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## Hierarchical edge bundles: Visualization of adjacency relations in hierarchical data (2006)

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### Other Repositories/Bibliography

Venue: | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS |

Citations: | 271 - 12 self |

### Citations

663 | Graph drawing by force-directed placement
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- 1991
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Citation Context ...by G(V,EA). If the inclusion edges EI and the adjacency edges EA are merged into a single set of uniform edges, then the graph G ′ = (V,EI,EA) can be visualized using a generic graph layout algorithm =-=[2, 12, 15]-=-. The problem that results from resorting to such a generic algorithm is that the inclusion • Danny Holten is with Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, E-mail: d.h.r.holten@tue.nl. Manuscript received 1... |

562 | Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information.
- Robertson, Mackinlay, et al.
- 1991
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Citation Context ... This makes interaction techniques – particularly options for changing the viewpoint – an essential part of these visualization techniques. Examples of 3D tree visualization techniques are cone trees =-=[26]-=- and H3, a 3D hyperbolic visualization [19]. 2.2 Displaying Adjacency Relations As mentioned earlier, simply adding adjacency edges to a tree visualization in a straightforward way quickly leads to vi... |

534 | Tree visualization with tree-maps: 2-d space-filling approach.
- Shneiderman
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the hierarchical organization of each of the examples mentioned above, we can visualize the hierarchical structure using one of the many tree visualization methods that have been proposed in the past =-=[2, 7, 15, 18, 24, 27]-=-. However, if we want to visualize additional adjacency edges on top of this by adding edges in a straightforward way, this generally leads to visual clutter [3] (see figure 2a). A possible way to all... |

490 | Graph visualization and navigation in information visualization: A survey.
- Herman, Marshall
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the hierarchical organization of each of the examples mentioned above, we can visualize the hierarchical structure using one of the many tree visualization methods that have been proposed in the past =-=[2, 7, 15, 18, 24, 27]-=-. However, if we want to visualize additional adjacency edges on top of this by adding edges in a straightforward way, this generally leads to visual clutter [3] (see figure 2a). A possible way to all... |

195 | Visualizing Network Data,”
- Becker, Eick, et al.
- 1995
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Citation Context ...roposed in the past [2, 7, 15, 18, 24, 27]. However, if we want to visualize additional adjacency edges on top of this by adding edges in a straightforward way, this generally leads to visual clutter =-=[3]-=- (see figure 2a). A possible way to alleviate this problem is to treat the tree and the adjacency graph as a single graph. Let the tree be represented by T = (V,EI) and the adjacency graph by G(V,EA).... |

186 | Tidier drawings of trees.
- Reingold, Tilford
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the hierarchical organization of each of the examples mentioned above, we can visualize the hierarchical structure using one of the many tree visualization methods that have been proposed in the past =-=[2, 7, 15, 18, 24, 27]-=-. However, if we want to visualize additional adjacency edges on top of this by adding edges in a straightforward way, this generally leads to visual clutter [3] (see figure 2a). A possible way to all... |

165 |
A Comparison of the Readability of Graphs Using Node-Link and Matrix-Based Representations,
- Ghoniem, Fekete, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wn within the matrix as shaded cells [30, 33]. Matrix views present a stable and clean layout of the adjacency relations, but they are less intuitive than node-linkand enclosure-based representations =-=[13, 30]-=-. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Existing techniques that are related to edge aggregation are confluent graph drawing [5, 9] and flow map layouts [22]. Confluent graph drawing is a technique for visu... |

147 |
Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs.
- Battista, Eades, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context |

144 | Manipulating and documenting software structures using shrimp views
- Storey, H
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...representations and enclosure to offer a trade-off between an intuitive display and efficient space usage for displaying large trees exist as well. Examples are elastic hierarchies [32], SHriMP views =-=[28]-=-, and space-optimized tree visualization [21]. Finally, 3D visualization techniques provide another way of achieving a more efficient use of space, although occlusion problems usually occur as a resul... |

139 |
H3: laying out large directed graphs in 3d hyperbolic space
- Munzner
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ularly options for changing the viewpoint – an essential part of these visualization techniques. Examples of 3D tree visualization techniques are cone trees [26] and H3, a 3D hyperbolic visualization =-=[19]-=-. 2.2 Displaying Adjacency Relations As mentioned earlier, simply adding adjacency edges to a tree visualization in a straightforward way quickly leads to visual clutter if a large number of edges is ... |

92 | A fast multi-scale method for drawing large graphs." GraphDrawing.
- Harel, Koren
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Issues with regard to computational complexity and layout stability have also been associated with force-directed methods [15]. However, these issues have recently been treated by various approaches =-=[14, 17]-=-. Most of these approaches also use a deterministic model to prevent the highly unpredictable layouts that were often produced by previous force-directed methods. Another method for drawing compound g... |

86 | EdgeLens: an interactive method for managing edge congestion in graphs
- Wong, Carpendale, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lly decrease the bundling strength to allow a user to inspect individual curves within a bundle without having to modify the global bundling strength β. The EdgeLens approach presented by Wong et al. =-=[31]-=- provides one way to accomplish this. This approach manages edge congestion by interactively curving edges away from the point of focus, which opens up sufficient space to disambiguate relationships. ... |

83 |
Visualization of structural information: Automatic drawing of compound digraphs.
- Sugiyama, Misue
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dictable layouts that were often produced by previous force-directed methods. Another method for drawing compound graphs that originated in the graph drawing community is described by Sugiyama et al. =-=[29]-=-. In this method and its variations, nodes are drawn as rectangles, inclusion edges by the geometric inclusion among the rectangles, and adjacency edges by polylines connecting them [4, 23, 29]. Altho... |

80 | Drawing Graphs: Methods and Models. - Wagner |

79 |
The hyperbolic browser: A focus + context technique for visualizing large hierarchies.
- Lamping, Rao
- 1996
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Citation Context |

72 | Flow map layout.
- Phan, Xiao, et al.
- 2005
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Citation Context ...node-linkand enclosure-based representations [13, 30]. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Existing techniques that are related to edge aggregation are confluent graph drawing [5, 9] and flow map layouts =-=[22]-=-. Confluent graph drawing is a technique for visualizing non-planar graphs in a planar way by allowing groups of edges to be merged and drawn together [5, 9]. However, not every graph is confluently d... |

70 | Straight-line drawing algorithms for hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs.
- Eades, Feng, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... straightforward way) for a selected node or subtree [19]. Methods for drawing clustered graphs, which are graphs with recursive clustering structures over the vertices, are presented by Eades et al. =-=[8, 11]-=-. Furthermore, Kaufmann et al. provide a more general survey on drawing clusters (and hierarchies) [16]. In a sense, clustered graphs are similar to compound graphs in that they contain a hierarchical... |

51 | Confluent drawings: Visualizing non-planar diagrams in a planar way.
- Dickerson, Eppstein, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hey are less intuitive than node-linkand enclosure-based representations [13, 30]. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Existing techniques that are related to edge aggregation are confluent graph drawing =-=[5, 9]-=- and flow map layouts [22]. Confluent graph drawing is a technique for visualizing non-planar graphs in a planar way by allowing groups of edges to be merged and drawn together [5, 9]. However, not ev... |

49 | Elastic Hierarchies: Combining Treemaps and Node-Link Diagrams. In:
- Zhao, McGuffin, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... combine node-link representations and enclosure to offer a trade-off between an intuitive display and efficient space usage for displaying large trees exist as well. Examples are elastic hierarchies =-=[32]-=-, SHriMP views [28], and space-optimized tree visualization [21]. Finally, 3D visualization techniques provide another way of achieving a more efficient use of space, although occlusion problems usual... |

45 |
Overlaying graph links on treemaps
- Fekete, Wang, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s mentioned earlier, simply adding adjacency edges to a tree visualization in a straightforward way quickly leads to visual clutter if a large number of edges is visualized (figure 2a). Fekete et al. =-=[10]-=- present a technique that displays the hierarchical structure as a treemap and the adjacency edges as curved links. The links are depicted as quadratic Bézier curves that show direction using curvatur... |

37 |
Drawing free trees. Bulletin of the Institute for Combinatorics and its Applications,
- Eades
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

35 |
Using multilevel call matrices in large software projects
- Ham
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure-based representations for showing adjacency relations between entities. The hierarchy is displayed along the axes of the matrix and adjacency relations are shown within the matrix as shaded cells =-=[30, 33]-=-. Matrix views present a stable and clean layout of the adjacency relations, but they are less intuitive than node-linkand enclosure-based representations [13, 30]. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Exi... |

31 | Drawing huge graphs by algebraic multigrid optimization. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation
- Koren, Carmel, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Issues with regard to computational complexity and layout stability have also been associated with force-directed methods [15]. However, these issues have recently been treated by various approaches =-=[14, 17]-=-. Most of these approaches also use a deterministic model to prevent the highly unpredictable layouts that were often produced by previous force-directed methods. Another method for drawing compound g... |

29 | Algorithms for Drawing Clustered Graphs.
- Feng
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... straightforward way) for a selected node or subtree [19]. Methods for drawing clustered graphs, which are graphs with recursive clustering structures over the vertices, are presented by Eades et al. =-=[8, 11]-=-. Furthermore, Kaufmann et al. provide a more general survey on drawing clusters (and hierarchies) [16]. In a sense, clustered graphs are similar to compound graphs in that they contain a hierarchical... |

29 |
ArcTrees: Visualizing Relations in Hierarchical Data
- Neumann, Schlechtweg, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f edges from each other. At present, only few techniques are available that are specifically designed to display adjacency relations on top of a tree structure, as is also mentioned by Neumann et al. =-=[20]-=-. Hence, the focus of this paper is on the construction of a generic technique for the visualization of compound graphs and compound directed graphs (digraphs) comprised of a tree and an additional (d... |

25 |
The Beta-spline: a local representation based on shape parameters and fundamental geometric measures.
- Barsky
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g adjacency edges, ambiguity problems as depicted in figure 4a may arise. These problems can be reduced by diminishing the bundling strength. The bundling strength is controlled by a parameter β, β ∈ =-=[0,1]-=-, that effectively controls the amount of bundling by straightening the spline curve. Figure 4d shows the effect of this parameter and figure 4e illustrates how this can be used to resolve ambiguity p... |

25 |
A Space-Optimized Tree Visualization.
- Nguyen, Huang
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e-off between an intuitive display and efficient space usage for displaying large trees exist as well. Examples are elastic hierarchies [32], SHriMP views [28], and space-optimized tree visualization =-=[21]-=-. Finally, 3D visualization techniques provide another way of achieving a more efficient use of space, although occlusion problems usually occur as a result of projecting 3D geometry onto a 2D screen.... |

13 |
Matrix Browser: Visualizing and Exploring Large Networked Information Spaces
- Ziegler, Kunz, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure-based representations for showing adjacency relations between entities. The hierarchy is displayed along the axes of the matrix and adjacency relations are shown within the matrix as shaded cells =-=[30, 33]-=-. Matrix views present a stable and clean layout of the adjacency relations, but they are less intuitive than node-linkand enclosure-based representations [13, 30]. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Exi... |

11 |
A compound graph layout algorithm for biological pathways
- Dogrusoz
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... since the layouts provided by their methods are fixed. A similar remark holds for the use of force-directed algorithms for the layout of compound graphs, like the method presented by Dogrusoz et al. =-=[6]-=-. Issues with regard to computational complexity and layout stability have also been associated with force-directed methods [15]. However, these issues have recently been treated by various approaches... |

10 |
M.: An algorithm for drawing compound graphs
- BERTAULT, MILLER
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...giyama et al. [29]. In this method and its variations, nodes are drawn as rectangles, inclusion edges by the geometric inclusion among the rectangles, and adjacency edges by polylines connecting them =-=[4, 23, 29]-=-. Although this approach works fine for small compound digraphs as depicted in figure 2c, it does not scale very well for compound graphs containing a large hierarchy due to the inefficient usage of s... |

10 | Delta-confluent drawings
- Eppstein, Goodrich, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hey are less intuitive than node-linkand enclosure-based representations [13, 30]. 2.3 Edge Aggregation Techniques Existing techniques that are related to edge aggregation are confluent graph drawing =-=[5, 9]-=- and flow map layouts [22]. Confluent graph drawing is a technique for visualizing non-planar graphs in a planar way by allowing groups of edges to be merged and drawn together [5, 9]. However, not ev... |

5 | Visual navigation of compound graphs
- Raitner
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...giyama et al. [29]. In this method and its variations, nodes are drawn as rectangles, inclusion edges by the geometric inclusion among the rectangles, and adjacency edges by polylines connecting them =-=[4, 23, 29]-=-. Although this approach works fine for small compound digraphs as depicted in figure 2c, it does not scale very well for compound graphs containing a large hierarchy due to the inefficient usage of s... |