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806
Alternatingtime Temporal Logic
 Journal of the ACM
, 1997
"... Temporal logic comes in two varieties: lineartime temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branchingtime temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general var ..."
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Cited by 620 (53 self)
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Temporal logic comes in two varieties: lineartime temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branchingtime temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general variety of temporal logic: alternatingtime temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes of games, such as the game in which the system and the environment alternate moves. While lineartime and branchingtime logics are natural specification languages for closed systems, alternatingtime logics are natural specification languages for open systems. For example, by preceding the temporal operator "eventually" with a selective path quantifier, we can specify that in the game between the system and the environment, the system has a strategy to reach a certain state. Also the problems of receptiveness, realizability, and controllability can be formulated as modelchecking problems for alternatingtime formulas.
On Social Laws for Artificial Agent Societies: OffLine Design
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... We are concerned with the utility of social laws in a computational environment, laws which guarantee the successful coexistence of multiple programs and programmers. In this paper we are interested in the off line design of social laws, where we as designers must decide ahead of time on useful soci ..."
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Cited by 243 (9 self)
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We are concerned with the utility of social laws in a computational environment, laws which guarantee the successful coexistence of multiple programs and programmers. In this paper we are interested in the off line design of social laws, where we as designers must decide ahead of time on useful social laws. In the first part of this paper we suggest the use of social laws in the domain of mobile robots, and prove analytic results about the usefulness of this approach in that setting. In the second part of this paper we present a general model of social law in a computational system, and investigate some of its properties. This includes a definition of the basic computational problem involved with the design of multiagent systems, and an investigation of the automatic synthesis of useful social laws in the framework of a model which refers explicitly to social laws. This work was supported in part by a grant from the USIsrael Binational Science Foundation. 1 Introduction This pa...
On the Synthesis of Discrete Controllers for Timed Systems
 in E.W. Mayr and C. Puech (Eds), Proc. STACS'95, LNCS 900
, 1995
"... Abstract. This paper presents algorithms for the automatic synthesis of realtime controllers by nding a winning strategy for certain games de ned by the timedautomata of Alur and Dill. In such games, the outcome depends on the players ' actions as well as on their timing. We believe that thes ..."
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Cited by 243 (18 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents algorithms for the automatic synthesis of realtime controllers by nding a winning strategy for certain games de ned by the timedautomata of Alur and Dill. In such games, the outcome depends on the players ' actions as well as on their timing. We believe that these results will pave theway for the application of program synthesis techniques to the construction of realtime embedded systems from their speci cations. 1
Teleoreactive programs for agent control
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1994
"... A formalism is presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments. We introduce the notion of teleoreactive (TR) programs whose execution entails the construction of circuitry for the continuous computation of the parameters and conditions on which agent a ..."
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Cited by 226 (1 self)
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A formalism is presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments. We introduce the notion of teleoreactive (TR) programs whose execution entails the construction of circuitry for the continuous computation of the parameters and conditions on which agent action is based. In addition to continuous feedback, TR programs support parameter binding and recursion. A primary di erence between TR programs and many other circuitbased systems is that the circuitry of TR programs is more compact; it is constructed at run time and thus does not have toanticipate all the contingencies that might arise over all possible runs. In addition, TR programs are intuitive and easy to write and are written in a form that is compatible with automatic planning and learning methods. We brie y describe some experimental applications of TR programs in the control of simulated and actual mobile robots. 1.
Controllers for Reachability Specifications for Hybrid Systems
 Automatica
, 1999
"... The problem of systematically synthesizing hybrid controllers which satisfy multiple control objectives is considered. We present a technique, based on the principles of optimal control, for determining the class of least restrictive controllers that satisfies the most important objective (which we ..."
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Cited by 172 (42 self)
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The problem of systematically synthesizing hybrid controllers which satisfy multiple control objectives is considered. We present a technique, based on the principles of optimal control, for determining the class of least restrictive controllers that satisfies the most important objective (which we refer to as safety). The system performance with respect to lower priority objectives (which we refer to as efficiency) can then be optimized within this class. We motivate our approach by showing how the proposed synthesis technique simplifies to well known results from supervisory control and pursuit evasion games when restricted to purely discrete and purely continuous systems respectively. We then illustrate the application of this technique to two examples, one hybrid (the steam boiler benchmark problem), and one primarily continuous (a flight vehicle management system with discrete flight modes). 1 Introduction Hybrid systems, or systems that involve the interaction of discrete and co...
Logics for Hybrid Systems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper offers a synthetic overview of, and original contributions to, the use of logics and formal methods in the analysis of hybrid systems ..."
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Cited by 137 (12 self)
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This paper offers a synthetic overview of, and original contributions to, the use of logics and formal methods in the analysis of hybrid systems
Design of Embedded Systems: Formal Models, Validation, and Synthesis
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 1999
"... This paper addresses the design of reactive realtime embedded systems. Such systems are often heterogeneous in implementation technologies and design styles, for example by combining hardware ASICs with embedded software. The concurrent design process for such embedded systems involves solving the ..."
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Cited by 127 (9 self)
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This paper addresses the design of reactive realtime embedded systems. Such systems are often heterogeneous in implementation technologies and design styles, for example by combining hardware ASICs with embedded software. The concurrent design process for such embedded systems involves solving the specification, validation, and synthesis problems. We review the variety of approaches to these problems that have been taken.
Synchronous Observers and the Verification of Reactive Systems
 Third Int. Conf. on Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology, AMAST'93, Twente
, 1993
"... This paper is a survey of our specification and verification techniques, in a very general, language independent, framework. Section 1 introduces a simple model of synchronous input/output machines, which will be used throughout the paper. In section 2, we show how such a machine can be designed to ..."
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Cited by 127 (12 self)
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This paper is a survey of our specification and verification techniques, in a very general, language independent, framework. Section 1 introduces a simple model of synchronous input/output machines, which will be used throughout the paper. In section 2, we show how such a machine can be designed to check the satisfaction of a safety property, and we discuss the use of such an observer in program verification. In section 3, we use an observer to restrict the behavior of a machine. This is the basic way for representing assumptions about the environment. Applications to modular and inductive verification are considered. In modular verification, one has to find, by intuition, a property of a subprogram that is strong enough to allow the verification of the whole program without fully considering the subprogram. In section 4, we consider the automatic synthesis of such a property, and in section 5, we investigate the possibility of deducing the subprogram from such a synthesized specification.
3D Human body model acquisition from multiple views
, 1995
"... We present a novel motionbased approach for the part determination and shape estimation of a human’s body parts. The novelty of the technique is that neither a prior model of the human body is employed nor prior body part segmentation is assumed. We present a Human Body Part Identification Strategy ..."
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Cited by 126 (11 self)
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We present a novel motionbased approach for the part determination and shape estimation of a human’s body parts. The novelty of the technique is that neither a prior model of the human body is employed nor prior body part segmentation is assumed. We present a Human Body Part Identification Strategy (HBPIS) that recovers all the body parts of a moving human based on the spatiotemporal analysis of its deforming silhouette. We formalize the process of simultaneous part determination, and 2D shape estimation by employing the Supervisory Control Theory of Discrete Event Systems. In addition, in order to acquire the 3D shape of the body parts, we present a new algorithm which selectively integrates the (segmented by the HBPIS) apparent contours, from three mutually orthogonal views. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through a series of experiments, where a subject performs a set of movements according to a protocol that reveals the structure of the human body. 1
Games for synthesis of controllers with partial observation
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
"... The synthesis of controllers for discrete event systems, as introduced by Ramadge and Wonham, amounts to computing winning strategies in parity games. We show that in this framework it is possible to extend the specifications of the supervised systems as well as the constraints on the controllers ..."
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Cited by 117 (15 self)
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The synthesis of controllers for discrete event systems, as introduced by Ramadge and Wonham, amounts to computing winning strategies in parity games. We show that in this framework it is possible to extend the specifications of the supervised systems as well as the constraints on the controllers by expressing them in the modal µcalculus. In order to express unobservability constraints, we propose an extension of the modal µcalculus in which one can specify whether an edge of a graph is a loop. This extended µcalculus still has the interesting properties of the classical one. In particular it is equivalent to automata with loop testing. The problems such as emptiness testing and elimination of alternation are solvable for such automata. The method proposed in this paper to solve a control problem consists in transforming this problem into a problem of satisfiability of a µcalculus formula so that the set of models of this formula is exactly the set of controllers that solve the problem. This transformation relies on a simple construction of the quotient of automata with loop testing by a deterministic transition system. This is enough to deal with centralized control problems. The solution of decentralized control problems uses a more involved construction of the quotient of two automata. This work extends the framework of Ramadge and Wonham in two directions. We consider infinite behaviours and arbitrary regular specifications, while the standard framework deals only with specifications on the set of finite paths of processes. We also allow dynamic changes of the set of observable and controllable events.