#### DMCA

## Weak probabilistic anonymity (2005)

### Cached

### Download Links

Venue: | INRIA FUTURS AND LIX |

Citations: | 48 - 11 self |

### Citations

4102 | Communicating Sequential Processes, - Hoare - 1978 |

3894 |
Communication and Concurrency
- Milner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ot need guarded choice (all the choices are internal because they start with τ), and we do not need neither name-passing nor scope extrusion, thus ν is used just like the restriction operator of CCS (=-=[16]-=-). Let us consider the point of view of an external observer. The actions that are to be hidden (set C) are the communications of the decision of the master and the results of the coins (⃗m, ⃗c). Thes... |

1176 | A calculus of mobile processes, i
- Milner, Parrow, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l i = ci,itail . ci⊖1,itail . 0 DCP = (ν ⃗m)(Master | (ν⃗c)(Π 2 i=0Crypt i | Π 2 i=0Coini) ) Table 1. The dining cryptographer protocol specified in π-calculus. uniformity we use here the π-calculus (=-=[18]-=-). We recall that + ( ∑ ) is the nondeterministic sum and | (Π) is the parallel composition. 0 is the empty process. τ is the silent (or internal) action. cm and c(x) are, respectively, send and recei... |

893 | A calculus for cryptographic protocols: The spi calculus
- Abadi, Gordon
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to formally define security properties, and to verify cryptographic protocols. See, for instance, =-=[2, 15, 21, 23, 3]-=-. The common denominator is that the various entities involved in the system to verify are specified as concurrent processes and present typically a nondeterministic behavior. In [24, 22], the nondete... |

822 | Crowds: anonymity for Web transactions
- Reiter, Rubin
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the anonymous users). The principle of anonymity described above is very elegant and general, however it has a limitation: Many systems for anonymity use random mechanisms. See, for example, Crowds (=-=[20]-=-) and Onion Routing ([27]). If the observer has the means to repeat the experiment and perform statistical analysis, he may be able to deduce certain quantitative information on the system. In particu... |

613 |
Communicating and mobile systems: the π-calculus
- Milner
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... that, in the π-calculus, has multiple purposes: it provides abstraction (hiding), enforces synchronization, and generates new names. For more details on the π-calculus and its semantics, we refer to =-=[18, 17]-=-. In the code, given in Table 1, ⊕ and ⊖ represent the sum and the subtraction modulo 3. Messages p and n sent by the master are the requests to pay or to not pay, respectively. pay i is the action of... |

560 | The dining cryptographers problem: Unconditional sender and recipient untraceability
- Chaum
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e sequence) is a possible 3out 0 Crypt 0 c 0,1 m 0 c 0,0 Coin 1 Coin 0 c 1,1 m 1 Master m 2 c 2,0 out 1 Crypt 1 c 1,2 Coin 2 c 2,2 Crypt 2 out 2 Fig. 1. Chaum’s system for the Dining Cryptographers (=-=[7, 22]-=-). outcome of S\C, then, any trace t ′ obtained from t by replacing ⃗α with an arbitrary ⃗α ′ ∈ A ∗ must also be a possible outcome of S\C. We now illustrate the above definition on the example of the... |

359 | B.: A logic for reasoning about time and reliability
- Hansson, Jonsson
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... . The PRISM input language is a simple, state-based language, based on the Reactive Modules formalism of Alur and Henzinger [1]. The events are formalized using the temporal probabilistic logic PCTL =-=[8]-=-. Once this translation is done, we can use PRISM to compute 4 DTMC and MDP, which are the formats accepted by PRISM, can be seen as special cases of probabilistic automata. 13prbabilistic master: α-... |

359 | N.: Probabilistic simulations for probabilistic processes
- Segala, Lynch
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bilistic one given in [11]. We have formulated the notion of anonymity in terms of observables for processes in the probabilistic π-calculus, whose semantics is based on the probabilistic automata of =-=[25]-=-. This opens the way to the automatic verification of the property. We are currently developing a model checker for the probabilistic π-calculus. We are currently investigating weaker versions of our ... |

323 | Reactive modules
- Alur, Henzinger
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...scheduler. Instead, we require that the difference between any two such probabilities does not exceed a certain parameter α. Formally: Definition 5 (α-anonymity for nondeterministic users). Given α ∈ =-=[0, 1]-=-, a system (M, I, a, B, Z, p) is α-anonymous if max{ pς(o) − pϑ(o) | ς, ϑ ∈ Z, o ∈ O, pς(o ∩ a) = pς(o), pϑ(o ∩ a) = pϑ(o)} = α Intuitively, pς(o) − pϑ(o) = α means that, whenever we observe o, we sus... |

284 | Model checking of probabilistic and nondeterministic systems - Bianco, Alfaro - 1995 |

274 | Anonymous connections and onion routing
- Syverson, Goldschlag, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e principle of anonymity described above is very elegant and general, however it has a limitation: Many systems for anonymity use random mechanisms. See, for example, Crowds ([20]) and Onion Routing (=-=[27]-=-). If the observer has the means to repeat the experiment and perform statistical analysis, he may be able to deduce certain quantitative information on the system. In particular, he may be able to co... |

233 |
a compiler for the analysis of security protocols
- Casper
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to formally define security properties, and to verify cryptographic protocols. See, for instance, =-=[2, 15, 21, 23, 3]-=-. The common denominator is that the various entities involved in the system to verify are specified as concurrent processes and present typically a nondeterministic behavior. In [24, 22], the nondete... |

231 | PRISM: Probabilistic symbolic model checker - Kwiatkowska, Norman, et al. - 2001 |

134 | Security Properties and CSP - Schneider - 1996 |

131 | Model checking for a probabilistic branching time logic with fairness
- Baier, Kwiatkowska
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n the βi’s: if j ≤ k otherwise Theorem 2. In the DCP on a linear graph with n nodes the α in Definition 7 depends on the βi’s (and on the pi’s) as follows: α = n−1 ∑ j=0 qk pk qj pj − pk n−1 ∑ j=0 pj =-=(3)-=- Proof By definition, the configuration of the coins with the highest probability is the one in which Coin i = 0 if βi ≥ 0.5 and Coin i = 1 otherwise. The probability of this configuration is ∏ ∏ n−2 ... |

130 |
Modelling and Analysis of Security Protocols
- Ryan, Schneider, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty, we leave it for further work. Various formal definitions and frameworks for analyzing anonymity have been developed in literature. They can be classified into approaches based on process-calculi (=-=[24, 22]-=-), epistemic logic ([26, 11]), and “function views” ([13]). In this paper, we focus on the approach based on process-calculi. The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively... |

107 | Modelling and verifying key-exchange protocols using CSP and FDR
- Roscoe
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to formally define security properties, and to verify cryptographic protocols. See, for instance, =-=[2, 15, 21, 23, 3]-=-. The common denominator is that the various entities involved in the system to verify are specified as concurrent processes and present typically a nondeterministic behavior. In [24, 22], the nondete... |

102 | CSP and anonymity
- Schneider, Sidiropoulos
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty, we leave it for further work. Various formal definitions and frameworks for analyzing anonymity have been developed in literature. They can be classified into approaches based on process-calculi (=-=[24, 22]-=-), epistemic logic ([26, 11]), and “function views” ([13]). In this paper, we focus on the approach based on process-calculi. The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively... |

97 | calculus, internal mobility and agent-passing calculi - Sangiorgi - 1995 |

95 | Anonymity and information hiding in multiagent systems
- Halpern, O’Neill
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...work. Various formal definitions and frameworks for analyzing anonymity have been developed in literature. They can be classified into approaches based on process-calculi ([24, 22]), epistemic logic (=-=[26, 11]-=-), and “function views” ([13]). In this paper, we focus on the approach based on process-calculi. The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to... |

92 | On the reachability problem in cryptographic protocols
- Amadio, Lugiez
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

89 | Model checking continuous-time markov chains by transient analyisis
- Baier, Havekort, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...corresponds to the coin configuration Coini = 0 for βi ≥ 0.5 and Coin j = 1 for βj < 0.5 (1) Conversely, the minimal probability corresponds to Coin ′ i = 1 for βi ≥ 0.5 and Coin ′ j = 0 for βj < 0.5 =-=(2)-=- Clearly these configurations are obtained, respectively, with probabilities p1 = ∏ ∏ (1 − βj) and p2 = ∏ (1 − βi) ∏ βi≥0.5 βi βj<0.5 βi≥0.5 βj<0.5 we only need to show, now, that both these probabili... |

86 | Analysis of an electronic voting protocol in the applied pi calculus - Kremer, Ryan - 2005 |

78 | Group principals and the formalization of anonymity
- Syverson, Stubblebine
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...work. Various formal definitions and frameworks for analyzing anonymity have been developed in literature. They can be classified into approaches based on process-calculi ([24, 22]), epistemic logic (=-=[26, 11]-=-), and “function views” ([13]). In this paper, we focus on the approach based on process-calculi. The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to... |

69 | Updating probabilities
- Grünwald, Halpern
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 0 ∧ p(o ′ ∩ a) > 0) ⇒ p(a(i) | o) = p(a(i) | o ′ ). Proposition 3 can be reformulated as a general property of probablistic spaces, independent from anonymity. Similar results have been presented in =-=[10]-=- and in [9]. 6.1 Characterizations given by Proposition 3 and nondeterminism It is not clear whether the characterizations expressed in Proposition 3 can be generalized to the case of the users with c... |

56 | Information hiding, anonymity and privacy: a modular approach
- Hughes, Shmatikov
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and frameworks for analyzing anonymity have been developed in literature. They can be classified into approaches based on process-calculi ([24, 22]), epistemic logic ([26, 11]), and “function views” (=-=[13]-=-). In this paper, we focus on the approach based on process-calculi. The framework and techniques of process calculi have been used extensively in the area of security, to formally define security pro... |

46 | Coarsening at random: characterizations, conjectures and counter-examples
- Gill, Laan, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a) > 0) ⇒ p(a(i) | o) = p(a(i) | o ′ ). Proposition 3 can be reformulated as a general property of probablistic spaces, independent from anonymity. Similar results have been presented in [10] and in =-=[9]-=-. 6.1 Characterizations given by Proposition 3 and nondeterminism It is not clear whether the characterizations expressed in Proposition 3 can be generalized to the case of the users with combined non... |

15 |
O.: A randomized encoding of the π-calculus with mixed choice
- Palamidessi, Herescu
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...observations of the possible outcomes (except, of course, for gaining the information on whether the payer is one of the cryptographers or not). We use the probabilistic π-calculus (πp) introduced in =-=[12, 19]-=- to represent the probabilistic system. The essential difference with respect to the π-calculus is the presence of a probabilistic choice operator of the form ∑ i piαi.Pi, where the pi’s represents pr... |

9 |
and Cédric Fournet. Private authentication
- Abadi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...em. The essential difference with respect to the π-calculus is the presence of a probabilistic choice operator of the form ∑ i piαi.Pi, where the pi’s represents probabilities, i.e. they satisfy pi ∈ =-=[0, 1]-=- and ∑ i pi = 1, and the αi’s are non-output prefixes, i.e. either input or silent prefixes. (Actually, for the purpose of this paper, only silent prefixes are used.) For the detailed presentation of ... |

4 | Hughes and Vitaly Shmatikov. Information hiding, anonymity, and privacy: a modular approach - Dominic |

2 | Abadi and Cédric Fournet. Private authentication - Martín |

2 | Boreale and Davide Sangiorgi. Some congruence properties for π-calculus bisimilarities - Michele - 1998 |

1 | Chatzikokolakis and Catuscia Palamidessi. Probable innocence revisited - Kostantinos - 2005 |