtushenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1996), testing a deterministic FSM embedded within a given system of communicating FSMs can be reduced to that of an appropriate nondeterministic F... |

5 |
A method of constructing a test experiment for an arbitrary deterministic automaton.
- Yevtushenko, Petrenko
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a complete test suite exclusively from the set X A * of specified input sequences becomes essential in situations where undefined transitions are treated as 'forbidden' transitions, as explained in (=-=Yevtushenko and Petrenko, 1990-=-), (Petrenko, 1991), (Petrenko and Yevtushenko, 1992), (Luo, Petrenko, and Bochmann, 1994), and (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995). The difference from the latter work is that we consider here a wider class o... |

4 |
Experiments on nondeterministic systems for the reduction relation.
- Petrenko, Yevtushenko, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a step further addressing a more general problem of testing a so-called reduction relation between FSMs (Petrenko, Bochmann, and Dssouli, 1993) and (=-=Petrenko, Yevtushenko, and Bochmann, 1994-=-). Specifically, we assume that an implementation machine is deterministic, but its specification machine is not necessarily deterministic. In this case, the implementation to be conforming is require... |

4 | Fault-Detection Capability of Multiple Experiments", Automatic Control and Computer Sciences - Yevtushenko, Petrenko - 1989 |

3 |
Nondeterministic finite-state machines and sequential don't cares.
- Damiani
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...assumption of induction. Thus, if t is a reduction of states s and r then they are not r(k)-distinguishable for any k, i.e. they are not rdistinguishable. q Combining Theorem 2.2 with the results of (=-=Damiani, 1994-=-), we have the following fact. A state of a deterministic FSM is not a reduction of two states of the FSM A if and only if these states are r-distinguishable. The definition of r-distinguishable state... |

2 |
Failure Diagnosis of Automata”, Cybernetics
- Vasilevski
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s within the assumed bound on the number of states. The problem of deriving such a test suite for a given deterministic specification machine has recently attracted close attention in the literature (=-=Vasilevski, 1973-=-), (Chow, 1978), (Sidhu and Leung, 1989), (Fujiwara, Bochmann et al. 1991), (Ural, 1992), (Bochmann and Petrenko, 1994), (Yannakakis and Lee, 1995), and (Petrenko and Bochmann, 1996). Here we take a s... |

2 | Checking experiments with protocol machines, IFIP Transactions, Protocol Testing Systems IV (the - Petrenko - 1991 |

1 | Petrenko received the Diploma degree in electrical and computer engineering from Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1970 and the Ph.D. in computer science from the Institute of Electronics and Computer Science, Riga, USSR, in 1974 - Alexandre - 1996 |

1 | Yevtushenko received the Diploma degree in radio-physics in 1971 and Ph. D. in computer science in 1983, both from the - Nina |