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A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth
 Quarterly Journal of Economics
, 1992
"... This paper examines whether the Solow growth model is consistent with the international variation in the standard of living. It shows that an augmented Solow model that includes accumulation of human as well as physical capital provides an excellent description of the crosscountry data. The paper a ..."
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Cited by 1258 (12 self)
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This paper examines whether the Solow growth model is consistent with the international variation in the standard of living. It shows that an augmented Solow model that includes accumulation of human as well as physical capital provides an excellent description of the crosscountry data. The paper also examines the implications of the Solow model for convergence in standards of living, that is, for whether poor countries tend to grow faster than rich countries. The evidence indicates that, holding population growth and capital accumulation constant, countries converge at about the rate the augmented Solow model predicts.
Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality
, 1998
"... We derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of various estimators frequently used to order distributions in terms of poverty, welfare and inequality. This includes estimators of most of the poverty indices currently in use, as well as estimators of the curves used to infer stochastic dominance ..."
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Cited by 262 (32 self)
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We derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of various estimators frequently used to order distributions in terms of poverty, welfare and inequality. This includes estimators of most of the poverty indices currently in use, as well as estimators of the curves used to infer stochastic dominance of any order. These curves can be used to determine whether poverty, inequality or social welfare is greater in one distribution than in another for general classes of indices. We also derive the sampling distribution of the maximal poverty lines (or income censoring thresholds) up to which we may con dently assert that poverty or social welfare is greater in one distribution than in another. The sampling distribution of convenient estimators for dual approaches to the measurement ofpoverty is also established. The
The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and
 Convergence, Period, Quarterly Journal of Economics
, 2006
"... We estimate the WDI by integrating individual income distributions for 138 countries between 1970 and 2000. Country distributions are constructed by combining national accounts GDP per capita to anchor the mean with survey data to pin down the dispersion. Poverty rates and headcounts are reported fo ..."
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Cited by 172 (2 self)
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We estimate the WDI by integrating individual income distributions for 138 countries between 1970 and 2000. Country distributions are constructed by combining national accounts GDP per capita to anchor the mean with survey data to pin down the dispersion. Poverty rates and headcounts are reported for four specific poverty lines. Rates in 2000 were between onethird and onehalf of what they were in 1970 for all four lines. There were between 250 and 500 million fewer poor in 2000 than in 1970. We estimate eight indexes of income inequality implied by our world distribution of income. All of them show reductions in global inequality during the 1980s and
Bootstrap Tests for Distributional Treatment Effects in Instrumental Variable Models
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 2002
"... This article considers the problem of assessing the distributional consequence s of a treatment on some outcome variable of interest when treatment intake is (possibly) nonrandomized, but there is a binary instrument available for the researcher. Such a scenario is common in observational studies an ..."
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Cited by 163 (1 self)
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This article considers the problem of assessing the distributional consequence s of a treatment on some outcome variable of interest when treatment intake is (possibly) nonrandomized, but there is a binary instrument available for the researcher. Such a scenario is common in observational studies and in randomized experiments with imperfect compliance. One possible approach to this problem is to compare the counterfactual cumulative distribution functions of the outcome with and without the treatment. This article shows how to estimate these distributions using instrumental variable methods and a simple bootstrap procedure is proposed to test distributional hypotheses, such as equality of distributions, � rstorder and secondorder stochastic dominance. These tests and estimators are applied to the study of the effects of veteran status on the distribution of civilian earnings. The results show a negative effect of military service during the Vietnam era that appears to be concentrated on the lower tail of the distribution of earnings. Firstorder stochastic dominance cannot be rejected by the data.
Decomposable Income Inequality Measures
 Econoinetrica
, 1979
"... you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact inform ..."
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Cited by 150 (2 self)
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you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Health, inequality, and economic development
 Journal of Economic Literature
, 2003
"... SUPPOSE THAT INCOME causes good health.People live longer and are healthier in rich countries than in poor countries, people live longer and are healthier than their grandparents and greatgrandparents who ..."
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Cited by 144 (0 self)
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SUPPOSE THAT INCOME causes good health.People live longer and are healthier in rich countries than in poor countries, people live longer and are healthier than their grandparents and greatgrandparents who
The World Distribution of Income (estimated from Individual Country Distributions)
, 2002
"... We estimate the world distribution of income by integrating individual income distributions for 125 countries between 1970 and 1998. We estimate poverty rates and headcounts by integrating the density function below the $1/day and $2/day poverty lines. We find that poverty rates decline substantiall ..."
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Cited by 101 (3 self)
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We estimate the world distribution of income by integrating individual income distributions for 125 countries between 1970 and 1998. We estimate poverty rates and headcounts by integrating the density function below the $1/day and $2/day poverty lines. We find that poverty rates decline substantially over the last twenty years. We compute poverty headcounts and find that the number of onedollar poor declined by 235 million between 1976 and 1998. The number of $2/day poor declined by 450 million over the same period. We analyze poverty across different regions and countries. Asia is a great success, especially after 1980. Latin America reduced poverty substantially in the 1970s but progress stopped in the 1980s and 1990s. The worst performer was Africa, where poverty rates increased substantially over the last thirty years: the number of $1/day poor in Africa increased by 175 million between 1970 and 1998, and the number of $2/day poor increased by 227. Africa hosted 11 % of the world’s poor in 1960. It hosted 66 % of them in 1998. We estimate seven indexes of income inequality implied by our world distribution of income. All of them show substantial reductions in global income inequality during the 1980s and 1990s.
Running to Keep the Same Place: Consumer Choice as a Game of Status
 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
, 2004
"... If individuals care about their status, defined as their rank in the distribution of consumption of one “positional ” good, then the consumer’s problem is strategic as her utility depends on the consumption choices of others. In the symmetric Nash equilibrium, each individual spends an inefficiently ..."
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Cited by 97 (8 self)
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If individuals care about their status, defined as their rank in the distribution of consumption of one “positional ” good, then the consumer’s problem is strategic as her utility depends on the consumption choices of others. In the symmetric Nash equilibrium, each individual spends an inefficientlyhighamountonthe status good. Using techniques from auction theory, we analyze the effects of exogenous changes in the distribution of income. In a richer society, almost all individuals spend more on conspicuous consumption, and individual utility is lower at each income level. In a more equal society, the poor are worse off.
Unrestricted Statistical Inference with Lorenz Curves and Income Shares
 Dept. of Economics, Queen's University Discussion Paper
, 1982
"... The paper considers the problem of statistical inference with estimated Lorenz curves and income shares. The full variancecovariance structure of the (asymptotic) normal distribution of a vector of Lorenz curve ordinates is derived and shown to depend only on conditional first and second moments th ..."
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Cited by 83 (5 self)
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The paper considers the problem of statistical inference with estimated Lorenz curves and income shares. The full variancecovariance structure of the (asymptotic) normal distribution of a vector of Lorenz curve ordinates is derived and shown to depend only on conditional first and second moments that can be estimated consistently without prior specification of the population density underlying the sample data. Lorenz curves and income shares can thus be used as tools for statistical inference instead of simply as descriptive statistics. 1.
Measuring Future Grandparents’ Preferences for Equality and Relative Standing
 The Economic Journal
, 2002
"... Individuals ’ aversion to risk and inequality, and their concern for relative standing, are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies. It is found that, on average, individuals are both fairly inequalityaverse and have a strong concern for relative income. The results are ..."
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Cited by 78 (12 self)
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Individuals ’ aversion to risk and inequality, and their concern for relative standing, are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies. It is found that, on average, individuals are both fairly inequalityaverse and have a strong concern for relative income. The results are used to illustrate welfare consequences based on a utilitarian SWF and a modified CRRA utility function. It is shown that the social marginal utility of income may then become negative, even at income levels that are far from extreme. 1.