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## Practical Implementation of LMMSE Demosaicing Using Luminance and Chrominance Spaces (2006)

Citations: | 7 - 1 self |

### Citations

244 | New edge-directed interpolation”,
- Li, Orchard
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...struct the constrained set using the estimated statistics of color images. Muresan et al. [33] built a metric based on exemplars, which defined a restricted set of solutions for the interpolation. In =-=[34]-=-, the authors proposed to estimate the statistics of the image with the existing pixels and to design image-specific Wiener filters. In their papers, Taubman [7] and Trussell et al. [3] used an image ... |

176 | Color plane interpolation using alternating projections
- Gunturk, Altunbasak, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...reen channel, which has a better resolution in the Bayer CFA, to restrict the set of solutions by artificially copying this high frequency pattern onto the red and blue planes. In an extended version =-=[28]-=-, two constrained sets were defined, one garanteed that the high frequency components were those corresponding to the green channel, and the second one ensured that existing pixels in the CFA kept the... |

119 | Demosaicking: color filter array interpolation.
- Gunturk, Glotzbach, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... was also used by Adams [4] to design convolution filters. More recently, Lukac [12] proposed a normalized (scaled and shifted) color ratio that improved color ratios interpolation. Many authors (see =-=[13]-=- for a review) have proposed directional interpolation to account edges where most visible artifacts appear in the reconstructed image [14–18]. These methods result in a weighted bilinear interpolatio... |

111 | Demosaicing: Image reconstruction from color CCD samples - Kimmel |

106 | Adaptive homogeneity-directed demosaicing algorithm
- Hirakawa, Parks
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tent of the image. A variant edge-sensing method consists in interpolating separately in horizontal and vertical directions and chosing the prefered directions according a criteria based on gradients =-=[14,19,20]-=-. Other authors proposed an iterative process or post-processing process regularizing the reconstructed image, possibly combined to an edge-sensitive interpolation [13,21,22,18,23–26]. In [27] the aut... |

77 | Effective color interpolation in CCD color filter arrays using signal correlation
- Pei, Tam
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...become attractive due to their simplicity, effectiveness and quality, Crane et al. [29] proposed to use the constant hue hypothesis [11] to design convolution filters for the interpolation. Pei et al =-=[30]-=- interpolated bilinearly the color difference R minus G and B minus G. 11 ha l-0 01 57 70 8,sv er sio ns1s- 2 6sJu ns20 07 Malvar et al. [31] proposed a linear method based on the assumption that edge... |

75 |
Signal processing method and apparatus for producing interpolated chrominance values in a sampled color image signal”,
- Cok
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e chrominance is a low-pass signal, low-order filters (3× 3) can be used. 4.1 State of the art There are many ways to define a useful constraint set for improving the reconstruction of the image. Cok =-=[11]-=- proposed the use of constant hue hypothesis, interpolating hue (ratio of two colors) instead of the color channel because hue is rather constant on object surface. The constant hue hypothesis was als... |

73 | Design of practical color filter array interpolation algorithms for digital cameras.
- Adams, Hamilton
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e of constant hue hypothesis, interpolating hue (ratio of two colors) instead of the color channel because hue is rather constant on object surface. The constant hue hypothesis was also used by Adams =-=[4]-=- to design convolution filters. More recently, Lukac [12] proposed a normalized (scaled and shifted) color ratio that improved color ratios interpolation. Many authors (see [13] for a review) have pro... |

71 |
Vector filtering for color imaging
- Lukac, Smolka, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... as a vector of three components per pixel, measuring the light intensity in three wavelength bands of the visible spectrum (Red, Green and Blue), recalling the trichromacy of human color vision (see =-=[1]-=- for a review on vector image processing). In order to reduce cost and size, most ∗ brice.chaix@lis.inpg.fr 1 B. Chaix de Lavarène and J. Hérault are with the Images and Signals Laboratory (LIS), Jo... |

52 | Color filter array demosaicking: new method and performance measures - Chang, Tan - 2002 |

51 | Color Filter Arrays: Design and Performance Analysis.
- Lukac, Plataniotis
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... are the subsampled RGB values of the color image in Figure 1(a). The captured image - called a CFA image - needs to be interpolated in order to retrieve a color image with three components per pixel =-=[2]-=-. This operation is called demosaicing (or demosaicking [3]) and has monopolized many researchers in the field of image and signal processing from the early 80’s. Demosaicing can be seen as an inverse... |

48 |
Adaptive color plane interpolation in single sensor color electronic camera”,
- Hamilton
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tent of the image. A variant edge-sensing method consists in interpolating separately in horizontal and vertical directions and chosing the prefered directions according a criteria based on gradients =-=[14,19,20]-=-. Other authors proposed an iterative process or post-processing process regularizing the reconstructed image, possibly combined to an edge-sensitive interpolation [13,21,22,18,23–26]. In [27] the aut... |

48 | Color demosaicking via directional linear minimum mean square-error estimation
- Zhang, Wu
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tent of the image. A variant edge-sensing method consists in interpolating separately in horizontal and vertical directions and chosing the prefered directions according a criteria based on gradients =-=[14,19,20]-=-. Other authors proposed an iterative process or post-processing process regularizing the reconstructed image, possibly combined to an edge-sensitive interpolation [13,21,22,18,23–26]. In [27] the aut... |

48 |
Demosaicing by successive approximation
- Li
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Fig. 7. Example illustrating the zipper effect: (a) original image, and reconstruction using (b) bilinear method, (c) [30], (d) [9], (e) proposed method, (f) [32], (g) [26], (h) =-=[25]-=- and (i) [19]. Visually, both algorithms may suffer from zipper noise near edges (Figure 7) and false colors in high frequency areas (Figure 8). Zipper noise appear when chrominance has strong variati... |

46 | Primary-consistent soft-decision color demosaic for digital cameras - Wu, Zhang - 2003 |

37 | High-Quality Linear Interpolation for Demosaicing of Bayer-Patterned Color Images.
- Malvar, Li-wei, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...esign convolution filters for the interpolation. Pei et al [30] interpolated bilinearly the color difference R minus G and B minus G. 11 ha l-0 01 57 70 8,sv er sio ns1s- 2 6sJu ns20 07 Malvar et al. =-=[31]-=- proposed a linear method based on the assumption that edges would have much stronger ”luminance” than ”chrominance” components. This assumption was used by correcting the result of a bilinear interpo... |

36 |
Software pixel interpolation for digital still cameras suitable for a 32-bit MCU.
- Sakamoto
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ible, due to the infinity of solutions for a given projected image. The recovery of the original image is only possible if we constrain the set of solutions. As an example, the bilinear interpolation =-=[4,5]-=- of each R, G and B channel isolated from the mosaic can be seen as inverting the projection onto a constrained set, where the Fourier spectrum of the elements has a shape in (1 + cos(2pif))/2 functio... |

36 | Demosaicked image post-processing using local color ratios - Lukac, Martin, et al. - 2004 |

30 |
Generalized Wiener reconstruction of images from colour sensor data using a scale invariant prior
- Taubman
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t (see Section 4.1). In the present paper, the constraint is given through Wiener filters, which are optimal in Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) reconstruction. In the pioneer work of Taubman =-=[7]-=- and Trussell [3], the bases and theoritical framework of Wiener demosaicing is given from an image model. We propose 2 ha l-0 01 57 70 8,sv er sio ns1s- 2 6sJu ns20 07 a simplified formulation of the... |

29 | Normalized color-ratio modeling for CFA interpolation
- Lukac, Plataniotis
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f two colors) instead of the color channel because hue is rather constant on object surface. The constant hue hypothesis was also used by Adams [4] to design convolution filters. More recently, Lukac =-=[12]-=- proposed a normalized (scaled and shifted) color ratio that improved color ratios interpolation. Many authors (see [13] for a review) have proposed directional interpolation to account edges where mo... |

29 | Frequency-domain methods for demosaicking of Bayer-sampled color images
- Dubois
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nvariant convolution filters for demosaicing. Based on this model, Lian et al. [26] proposed using a space-variant filter to improve luminance estimation according to the structure of Bayer CFA. Both =-=[26,32]-=- include an adaptive process in the luminance estimation, resulting in a high quality reconstruction. There is a more explicit way to construct the constrained set using the estimated statistics of co... |

29 | Joint demosaicing and denoising”,
- Hirakawa, Parks
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed through a CFA-based camera. In Portilla et al. [9] the filters were estimated from an image database and it is shown that LLMSE demosaicing can operate denoising and deblurring. In Hirakawa et al. =-=[35]-=-, a TLS denoising is designed conjointly with demosaicing and operated well on real noisy CMOS images. 4.2 Implementation and performance analysis We chose to implement the Wiener methods of sections ... |

28 |
Mathematics for demosaicking
- Trussell, Hartwig
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 1(a). The captured image - called a CFA image - needs to be interpolated in order to retrieve a color image with three components per pixel [2]. This operation is called demosaicing (or demosaicking =-=[3]-=-) and has monopolized many researchers in the field of image and signal processing from the early 80’s. Demosaicing can be seen as an inverse problem. However, considering a CFA image as a spatial mul... |

28 | Effective use of spatial and spectral correlations for color filter array demosaicking - Chang, Tan - 2004 |

27 | A novel cost effective demosaicing approach - Lukac, Plataniotis, et al. - 2004 |

26 | A method of color filter array interpolation with alias cancellation properties. - Glotzbach, Schafer, et al. - 2001 |

24 | Demosaicing using optimal recovery - Muresan, Parks - 2005 |

18 | Color image zooming on Bayer pattern - Lukac, Plataniotis, et al. - 2005 |

12 | Low-complexity linear demosaicing using joint spatial-chromatic image statistics
- Portilla, Otaduy, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on process is invariant over the image, which is widely used, it allows the design of space-invariant filters at this scale, or in other words of block shift-invariant filters [8]. In Portilla et al. =-=[9]-=-, the change over the basic pattern of the CFA is done by estimating four filters. But while Taubman and Trussell stacked the color image Y into a 12HW × 1 column vector that imposed a large 3HW × 12H... |

12 |
Improved color filter array demosaicking by accurate luminance estimation
- Lian, Chang, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n. This allows estimating luminance and chrominance by frequency selection and results in cost effective, linear, space-invariant convolution filters for demosaicing. Based on this model, Lian et al. =-=[26]-=- proposed using a space-variant filter to improve luminance estimation according to the structure of Bayer CFA. Both [26,32] include an adaptive process in the luminance estimation, resulting in a hig... |

9 |
Hummels, \Leave-one-out procedures for nonparametric error estimates
- Fukunaga, M
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and the S-CIELAB metric ∆E (assuming a 72 dpi monitor, 18 in. of distance) between the original color images and the reconstructed images using the “leave-one-out” method =-=[36]-=-. This method is widely used in the field of data analysis when the number of available elements for training and testing is restricted. If the database contains N elements, the “leave-one-out” method... |

8 |
Color imaging array”, U.S. patent 3,971,065, to Eastman Kodak
- Bayer
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...10.1016/j.cviu.2006.11.016 (a) (b) (c) Fig. 1. (a) a color image with R, G and B values at each pixel, (b) a color CFA image with a single chromatic value per pixel according to the Bayer CFA pattern =-=[6]-=-, (c) the corresponding grayscale CFA image as captured by the device. digital cameras use a single sensor. The sensor is then coupled to a color filter array (CFA) and samples only one chromatic valu... |

6 | K.N.: A Robust, Cost-Effective Postprocessor for Enhancing Demosaicked Camera Images - Lukac, Plataniotis - 2005 |

4 |
Method and apparatus for decoding spatiochromatically multiplexed color image using predetermined coefficients
- Crane, Peter, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xisting pixels in the CFA kept the same values in the reconstructed image. Turning to linear methods, which recently become attractive due to their simplicity, effectiveness and quality, Crane et al. =-=[29]-=- proposed to use the constant hue hypothesis [11] to design convolution filters for the interpolation. Pei et al [30] interpolated bilinearly the color difference R minus G and B minus G. 11 ha l-0 01... |

3 |
Linear color demosaicing inspired by the human visual system
- Alleysson, Süsstrunk, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nance then overflows on the modulated chrominance and is demodulated into low frequency as a chrominance signal. In Table 1 are also represented the results for the bilinear method and for methods of =-=[30,31,10,28,26,32,25,19]-=-. The results of some of these algorithms are also represented in Figures 7 and 8. [28] was tested with 3 and 8 iterations, [25] with one and two thresholds. Among the tested algorithms, the one reduc... |

2 |
The impulse responses of block shift-invariant systems and their use for demosaicing algorithms
- Hel-Or
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omplexity of 63HW cycles when a 9 × 9 filter is used at R/B pixels and 47HW cycles when a 7× 7 one is used, almost one third of that of the direct RGB algorithm [9] for the same quality. Note that in =-=[8]-=-, Hel-Or proposed a method to obtain unique filters for each pixel for block shift-invariant algorithms in order to apply efficiently the algorithm using a unique block-shift invariant convolution. At... |