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An overview of limited feedback in wireless communication systems
 IEEE J. SEL. AREAS COMMUN
, 2008
"... It is now well known that employing channel adaptive signaling in wireless communication systems can yield large improvements in almost any performance metric. Unfortunately, many kinds of channel adaptive techniques have been deemed impractical in the past because of the problem of obtaining channe ..."
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Cited by 205 (41 self)
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It is now well known that employing channel adaptive signaling in wireless communication systems can yield large improvements in almost any performance metric. Unfortunately, many kinds of channel adaptive techniques have been deemed impractical in the past because of the problem of obtaining channel knowledge at the transmitter. The transmitter in many systems (such as those using frequency division duplexing) can not leverage techniques such as training to obtain channel state information. Over the last few years, research has repeatedly shown that allowing the receiver to send a small number of information bits about the channel conditions to the transmitter can allow near optimal channel adaptation. These practical systems, which are commonly referred to as limited or finiterate feedback systems, supply benefits nearly identical to unrealizable perfect transmitter channel knowledge systems when they are judiciously designed. In this tutorial, we provide a broad look at the field of limited feedback wireless communications. We review work in systems using various combinations of single antenna, multiple antenna, narrowband, broadband, singleuser, and multiuser technology. We also provide a synopsis of the role of limited feedback in the standardization of next generation wireless systems.
MIMO Broadcast Channels With FiniteRate Feedback
, 2006
"... Multiple transmit antennas in a downlink channel can provide tremendous capacity (i.e., multiplexing) gains, even when receivers have only single antennas. However, receiver and transmitter channel state information is generally required. In this correspondence, a system where each receiver has per ..."
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Cited by 189 (1 self)
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Multiple transmit antennas in a downlink channel can provide tremendous capacity (i.e., multiplexing) gains, even when receivers have only single antennas. However, receiver and transmitter channel state information is generally required. In this correspondence, a system where each receiver has perfect channel knowledge, but the transmitter only receives quantized information regarding the channel instantiation is analyzed. The wellknown zeroforcing transmission technique is considered, and simple expressions for the throughput degradation due to finiterate feedback are derived. A key finding is that the feedback rate per mobile must be increased linearly with the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) (in decibels) in order to achieve the full multiplexing gain. This is in sharp contrast to pointtopoint multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, in which it is not necessary to increase the feedback rate as a function of the SNR.
MIMO broadcast channels with finite rate feedback
 IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory
, 2006
"... Multiple transmit antennas in a downlink channel can provide tremendous capacity (i.e. multiplexing) gains, even when receivers have only single antennas. However, receiver and transmitter channel state information is generally required. In this paper, a system where each receiver has perfect channe ..."
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Cited by 155 (10 self)
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Multiple transmit antennas in a downlink channel can provide tremendous capacity (i.e. multiplexing) gains, even when receivers have only single antennas. However, receiver and transmitter channel state information is generally required. In this paper, a system where each receiver has perfect channel knowledge, but the transmitter only receives quantized information regarding the channel instantiation is analyzed. The well known zero forcing transmission technique is considered, and simple expressions for the throughput degradation due to finite rate feedback are derived. A key finding is that the feedback rate per mobile must be increased linearly with the SNR (in dB) in order to achieve the full multiplexing gain, which is in sharp contrast to pointtopoint MIMO systems in which it is not necessary to increase the feedback rate as a function of the SNR. I.
Multiantenna downlink channels with limited feedback and user selection
 IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun
, 2007
"... Abstract — We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to ..."
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Cited by 119 (2 self)
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Abstract — We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to directional information, information regarding the quality of each channel. Such information should reflect both the channel magnitude and the quantization error. Expressions for the SINR distribution and the sumrate are derived, and tradeoffs between the number of feedback bits, the number of users, and the SNR are observed. In particular, for a target performance, having more users reduces feedback load. Index Terms — MIMO, quantized feedback, limited feedback, zeroforcing beamforming, multiuser diversity, broadcast channel,
Design and analysis of transmitbeamforming based on limitedrate feedback
, 2006
"... This paper deals with design and performance analysis of transmit beamformers for multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems based on bandwidthlimited information that is fed back from the receiver to the transmitter. By casting the design of transmit beamforming based on limitedrate feedback ..."
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Cited by 75 (1 self)
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This paper deals with design and performance analysis of transmit beamformers for multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems based on bandwidthlimited information that is fed back from the receiver to the transmitter. By casting the design of transmit beamforming based on limitedrate feedback as an equivalent sphere vector quantization (SVQ) problem, multiantenna beamformed transmissions through independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels are first considered. The ratedistortion function of the vector source is upperbounded, and the operational ratedistortion performance achieved by the generalized Lloyd’s algorithm is lowerbounded. Although different in nature, the two bounds yield asymptotically equivalent performance analysis results. The average signaltonoise ratio (SNR) performance is also quantified. Finally, beamformer codebook designs are studied for correlated Rayleigh fading channels, and a lowcomplexity codebook design that achieves nearoptimal performance is derived.
Capacity of a multipleantenna fading channel with a quantized precoding matrix
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2009
"... channel, feedback from the receiver can be used to specify a transmit precoding matrix, which selectively activates the strongest channel modes. Here we analyze the performance of Random Vector Quantization (RVQ), in which the precoding matrix is selected from a random codebook containing independen ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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channel, feedback from the receiver can be used to specify a transmit precoding matrix, which selectively activates the strongest channel modes. Here we analyze the performance of Random Vector Quantization (RVQ), in which the precoding matrix is selected from a random codebook containing independent, isotropically distributed entries. We assume that channel elements are i.i.d. and known to the receiver, which relays the optimal (ratemaximizing) precoder codebook index to the transmitter using B bits. We first derive the large system capacity of beamforming (rankone precoding matrix) as a function of B, where large system refers to the limit as B and the number of transmit and receive antennas all go to infinity with fixed ratios. RVQ for beamforming is asymptotically optimal, i.e., no other quantization scheme can achieve a larger asymptotic rate. We subsequently consider a precoding matrix with arbitrary rank, and approximate the asymptotic RVQ performance with optimal and linear receivers (matched filter and Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE)). Numerical examples show that these approximations accurately predict the performance of finitesize systems of interest. Given a target spectral efficiency, numerical examples show that the amount of feedback required by the linear MMSE receiver is only slightly more than that required by the optimal receiver, whereas the matched filter can require significantly more feedback. Index Terms—Beamforming, large system analysis, limited feedback, MultiInput MultiOutput (MIMO), precoding, vector quantization. I.
BER criterion and codebook construction for finiterate precoded spatial multiplexing with linear receivers
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2006
"... Precoded spatial multiplexing systems with ratelimited feedback have been studied recently based on various precoder selection criteria. Instead of those based on indirect performance indicators, we in this paper propose a new criterion directly based on the exact bit error rate (BER) that is appl ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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Precoded spatial multiplexing systems with ratelimited feedback have been studied recently based on various precoder selection criteria. Instead of those based on indirect performance indicators, we in this paper propose a new criterion directly based on the exact bit error rate (BER) that is applicable to systems with linear receivers and rectangular/square quadratureamplitudemodulation constellations. The BER criterion outperforms any other alternative in terms of optimizing the BER performance for an uncoded system with linear receivers. We then develop a precoder codebook construction method based on the generalized Lloyd algorithm from the vector quantization literature. This construction is not directly based on the BER criterion. Hence, it is suboptimal in the BER sense. However, relative to those currently available, our newfound codebooks improve considerably various minimum distances between any pair of codewords of the codebook. Finally, we analyze the BERoptimal precoder in the asymptotic case with infiniterate feedback that amounts to perfect channel knowledge at the transmitter. The infiniterate optimal precoder based on the BER criterion is drastically different from the counterparts with other criteria, and it leads to a benchmark performance for finiterate precoded spatial multiplexing systems. We observe from numerical results that the BER performance of finiterate feedback with suboptimal codebooks approaches quickly the benchmark performance of infiniterate feedback. This suggests that i) the number of feedback bits in practical systems need not be large and ii) the room for performance improvement via further codebook optimization shrinks quickly as the codebook size increases.
Finiterate feedback MIMO broadcast channels with a large number of users
 Proc. of IEEE Intl. Symposium on Info. Theory
, 2006
"... Abstract — We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract — We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to directional information, information regarding the quality of each channel. Such information should reflect both the channel magnitude and the quantization error. Expressions for the SINR distribution and the sumrate are derived, and tradeoffs between the number of feedback bits, the number of users, and the SNR are observed. In particular, for a target performance, having more users reduces feedback load. I.
MultiAntenna Broadcast Channels with Limited Feedback and User Selection
, 2006
"... We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to directiona ..."
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Cited by 29 (3 self)
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We analyze the sumrate performance of a multiantenna downlink system carrying more users than transmit antennas, with partial channel knowledge at the transmitter due to finite rate feedback. In order to exploit multiuser diversity, we show that the transmitter must have, in addition to directional information, information regarding the quality of each channel. Such information should reflect both the channel magnitude and the quantization error. Expressions for the SINR distribution and the sumrate are derived, and tradeoffs between the number of feedback bits, the number of users, and the SNR are observed. In particular, for a target performance, having more users reduces feedback load.
On the information rate of MIMO systems with finite rate channel state feedback using beamforming and power on/off strategy
 IEEE TRANS. INFO. THEORY
, 2005
"... This paper quantifies the information rate of multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems with finite rate channel state feedback and power on/off strategy. In power on/off strategy, a beamforming vector (beam) is either turned on (denoted by onbeam) with a constant power or turned off. We prov ..."
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Cited by 23 (11 self)
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This paper quantifies the information rate of multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems with finite rate channel state feedback and power on/off strategy. In power on/off strategy, a beamforming vector (beam) is either turned on (denoted by onbeam) with a constant power or turned off. We prove that the ratio of the optimal number of onbeams and the number of antennas converges to a constant for a given signaltonoise ratio (SNR) when the number of transmit and receive antennas approaches infinity simultaneously and when beamforming is perfect. Based on this result, a near optimal strategy, i.e., power on/off strategy with a constant number of onbeams, is discussed. For such a strategy, we propose the power efficiency factor to quantify the effect of imperfect beamforming. A formula is proposed to compute the maximum power efficiency factor achievable given a feedback rate. The information rate of the overall MIMO system can be approximated by combining the asymptotic results and the formula for power efficiency factor. Simulations show that this approximation is accurate for all SNR regimes.