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Compositional Model Checking
, 1999
"... We describe a method for reducing the complexity of temporal logic model checking in systems composed of many parallel processes. The goal is to check properties of the components of a system and then deduce global properties from these local properties. The main difficulty with this type of approac ..."
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Cited by 3252 (70 self)
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We describe a method for reducing the complexity of temporal logic model checking in systems composed of many parallel processes. The goal is to check properties of the components of a system and then deduce global properties from these local properties. The main difficulty with this type of approach is that local properties are often not preserved at the global level. We present a general framework for using additional interface processes to model the environment for a component. These interface processes are typically much simpler than the full environment of the component. By composing a component with its interface processes and then checking properties of this composition, we can guarantee that these properties will be preserved at the global level. We give two example compositional systems based on the logic CTL*.
Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binarydecision diagrams
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1992
"... Ordered BinaryDecision Diagrams (OBDDS) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satmfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as grap ..."
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Cited by 1036 (13 self)
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Ordered BinaryDecision Diagrams (OBDDS) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satmfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD
Counterexampleguided Abstraction Refinement
, 2000
"... We present an automatic iterative abstractionrefinement methodology in which the initial abstract model is generated by an automatic analysis of the control structures in the program to be verified. Abstract models may admit erroneous (or "spurious") counterexamples. We devise new symb ..."
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Cited by 843 (71 self)
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We present an automatic iterative abstractionrefinement methodology in which the initial abstract model is generated by an automatic analysis of the control structures in the program to be verified. Abstract models may admit erroneous (or "spurious") counterexamples. We devise new symbolic techniques which analyze such counterexamples and refine the abstract model correspondingly.
Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond
, 1992
"... Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining stategraph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of st ..."
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Cited by 758 (41 self)
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Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining stategraph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolical/y instead of explicitly. The generality of our method comes from using a dialect of the MuCalculus as the primary specification language. We describe a model checking algorithm for MuCalculus formulas that uses Bryant’s Binary Decision Diagrams (Bryant, R. E., 1986, IEEE Trans. Comput. C35) to represent relations and formulas. We then show how our new MuCalculus model checking algorithm can be used to derive efficient decision procedures for CTL model checking, satistiability of lineartime temporal logic formulas, strong and weak observational equivalence of finite transition systems, and language containment for finite wautomata. The fixed point computations for each decision procedure are sometimes complex. but can be concisely expressed in the MuCalculus. We illustrate the practicality of our approach to symbolic model checking by discussing how it can be used to verify a simple synchronous pipeline circuit.
The synchronous dataflow programming language LUSTRE
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1991
"... This paper describes the language Lustre, which is a dataflow synchronous language, designed for programming reactive systems  such as automatic control and monitoring systems  as well as for describing hardware. The dataflow aspect of Lustre makes it very close to usual description tools in t ..."
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Cited by 646 (50 self)
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This paper describes the language Lustre, which is a dataflow synchronous language, designed for programming reactive systems  such as automatic control and monitoring systems  as well as for describing hardware. The dataflow aspect of Lustre makes it very close to usual description tools in these domains (blockdiagrams, networks of operators, dynamical samplessystems, etc: : : ), and its synchronous interpretation makes it well suited for handling time in programs. Moreover, this synchronous interpretation allows it to be compiled into an efficient sequential program. Finally, the Lustre formalism is very similar to temporal logics. This allows the language to be used for both writing programs and expressing program properties, which results in an original program verification methodology. 1 Introduction Reactive systems Reactive systems have been defined as computing systems which continuously interact with a given physical environment, when this environment is unable to sy...
Alternatingtime Temporal Logic
 Journal of the ACM
, 1997
"... Temporal logic comes in two varieties: lineartime temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branchingtime temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general var ..."
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Cited by 620 (53 self)
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Temporal logic comes in two varieties: lineartime temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branchingtime temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general variety of temporal logic: alternatingtime temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes of games, such as the game in which the system and the environment alternate moves. While lineartime and branchingtime logics are natural specification languages for closed systems, alternatingtime logics are natural specification languages for open systems. For example, by preceding the temporal operator "eventually" with a selective path quantifier, we can specify that in the game between the system and the environment, the system has a strategy to reach a certain state. Also the problems of receptiveness, realizability, and controllability can be formulated as modelchecking problems for alternatingtime formulas.
Model Checking for Programming Languages using VeriSoft
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 24TH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 1997
"... Verification by statespace exploration, also often referred to as "model checking", is an effective method for analyzing the correctness of concurrent reactive systems (e.g., communication protocols). Unfortunately, existing modelchecking techniques are restricted to the verification of ..."
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Cited by 446 (15 self)
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Verification by statespace exploration, also often referred to as "model checking", is an effective method for analyzing the correctness of concurrent reactive systems (e.g., communication protocols). Unfortunately, existing modelchecking techniques are restricted to the verification of properties of models, i.e., abstractions, of concurrent systems. In this paper, we discuss how model checking can be extended to deal directly with "actual" descriptions of concurrent systems, e.g., implementations of communication protocols written in programming languages such as C or C++. We then introduce a new search technique that is suitable for exploring the state spaces of such systems. This algorithm has been implemented in VeriSoft, a tool for systematically exploring the state spaces of systems composed of several concurrent processes executing arbitrary C code. As an example of application, we describe how VeriSoft successfully discovered an error in a 2500line C program controlling rob...
Formal Methods: State of the Art and Future Directions
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1996
"... ing with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component of this work in other works, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Permissions may be requested from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, N ..."
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Cited by 425 (6 self)
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ing with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component of this work in other works, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Permissions may be requested from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 USA, fax +1 (212) 8690481, or permissions@acm.org. 2 \Delta E.M. Clarke and J.M. Wing About ProgramsMechanical verification, Specification techniques; F.4.1 [Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages]: Mathematical LogicMechanical theorem proving General Terms: Software engineering, formal methods, hardware verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Software specification, model checking, theorem proving 1. INTRODUCTION Hardware and software systems will inevitably grow in scale and functionality. Because of this increase in complexity, the likelihood of subtle errors is much greater. Moreover, some of these errors may cause catastrophic loss of money, time, or even huma...
A Logic for Reasoning about Time and Reliability
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 1994
"... We present a logic for stating properties such as, "after a request for service there is at least a 98% probability that the service will be carried out within 2 seconds". The logic extends the temporal logic CTL by Emerson, Clarke and Sistla with time and probabilities. Formulas are inter ..."
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Cited by 371 (1 self)
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We present a logic for stating properties such as, "after a request for service there is at least a 98% probability that the service will be carried out within 2 seconds". The logic extends the temporal logic CTL by Emerson, Clarke and Sistla with time and probabilities. Formulas are interpreted over discrete time Markov chains. We give algorithms for checking that a given Markov chain satisfies a formula in the logic. The algorithms require a polynomial number of arithmetic operations, in size of both the formula and This research report is a revised and extended version of a paper that has appeared under the title "A Framework for Reasoning about Time and Reliability" in the Proceeding of the 10 th IEEE Realtime Systems Symposium, Santa Monica CA, December 1989. This work was partially supported by the Swedish Board for Technical Development (STU) as part of Esprit BRA Project SPEC, and by the Swedish Telecommunication Administration. the Markov chain. A simple example is inc...