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## The design and experimental analysis of algorithms for temporal reasoning (1996)

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Venue: | Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research |

Citations: | 56 - 0 self |

### Citations

2894 | Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals
- Allen
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ween intervals. We then discuss the set of problems that was chosen to test the algorithms. 2.1 Allen's framework There are thirteen basic relations that can hold between two intervals (see Figure 1; =-=Allen, 1983-=-; Bruce, 1972). In order to represent indenite information, the relation between two intervals is allowed to be a disjunction of the basic relations. Sets are used to list the disjunctions. For examp... |

2866 |
The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms
- Aho, Hopcroft, et al.
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...solve, whereas for values of p on either side (S(n; 1=2) and S(n; 1=8)) the problems were easier. 5 van Beek & Manchak 3. Path Consistency Algorithm Path consistency or transitive closure algorithms (=-=Aho, Hopcroft, & Ullman, 1974-=-; Mackworth, 1977; Montanari, 1974) are important for temporal reasoning. Allen (1983) shows that a path consistency algorithm can be used as a heuristic test for whether an IA network is consistent (... |

1138 |
Consistency in networks of relations
- Mackworth
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on either side (S(n; 1=2) and S(n; 1=8)) the problems were easier. 5 van Beek & Manchak 3. Path Consistency Algorithm Path consistency or transitive closure algorithms (Aho, Hopcroft, & Ullman, 1974; =-=Mackworth, 1977-=-; Montanari, 1974) are important for temporal reasoning. Allen (1983) shows that a path consistency algorithm can be used as a heuristic test for whether an IA network is consistent (sometimes the alg... |

520 | Increasing Tree Search Efficiency for Constraint-Satisfaction Problems - Haralick, Elliot - 1980 |

484 |
Networks of constraints: Fundamental properties and applications to picture processing
- Montanari
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(n; 1=2) and S(n; 1=8)) the problems were easier. 5 van Beek & Manchak 3. Path Consistency Algorithm Path consistency or transitive closure algorithms (Aho, Hopcroft, & Ullman, 1974; Mackworth, 1977; =-=Montanari, 1974-=-) are important for temporal reasoning. Allen (1983) shows that a path consistency algorithm can be used as a heuristic test for whether an IA network is consistent (sometimes the algorithm will repor... |

423 | Constraint propagation algorithms for temporal reasoning: A revised report
- Vilain, Kautz, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...asses of IA networks, denoted here as SA networks and NB networks. In IA networks, the relation between two intervals can be any subset of I , the set of all thirteen basic relations. In SA networks (=-=Vilain & Kautz, 1986-=-), the allowed relations between two intervals are only those subsets of I that can be translated, using the relations f<, , =, >, , 6=g, into conjunctions of 11 van Beek & Manchak relations between... |

407 |
Network-based heuristics for constraint satisfaction problems
- Dechter, Pearl
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s can greatly aect the performance of a backtracking algorithm and various methods for ordering the variables (e.g. Bitner & Reingold, 1975; Freuder, 1982; Nudel, 1983) and ordering the values (e.g. =-=Dechter & Pearl, 1988-=-; Ginsberg et al., 1990; Haralick & Elliott, 1980) have been proposed. The idea behind variable ordering heuristics is to instantiate variablessrst that will constrain the instantiation of the other v... |

285 | A sufficient condition for backtrack-free search - Freuder - 1982 |

193 | Reasoning about temporal relations: a maximal tractable subset of Allen’s interval algebra - Nebel, Bürckert - 1995 |

145 | Reasoning about qualitative temporal information - Beek - 1990 |

127 | Planning Using a Temporal World Model - Allen, F, et al. - 1983 |

127 |
Constraint satisfaction algorithms
- Nadel
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... scenario where it can be used as a preprocessing algorithm (Mackworth, 1977; Ladkin & Reinefeld, 1992) and as an algorithm that can be interleaved with the backtracking search (see the next section; =-=Nadel, 1989-=-; Ladkin & Reinefeld, 1992). In this section, we examine methods for speeding up a path consistency algorithm. The idea behind the path consistency algorithm is the following. Choose any three vertice... |

124 |
Backtrack programming techniques
- Bitner, Reingold
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd the order in which the values in the domains are tried as possible instantiations can greatly aect the performance of a backtracking algorithm and various methods for ordering the variables (e.g. =-=Bitner & Reingold, 1975-=-; Freuder, 1982; Nudel, 1983) and ordering the values (e.g. Dechter & Pearl, 1988; Ginsberg et al., 1990; Haralick & Elliott, 1980) have been proposed. The idea behind variable ordering heuristics is ... |

120 | From local to global consistency
- Dechter
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the current variable restricts the possible instantiations of future variables. This technique can be viewed as a hybrid of tree search and consistency algorithms (see Nadel, 1989; Nudel, 1983). (See =-=Dechter, 1992-=-, for a general survey on backtracking.) 4.1 Alternative formulations Let C be the matrix representation of an IA network, where C ij is the label on edge (i; j). The traditional method forsnding a co... |

117 |
Backtrack programming
- Golomb, Baumert
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dard deviation / average) for each set of 10 tests is bounded by 0.35 10 Algorithms for Temporal Reasoning 4. Backtracking Algorithm Allen (1983) was thesrst to propose that a backtracking algorithm (=-=Golomb & Baumert, 1965-=-) could be used tosnd a consistent scenario of an IA network. In the worst case, a backtracking algorithm can take an exponential amount of time to complete. This worst case also applies here as Vilai... |

107 | On the topology of the genetic fine structure - Benzer - 1607 |

98 | Complexity and Algorithms for Reasoning about Time: A Graph-Thoretic Approach - Golumbic, Shamir - 1993 |

90 | Search rearrangement backtracking and polynomial average time - Purdom - 1983 |

87 | Exact and approximate reasoning about temporal relations - Beek, Cohen - 1990 |

83 | Needed: An Empirical Science of Algorithms
- Hooker
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and (ii) randomly generate problems and \investigate how algorithmic performance depends on problem characteristics ... and learn to predict how an algorithm will perform on a given problem class" (=-=Hooker, 1994-=-). For IA networks, there is no existing collection of large benchmark problems that actually arise in practice|as opposed to, for example, planning in a toy domain such as the blocks world. As a star... |

55 |
A su cient condition for backtrack-free search
- Freuder
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... values in the domains are tried as possible instantiations can greatly aect the performance of a backtracking algorithm and various methods for ordering the variables (e.g. Bitner & Reingold, 1975; =-=Freuder, 1982-=-; Nudel, 1983) and ordering the values (e.g. Dechter & Pearl, 1988; Ginsberg et al., 1990; Haralick & Elliott, 1980) have been proposed. The idea behind variable ordering heuristics is to instantiate ... |

54 |
Consistentlabeling problems and their algorithms: Expected complexities and theorybased heuristics
- Nudel
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t as the heuristics assume a constraint satisfaction problem withsnite domains, whereas IA networks are examples of constraint satisfaction problems with innite domains. A third heuristic (due to B. =-=Nudel, 1983-=-) closely corresponds to our cardinality heuristic. All experiments were performed on a Sun 4/25 with 12 megabytes of memory. We report timings rather than some other measure such as number of iterati... |

53 |
A Model for Temporal References and Its Application in a Question Answering Program, ArtifiGial Intelligence 3
- Bruce
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. We then discuss the set of problems that was chosen to test the algorithms. 2.1 Allen's framework There are thirteen basic relations that can hold between two intervals (see Figure 1; Allen, 1983; =-=Bruce, 1972-=-). In order to represent indenite information, the relation between two intervals is allowed to be a disjunction of the basic relations. Sets are used to list the disjunctions. For example, the relat... |

51 | Ordering heuristics for arc consistency algorithms - Wallace, Freuder - 1992 |

51 |
Increasing tree search eciency for constraint satisfaction problems
- Haralick, Elliott
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hm. In chronological backtracking, when the search reaches a dead end, the search simply backs up to the next most recently instantiated variable and tries a dierent instantiation. Forward checking (=-=Haralick & Elliott, 1980-=-) is a technique where it is determined and recorded how the instantiation of the current variable restricts the possible instantiations of future variables. This technique can be viewed as a hybrid o... |

49 | Search lessons learned from crossword puzzles
- Ginsberg, Frank, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... performance of a backtracking algorithm and various methods for ordering the variables (e.g. Bitner & Reingold, 1975; Freuder, 1982; Nudel, 1983) and ordering the values (e.g. Dechter & Pearl, 1988; =-=Ginsberg et al., 1990-=-; Haralick & Elliott, 1980) have been proposed. The idea behind variable ordering heuristics is to instantiate variablessrst that will constrain the instantiation of the other variables the most. That... |

42 | Effective solution of qualitative interval constraint problem - Ladkin, Reinefeld - 1992 |

39 | On binary constraint networks
- Ladkin, Maddux
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...A fbi,mig B" can be expressed as the conjunction of point relations, (B < B + ) ^ (A < A + ) ^ (A B + ); where A and A + represent the start and end points of interval A, respectively. (See =-=Ladkin & Maddux, 1988-=-; van Beek & Cohen, 1990, for an enumeration of the allowed relations for SA networks.) In NB networks (Nebel & Burckert, 1995), the allowed relations between two intervals are only those subsets of ... |

14 | TPLAN: A Temporal Interval-Based Planner with Novel Extensions - Hogge - 1987 |

12 | A symbolic approach to interval constraint problems - Ladkin, Reinefeld - 1993 |

6 |
On the topology of genetic structure
- Benzer
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...qualitative mapping shown in Figure 2b. Example 2. Golumbic and Shamir (1993) discuss how IA networks can be used in a problem in molecular biology: examining the structure of the DNA of an organism (=-=Benzer, 1959-=-). The intervals in the IA network represent segments of DNA. Experiments can be performed to determine whether a pair of segments is either disjoint or intersects. Thus, the IA networks that result c... |

3 | Fast solution of large interval constraint networks - Reinefeld, Ladkin - 1992 |

1 | Needed: An empirical science of algorithms. Available by anonymous ftp from dimacs.rutgers.edu - Hooker - 1993 |