Results 1  10
of
254
A generalized Gaussian image model for edgepreserving MAP estimation
 IEEE Trans. on Image Processing
, 1993
"... Absfrucf We present a Markov random field model which allows realistic edge modeling while providing stable maximum a posteriori MAP solutions. The proposed model, which we refer to as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF), is named for its similarity to the generalized Gaussian distri ..."
Abstract

Cited by 301 (37 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Absfrucf We present a Markov random field model which allows realistic edge modeling while providing stable maximum a posteriori MAP solutions. The proposed model, which we refer to as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF), is named for its similarity to the generalized Gaussian distribution used in robust detection and estimation. The model satisifies several desirable analytical and computational properties for MAP estimation, including continuous dependence of the estimate on the data, invariance of the character of solutions to scaling of data, and a solution which lies at the unique global minimum of the U posteriori loglikeihood function. The GGMRF is demonstrated to be useful for image reconstruction in lowdosage transmission tomography. I.
A Method for enforcing integrability in shape from shading algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 1988
"... Several recently developed techniques for reconstructing surface shape from shading information estimate surface slopes without ensuring that they are integrable. This paper presents an approach for enforcing integrability, a particular implementation of the approach, an example of its application ..."
Abstract

Cited by 284 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Several recently developed techniques for reconstructing surface shape from shading information estimate surface slopes without ensuring that they are integrable. This paper presents an approach for enforcing integrability, a particular implementation of the approach, an example of its application to extending an existing shapefromshading algorithm, and experimental results showing the improvement that results from enforcing integrability. A possibly nonintegrable estimate of surface slopes is represented by a finite set of basis functions, and integrability is enforced by calculating the orthogonal projection onto a vector subspace spanning the set of integrable slopes. This projection maps closed convex sets into closed convex sets and, hence, is attractive as a constraint in iterative algorithms. The same technique is also useful for noniterative algorithms since it provides a leastsquares fit of integrable slopes to nonintegrable slopes in one pass of the algorithm. The special case of Fou
Bayesian Modeling of Uncertainty in LowLevel Vision
, 1990
"... The need for error modeling, multisensor fusion, and robust algorithms i becoming increasingly recognized in computer vision. Bayesian modeling is a powerful, practical, and general framework for meeting these requirements. This article develops a Bayesian model for describing and manipulating the d ..."
Abstract

Cited by 204 (17 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The need for error modeling, multisensor fusion, and robust algorithms i becoming increasingly recognized in computer vision. Bayesian modeling is a powerful, practical, and general framework for meeting these requirements. This article develops a Bayesian model for describing and manipulating the dense fields, such as depth maps, associated with lowlevel computer vision. Our model consists of three components: a prior model, a sensor model, and a posterior model. The prior model captures a priori information about he structure of the field. We construct this model using the smoothness constraints from regularization to define a Markov Random Field. The sensor model describes the behavior and noise characteristics of our measurement system. We develop a number of sensor models for both sparse and dense measurements. The posterior model combines the information from the prior and sensor models using Bayes ' rule. We show how to compute optimal estimates from the posterior model and also how to compute the uncertainty (variance) in these estimates. To demonstrate the utility of our Bayesian framework, we present three examples of its application to real vision problems. The first application is the online extraction of depth from motion. Using a twodimensional generalization of the Kalman filter, we develop an incremental algorithm that provides a dense online estimate of depth whose accuracy improves over time. In the second application, we use a Bayesian model to determine observer motion from sparse depth (range) measurements. In the third application, we use the Bayesian interpretation f regularization to choose the optimal smoothing parameter for interpolation. The uncertainty modeling techniques that we develop, and the utility of these techniques invarious applications, support our claim that Bayesian modeling is a powerful and practical framework for lowlevel vision.
An Active Vision Architecture based on Iconic Representations
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... Active vision systems have the capability of continuously interacting with the environment. The rapidly changing environment of such systems means that it is attractive to replace static representations with visual routines that compute information on demand. Such routines place a premium on image d ..."
Abstract

Cited by 146 (13 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Active vision systems have the capability of continuously interacting with the environment. The rapidly changing environment of such systems means that it is attractive to replace static representations with visual routines that compute information on demand. Such routines place a premium on image data structures that are easily computed and used. The purpose of this paper is to propose a general active vision architecture based on efficiently computable iconic representations. This architecture employs two primary visual routines, one for identifying the visual image near the fovea (object identification), and another for locating a stored prototype on the retina (object location). This design allows complex visual behaviors to be obtained by composing these two routines with different parameters. The iconic representations are comprised of highdimensional feature vectors obtained from the responses of an ensemble of Gaussian derivative spatial filters at a number of orientations and...
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
Abstract

Cited by 145 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
The variational approach to shape from shading
 Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing
, 1986
"... We develop a systematic approach to the discovery of parallel iterative schemes for solving the shapefromshading problem on a grid. A standard procedure for finding such schemes is outlined, and subsequently used to derive several new ones. The shapefromshading problem is known to be mathematica ..."
Abstract

Cited by 141 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We develop a systematic approach to the discovery of parallel iterative schemes for solving the shapefromshading problem on a grid. A standard procedure for finding such schemes is outlined, and subsequently used to derive several new ones. The shapefromshading problem is known to be mathematically equivalent to a nonlinear firstorder partial differential equation in surface elevation. To avoid the problems inherent in methods used to solve such equations, we follow previous work in reformulating the problem as one of finding a surface orientation field that minimizes the integral of the brightness error. The calculus of variations is then employed to derive the appropriate Euler equations on which iterative schemes can be based. The problem of minimizing the integral of the brightness error term is ill posed, since it has an infinite number of solutions in terms of surface orientation fields. A previous method used a regularization technique to overcome this difficulty. An extra term was added to the integral to obtain an approximation to a solution that was as smooth as possible. We point out here that surface orientation has to obey an integrability constraint if it is to correspond to an underlying smooth surface. Regularization methods do not guarantee that the surface orientation recovered satisfies this constraint. see also "Shape from Shading" MIT Press.
Height and gradient from shading
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1990
"... Abstract: The method described here for recovering the shape of a surface from a shaded image can deal with complex, wrinkled surfaces. Integrability can be enforced easily because both surface height and gradient are represented (A gradient field is integrable if it is the gradient of some surface ..."
Abstract

Cited by 135 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract: The method described here for recovering the shape of a surface from a shaded image can deal with complex, wrinkled surfaces. Integrability can be enforced easily because both surface height and gradient are represented (A gradient field is integrable if it is the gradient of some surface height function). The robustness of the method stems in part from linearization of the reflectance map about the current estimate of the surface orientation at each picture cell (The reflectance map gives the dependence of scene radiance on surface orientation). The new scheme can find an exact solution of a given shapefromshading problem even though a regularizing term is included. The reason is that the penalty term is needed only to stabilize the iterative scheme when it is far from the correct solution; it can be turned off as the solution is approached. This is a reflection of the fact that shapefromshading problems are not illposed when boundary conditions are available, or when the image contains singular points. This paper includes a review of previous work on shape from shading and photoclinometry. Novel features of the new scheme are introduced one at a time to make it easier to see what each contributes. Included is a discussion of implementation details that are important if exact algebraic solutions of synthetic shapefromshading problems are to be obtained. The hope is that better performance on synthetic data will lead to better performance on real data.
Optimal perceptual inference
 In CVPR, Washington DC
, 1983
"... When a vision system creates an interpretation of some input datn, it assigns truth values or probabilities to intcrnal hypothcses about the world. We present a nondctcrministic method for assigning truth values that avoids many of the problcms encountered by existing relaxation methods. Instead of ..."
Abstract

Cited by 121 (15 self)
 Add to MetaCart
When a vision system creates an interpretation of some input datn, it assigns truth values or probabilities to intcrnal hypothcses about the world. We present a nondctcrministic method for assigning truth values that avoids many of the problcms encountered by existing relaxation methods. Instead of rcprcscnting probabilitics with realnumbers, we usc a more dircct encoding in which thc probability associated with a hypotlmis is rcprcscntcd by the probability hat it is in one of two states, true or false. Wc give a particular nondeterministic operator, based on statistical mechanics, for updating the truth values of hypothcses. The operator ensures that the probability of discovering a particular combination of hypothcscs is a simplc function of how good that combination is. Wc show that thcrc is a simple relationship bctween this operator and Bayesian inference, and we describe a learning rule which allows a parallel system to converge on a set ofweights that optimizes its perccptt~al inferences. lnt roduction One way of interpreting images is to formulate hypotheses about parts or aspects of the imagc and then decide which of these hypotheses are likely to be correct. Thc probability that each hypothesis is correct is determined partly by its fit to the imagc and partly by its fit to other hypothcses (hat are taken to be correct, so the truth'value of an individual hypothesis cannot be decided in isolation. One method of searching for the most plausible combination of hypotheses is to use a rclaxation process in which a probability is associated with each hypothesis, and the probabilities arc then iteratively modified on the basis of the fit to the imagc and the known relationships bctwcen hypotheses. An attractive property of rclaxation methods is that they can be implemented in parallel hardwarc where one computational unit is used for each possible hypothcsis, and the interactions betwcen hypotheses are implemented by dircct hardwarc connections betwcen the units. Many variations of the basic relaxation idea have becn However, all the current methods suffer from one or more of the following problems: