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## Tombstone Transformation Functions for Ensuring Consistency in Collaborative Editing Systems (2006)

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Venue: | Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing |

Citations: | 27 - 16 self |

### Citations

1790 |
Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems
- Bemstein, Hadzilacos, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...one copy – or part of a copy – can be edited at the same time while all the copies can be read. This principle is generally realised using a locking mechanisms such as in database transaction systems =-=[2]-=- or in turn-taking protocols [8]. Over the years, this class of mechanisms revealed unsuitable for collaborative editing even though they ensure strong consistency. They place too many restrictions on... |

370 | Concurrency control in groupware systems
- Ellis, Gibbs
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le for collaborative editing since they tolerate divergence between copies as much as they will converge to the same value in the end. In particular, one approach so-called Operational Transformation =-=[6]-=- (OT) has been specifically designed to fulfil the requirements of collaborative editing. In this approach, updates performed by one user are applied on the local copy without any delay. Next, they ar... |

283 | Optimistic replication - Saito, Shapiro |

226 | Total order broadcast and multicast algorithms: Taxonomy and survey
- Défago, Schiper, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a tool very similar to CVS capable to reconciliate a file system containing text files and XML documents. Unfortunately, building the total ordering requires a central site or a stable pool of sites =-=[5]-=-. These new constraints prevent SOCT4 to be used in a pure decentralized environment such as a peer-to-peer network.sIn order to escape from T P2 property, other frameworks have been proposed [16], [9... |

176 | Operational transformation in real-time group editors: Issues, algorithms, and achievements
- Sun, Ellis
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n any further states. In other words, TTF can ensure intention preservation criterion as defined in [13]. B. Inverses of Transformation Functions Some algorithms such as SOCT2 [25], GOT [28] and GOTO =-=[27]-=- required to define additional functions called “exclusion transformation” [28]. These functions are the inverses of the transformation functions. Since the TTF transformation functions are injective ... |

111 |
Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing systems
- Sun, Jia, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... worth to point out the local response time is not sensitive to network latencies since local updates are executed immediately. Since the initial work of Ellis et al. [6], several OT frameworks [23], =-=[28]-=-, [13], [15] have been proposed. The first OT framework was developed in 1996 by Ressel et al. [23]. This framework makes a strong separation between a generic integration algorithm and specific trans... |

99 | An integrating, transformationoriented approach to concurrency control and undo in group editors
- Ressel, Nitsche-Ruhland, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... It is worth to point out the local response time is not sensitive to network latencies since local updates are executed immediately. Since the initial work of Ellis et al. [6], several OT frameworks =-=[23]-=-, [28], [13], [15] have been proposed. The first OT framework was developed in 1996 by Ressel et al. [23]. This framework makes a strong separation between a generic integration algorithm and specific... |

66 | A framework for undoing actions in collaborative systems
- Prakash, Knister
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ted our solution for linear structures, but the simplicity of the mechanism offers support for the extension to other data structures. In collaborative editing systems, the ability to undo operations =-=[21]-=- is a widely used feature. In the operational transformation community, several propositions [23], [22], [26], [7] have already been made. It is worth to point out that maintaining tombstones greatly ... |

66 | Copies convergence in a distributed real-time collaborative environment
- Vidot, Cart, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...P2, and consequently they are able to preserve intentions while ensuring copies convergence. These functions can be used with existing integration algorithms such as adOPTed [23], SOCT2 [25] or SOCT4 =-=[29]-=- and therefore could be easily used to replace the wrong transformations used in existing systems. In this paper we presented our solution for linear structures, but the simplicity of the mechanism of... |

63 |
Personalizable groupware: Accommodating individual roles and group dierences
- Greenberg
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an be edited at the same time while all the copies can be read. This principle is generally realised using a locking mechanisms such as in database transaction systems [2] or in turn-taking protocols =-=[8]-=-. Over the years, this class of mechanisms revealed unsuitable for collaborative editing even though they ensure strong consistency. They place too many restrictions on collaborative interactions – no... |

52 | Data Consistency for P2P Collaborative Editing
- Oster, Urso, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hese new constraints prevent SOCT4 to be used in a pure decentralized environment such as a peer-to-peer network.In order to escape from T P2 property, other frameworks have been proposed [16], [8], =-=[20]-=-. Although these frameworks are very interesting, their integration algorithms are closely bound to linear-structure properties of shared document for which they have been designed. Thus, in order to ... |

48 |
Concurrent operations in a distributed and mobile collaborative environment
- Suleiman, Cart, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...transformation functions, the integration algorithm ensures consistency and the resulting collaborative editing tools would be reliable. Indeed, most of the OT integration algorithms have been proven =-=[25]-=-, [17] to ensure convergence of copies if the underlying transformation functions satisfy the properties. Unfortunately, currently none of the transformation functions proposed are correct regarding T... |

40 |
Undo as concurrent inverse in group editors
- Sun
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to other data structures. In collaborative editing systems, the ability to undo operations [21] is a widely used feature. In the operational transformation community, several propositions [23], [22], =-=[26]-=-, [7] have already been made. It is worth to point out that maintaining tombstones greatly simplify the design of an undo mechanism. Indeed, since all the locations of deleted elements are kept, it is... |

38 | Using the transformational approach to build a safe and generic data synchronizer
- Molli, Oster, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is paper is restricted to shared document relying on a linear structure. Problems and proposed solutions can be generalised to more complex structures such as hierarchical structures as shown in [4], =-=[18]-=-, [10]. Without loss of generality, in the remaining of this paper, the shared document is considered to be a string of characters. A string of characters might be updated by performing two kinds of o... |

28 | Automated Theorem Proving by Test Set Induction
- Bouhoula
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erted at position p + 1. We have proven that TTF ensure T P1 and T P2. Due to space limitations, the proof is not included in this paper. This proof was built using the automatic theorem prover SPIKE =-=[3]-=-. The full specification and how the proof is built by the theorem prover is available in [19]. But even without SPIKE, it is easy to see that, in opposite to traditional transformation functions, the... |

28 |
Proving correctness of transformation functions in real-time groupware
- Imine, Molli, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tions, the integration algorithm will ensure that causality between operations is preserved and convergence of copies is achieved. Unfortunately, satisfying T P2 is very difficult. It has been proven =-=[11]-=-, [13] that all proposed transformation functions are not correct regarding this property. A proposed solution to this problem was just to require only T P1 property and fix a total ordering on the in... |

25 |
Preserving operation effects relation in group editors
- Li, Li
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to point out the local response time is not sensitive to network latencies since local updates are executed immediately. Since the initial work of Ellis et al. [6], several OT frameworks [23], [28], =-=[13]-=-, [15] have been proposed. The first OT framework was developed in 1996 by Ressel et al. [23]. This framework makes a strong separation between a generic integration algorithm and specific transformat... |

24 | Generalizing operational transformation to the standard general markup language
- Davis, Sun, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of this paper is restricted to shared document relying on a linear structure. Problems and proposed solutions can be generalised to more complex structures such as hierarchical structures as shown in =-=[4]-=-, [18], [10]. Without loss of generality, in the remaining of this paper, the shared document is considered to be a string of characters. A string of characters might be updated by performing two kind... |

21 | Customizable collaborative editor relying on treeOPT algorithm
- IGNAT, NORRIE
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er is restricted to shared document relying on a linear structure. Problems and proposed solutions can be generalised to more complex structures such as hierarchical structures as shown in [4], [18], =-=[10]-=-. Without loss of generality, in the remaining of this paper, the shared document is considered to be a string of characters. A string of characters might be updated by performing two kinds of operati... |

18 |
Reducing the problems of group undo
- Ressel, Gunzenhäuser
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsion to other data structures. In collaborative editing systems, the ability to undo operations [21] is a widely used feature. In the operational transformation community, several propositions [23], =-=[22]-=-, [26], [7] have already been made. It is worth to point out that maintaining tombstones greatly simplify the design of an undo mechanism. Indeed, since all the locations of deleted elements are kept,... |

17 |
Commutativity-based concurrency control in groupware
- Li, Li
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ites [5]. These new constraints prevent SOCT4 to be used in a pure decentralized environment such as a peer-to-peer network.sIn order to escape from T P2 property, other frameworks have been proposed =-=[16]-=-, [9], [20]. Although these frameworks are very interesting, their integration algorithms are closely related to linear-structure properties of shared document for which they have been designed. Thus,... |

13 |
Consistency Maintenance Based on the Mark & Retrace Technique in Groupware Systems
- Gu, Yang, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...5]. These new constraints prevent SOCT4 to be used in a pure decentralized environment such as a peer-to-peer network.sIn order to escape from T P2 property, other frameworks have been proposed [16], =-=[9]-=-, [20]. Although these frameworks are very interesting, their integration algorithms are closely related to linear-structure properties of shared document for which they have been designed. Thus, in o... |

13 |
A landmark-based transformation approach to concurrency control in group editors
- Li, Li
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...int out the local response time is not sensitive to network latencies since local updates are executed immediately. Since the initial work of Ellis et al. [6], several OT frameworks [23], [28], [13], =-=[15]-=- have been proposed. The first OT framework was developed in 1996 by Ressel et al. [23]. This framework makes a strong separation between a generic integration algorithm and specific transformation fu... |

11 |
the Ordering of Events in a Distributed System
- Times
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tly, op2 may depend on effects of execution of op1. Causality preservation criterion ensures that all operations ordered by a precedence relation, in the sense of the Lamport’s happensbefore relation =-=[12]-=-, will be executed in the same order on every copy. Two operations op1 and op2 that are not related by a precedence relation (neither op1 precedes op2, nor op2 precedes op1) are said concurrent. site ... |

11 |
Proof of correctness of Ressel’s adopted algorithm
- Lushman
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormation functions, the integration algorithm ensures consistency and the resulting collaborative editing tools would be reliable. Indeed, most of the OT integration algorithms have been proven [25], =-=[17]-=- to ensure convergence of copies if the underlying transformation functions satisfy the properties. Unfortunately, currently none of the transformation functions proposed are correct regarding T P1 an... |

9 | Proving Correctness of Transformation Functions in Collaborative Editing Systems
- Oster, Urso, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns, the proof is not included in this paper. This proof was built using the automatic theorem prover SPIKE [3]. The full specification and how the proof is built by the theorem prover is available in =-=[19]-=-. But even without SPIKE, it is easy to see that, in opposite to traditional transformation functions, the TTF are monotonic transformations of the effect position of operations since they only comput... |

9 |
Vote: Group editors analyzing tool
- Imine, Molli, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... at position p + 1. We have proven that TTF ensure T P1 and T P2. Due to space limitations, the proof is not included in this paper. This proof was built using the automatic theorem prover SPIKE [2], =-=[11]-=-. The full specification and how the proof is built by the theorem prover is available in [19]. But even without SPIKE, it is easy to see that, in opposite to traditional transformation functions, the... |

6 |
Concurrent undo operations in collaborative environments version 1 - 18 Nov 2009 using operational transformation
- Ferrié, Vidot, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er data structures. In collaborative editing systems, the ability to undo operations [21] is a widely used feature. In the operational transformation community, several propositions [23], [22], [26], =-=[7]-=- have already been made. It is worth to point out that maintaining tombstones greatly simplify the design of an undo mechanism. Indeed, since all the locations of deleted elements are kept, it is easy... |

4 |
Annulation de Groupe dans les Éditeurs Collaboratifs
- Weiss
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ces with the previous approaches is that undoing the deletion of an element is different from inserting this element. This means a new operation has to be added in the model. We are currently working =-=[30]-=- on thestransposition to our TTF model of the correctness properties for undo mechanism defined in [7]. As future work, we also plan to extend our TTF to stringwise operations as described in [28], an... |

2 |
Real-Time Group Editors Without Operational Transformation
- Oster, Urso, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hese new constraints prevent SOCT4 to be used in a pure decentralized environment such as a peer-to-peer network.sIn order to escape from T P2 property, other frameworks have been proposed [16], [9], =-=[20]-=-. Although these frameworks are very interesting, their integration algorithms are closely related to linear-structure properties of shared document for which they have been designed. Thus, in order t... |

2 |
operational transformation-based synchronizer
- SO6
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nly T P1 property and fix a total ordering on the integration of operations. The SOCT4 algorithm [30] implements this strategy while conserving the generality of the OT approach. The SO6 synchronizer =-=[25]-=- based on SOCT4 demonstrated the use of this OT’s strength to build a tool very similar to CVS capable to reconciliate a file system containing text files and XML documents. Unfortunately, building th... |

1 |
operational transformation-based synchronizer. http://www.libresource.org
- SO6
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nly T P1 property and fix a total ordering on the integration of operations. The SOCT4 algorithm [29] implements this strategy while conserving the generality of the OT approach. The SO6 synchronizer =-=[1]-=- based on SOCT4 demonstrated the use of this OT’s strength to build a tool very similar to CVS capable to reconciliate a file system containing text files and XML documents. Unfortunately, building th... |

1 |
An Approach to Ensuring Consistency
- Li, Li
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) ins(2, z) azcd azcd ins(2, x) ins(3, x) �� site 3 “abcd” op3 = ins(2, z) acd acd acd azbcd �� op1 = ins(2, y) �� aycd aycd aycd axzcd azxcd Fig. 12. SDT counter-example verified the proof published =-=[14]-=-. We found that the proof of Lemma 5 is incomplete. Indeed, in this proof, authors consider two cases: O3 → (O1 � O2) or O3 � (O1 � O2). Unfortunately, the proof of Lemma 5 does not consider the case ... |