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201
Discriminative frequent pattern analysis for effective classification
 In ICDE
, 2007
"... The application of frequent patterns in classification appeared in sporadic studies and achieved initial success in the classification of relational data, text documents and graphs. In this paper, we conduct a systematic exploration of frequent patternbased classification, and provide solid reasons ..."
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Cited by 112 (20 self)
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The application of frequent patterns in classification appeared in sporadic studies and achieved initial success in the classification of relational data, text documents and graphs. In this paper, we conduct a systematic exploration of frequent patternbased classification, and provide solid reasons supporting this methodology. It was well known that feature combinations (patterns) could capture more underlying semantics than single features. However, inclusion of infrequent patterns may not significantly improve the accuracy due to their limited predictive power. By building a connection between pattern frequency and discriminative measures such as information gain and Fisher score, we develop a strategy to set minimum support in frequent pattern mining for generating useful patterns. Based on this strategy, coupled with a proposed feature selection algorithm, discriminative frequent patterns can be generated for building high quality classifiers. We demonstrate that the frequent patternbased classification framework can achieve good scalability and high accuracy in classifying large datasets. Empirical studies indicate that significant improvement in classification accuracy is achieved (up to 12 % in UCI datasets) using the soselected discriminative frequent patterns. 1.
Spin: Mining maximal frequent subgraphs from graph databases
 IN KDD
, 2004
"... One fundamental challenge for mining recurring subgraphs from semistructured data sets is the overwhelming abundance of such patterns. In large graph databases, the total number of frequent subgraphs can become too large to allow a full enumeration using reasonable computational resources. In this ..."
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Cited by 99 (12 self)
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One fundamental challenge for mining recurring subgraphs from semistructured data sets is the overwhelming abundance of such patterns. In large graph databases, the total number of frequent subgraphs can become too large to allow a full enumeration using reasonable computational resources. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that mines only maximal frequent subgraphs, i.e. subgraphs that are not a part of any other frequent subgraphs. This may exponentially decrease the size of the output set in the best case; in our experiments on practical data sets, mining maximal frequent subgraphs reduces the total number of mined patterns by two to three orders of magnitude. Our method first mines all frequent trees from a general graph database and then reconstructs all maximal subgraphs from the mined trees. Using two chemical structure benchmarks and a set of synthetic graph data sets, we demonstrate that, in addition to decreasing the output size, our algorithm can achieve a fivefold speed up over the current stateoftheart subgraph mining algorithms.
ClosureTree: An Index Structure for Graph Queries
, 2006
"... Graphs have become popular for modeling structured data. As a result, graph queries are becoming common and graph indexing has come to play an essential role in query processing. We introduce the concept of a graph closure, a generalized graph that represents a number of graphs. Our indexing techniq ..."
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Cited by 92 (1 self)
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Graphs have become popular for modeling structured data. As a result, graph queries are becoming common and graph indexing has come to play an essential role in query processing. We introduce the concept of a graph closure, a generalized graph that represents a number of graphs. Our indexing technique, called Closuretree, organizes graphs hierarchically where each node summarizes its descendants by a graph closure. Closuretree can efficiently support both subgraph queries and similarity queries. Subgraph queries find graphs that contain a specific subgraph, whereas similarity queries find graphs that are similar to a query graph. For subgraph queries, we propose a technique called pseudo subgraph isomorphism which approximates subgraph isomorphism with high accuracy. For similarity queries, we measure graph similarity through edit distance using heuristic graph mapping methods. We implement two kinds of similarity queries: KNN query and range query. Our experiments on chemical compounds and synthetic graphs show that for subgraph queries, Closuretree outperforms existing techniques by up to two orders of magnitude in terms of candidate answer set size and index size. For similarity queries, our experiments validate the quality and efficiency of the presented algorithms.
Substructure similarity search in graph databases
 In SIGMOD
, 2005
"... Advanced database systems face a great challenge raised by the emergence of massive, complex structural data in bioinformatics, cheminformatics, and many other applications. The most fundamental support needed in these applications is the efficient search of complex structured data. Since exact mat ..."
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Cited by 90 (6 self)
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Advanced database systems face a great challenge raised by the emergence of massive, complex structural data in bioinformatics, cheminformatics, and many other applications. The most fundamental support needed in these applications is the efficient search of complex structured data. Since exact matching is often too restrictive, similarity search of complex structures becomes a vital operation that must be supported efficiently. In this paper, we investigate the issues of substructure similarity search using indexed features in graph databases. By transforming the edge relaxation ratio of a query graph into the maximum allowed missing features, our structural filtering algorithm, called Grafil, can filter many graphs without performing pairwise similarity computations. It is further shown that using either too few or too many features can result in poor filtering performance. Thus the challenge is to design an effective feature set selection strategy for filtering. By examining the effect of different feature selection mechanisms, we develop a multifilter composition strategy, where each filter uses a distinct and complementary subset of the features. We identify the criteria to form effective feature sets for filtering, and demonstrate that combining features with similar size and selectivity can improve the filtering and search performance significantly. Moreover, the concept presented in Grafil can be applied to searching approximate nonconsecutive sequences, trees, and other complicated structures as well. 1.
Graphsatatime: Query Language and Access Methods for Graph Databases
, 2008
"... With the prevalence of graph data in a variety of domains, there is an increasing need for a language to query and manipulate graphs with heterogeneous attributes and structures. We propose a query language for graph databases that supports arbitrary attributes on nodes, edges, and graphs. In this l ..."
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Cited by 70 (0 self)
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With the prevalence of graph data in a variety of domains, there is an increasing need for a language to query and manipulate graphs with heterogeneous attributes and structures. We propose a query language for graph databases that supports arbitrary attributes on nodes, edges, and graphs. In this language, graphs are the basic unit of information and each query manipulates one or more collections of graphs. To allow for flexible compositions of graph structures, we extend the notion of formal languages from strings to the graph domain. We present a graph algebra extended from the relational algebra in which the selection operator is generalized to graph pattern matching and a composition operator is introduced for rewriting matched graphs. Then, we investigate access methods of the selection operator. Pattern matching over large graphs is challenging due to the NPcompleteness of subgraph isomorphism. We address this by a combination of techniques: use of neighborhood subgraphs and profiles, joint reduction of the search space, and optimization of the search order. Experimental results on real and synthetic large graphs demonstrate that our graph specific optimizations outperform an SQLbased implementation by orders of magnitude.
Mining significant graph patterns by leap search
 in SIGMOD ’08
"... With everincreasing amounts of graph data from disparate sources, there has been a strong need for exploiting significant graph patterns with userspecified objective functions. Most objective functions are not antimonotonic, which could fail all of frequencycentric graph mining algorithms. In thi ..."
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Cited by 69 (17 self)
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With everincreasing amounts of graph data from disparate sources, there has been a strong need for exploiting significant graph patterns with userspecified objective functions. Most objective functions are not antimonotonic, which could fail all of frequencycentric graph mining algorithms. In this paper, we give the first comprehensive study on general mining method aiming to find most significant patterns directly. Our new mining framework, called LEAP(Descending Leap Mine), is developed to exploit the correlation between structural similarity and significance similarity in a way that the most significant pattern could be identified quickly by searching dissimilar graph patterns. Two novel concepts, structural leap search and frequency descending mining, are proposed to support leap search in graph pattern space. Our new mining method revealed that the widely adopted branchandbound search in data mining literature is indeed not the best, thus sketching a new picture on scalable graph pattern discovery. Empirical results show that LEAP achieves orders of magnitude speedup in comparison with the stateoftheart method. Furthermore, graph classifiers built on mined patterns outperform the uptodate graph kernel method in terms of efficiency and accuracy, demonstrating the high promise of such patterns.
Summarizing itemset patterns: a profilebased approach
 In KDD
, 2005
"... Frequentpattern mining has been studied extensively on scalable methods for mining various kinds of patterns including itemsets, sequences, and graphs. However, the bottleneck of frequentpattern mining is not at the efficiency but at the interpretability, due to the huge number of patterns generat ..."
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Cited by 67 (9 self)
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Frequentpattern mining has been studied extensively on scalable methods for mining various kinds of patterns including itemsets, sequences, and graphs. However, the bottleneck of frequentpattern mining is not at the efficiency but at the interpretability, due to the huge number of patterns generated by the mining process. In this paper, we examine how to summarize a collection of itemset patterns using only K representatives, a small number of patterns that a user can handle easily. The K representatives should not only cover most of the frequent patterns but also approximate their supports. A generative model is built to extract and profile these representatives, under which the supports of the patterns can be easily recovered without consulting the original dataset. Based on the restoration error, we propose a quality measure function to determine the optimal value of parameter K. Polynomial time algorithms are developed together with several optimization heuristics for efficiency improvement. Empirical studies indicate that we can obtain compact summarization in real datasets.
On mining crossgraph quasicliques
 In KDD
, 2005
"... Joint mining of multiple data sets can often discover interesting, novel, and reliable patterns which cannot be obtained solely from any single source. For example, in crossmarket customer segmentation, a group of customers who behave similarly in multiple markets should be considered as a more coh ..."
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Cited by 62 (6 self)
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Joint mining of multiple data sets can often discover interesting, novel, and reliable patterns which cannot be obtained solely from any single source. For example, in crossmarket customer segmentation, a group of customers who behave similarly in multiple markets should be considered as a more coherent and more reliable cluster than clusters found in a single market. As another example, in bioinformatics, by joint mining of gene expression data and protein interaction data, we can find clusters of genes which show coherent expression patterns and also produce interacting proteins. Such clusters may be potential pathways. In this paper, we investigate a novel data mining problem, mining crossgraph quasicliques, which is generalized from several interesting applications such as crossmarket customer segmentation and joint mining of gene expression data and protein interaction data. We build a general model for mining crossgraph quasicliques, show why the complete set of crossgraph quasicliques cannot be found by previous data mining methods, and study the complexity of the problem. While the problem is difficult, we develop an efficient algorithm, Crochet, which exploits several interesting and effective techniques and heuristics to efficaciously mine crossgraph quasicliques. A systematic performance study is reported on both synthetic and real data sets. We demonstrate some interesting and meaningful crossgraph quasicliques in bioinformatics. The experimental results also show that algorithm Crochet is efficient and scalable.
LargeScale Malware Indexing Using FunctionCall Graphs
"... A major challenge of the antivirus (AV) industry is how to effectively process the huge influx of malware samples they receive every day. One possible solution to this problem is to quickly determine if a new malware sample is similar to any previouslyseen malware program. In this paper, we design ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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A major challenge of the antivirus (AV) industry is how to effectively process the huge influx of malware samples they receive every day. One possible solution to this problem is to quickly determine if a new malware sample is similar to any previouslyseen malware program. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate a malware database management system called SMIT (Symantec Malware Indexing Tree) that can efficiently make such determination based on malware’s functioncall graphs, which is a structural representation known to be less susceptible to instructionlevel obfuscations commonly employed by malware writers to evade detection of AV software. Because each malware program is represented as a graph, the problem of searching for the most similar malware program in a database to a given malware sample is cast into a nearestneighbor search problem in a graph database. To speed