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Computing with Real Numbers  I. The LFT Approach to Real Number Computation  II. A Domain Framework for Computational Geometry
 PROC APPSEM SUMMER SCHOOL IN PORTUGAL
, 2002
"... We introduce, in Part I, a number representation suitable for exact real number computation, consisting of an exponent and a mantissa, which is an in nite stream of signed digits, based on the interval [ 1; 1]. Numerical operations are implemented in terms of linear fractional transformations ( ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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We introduce, in Part I, a number representation suitable for exact real number computation, consisting of an exponent and a mantissa, which is an in nite stream of signed digits, based on the interval [ 1; 1]. Numerical operations are implemented in terms of linear fractional transformations (LFT's). We derive lower and upper bounds for the number of argument digits that are needed to obtain a desired number of result digits of a computation, which imply that the complexity of LFT application is that of multiplying nbit integers. In Part II, we present an accessible account of a domaintheoretic approach to computational geometry and solid modelling which provides a datatype for designing robust geometric algorithms, illustrated here by the convex hull algorithm.
Contractivity of Linear Fractional Transformations
 Third Real Numbers and Computers Conference (RNC3
, 1998
"... One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations (LFT's) to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. Recursive expressions built from LFT's are only convergent (i.e., denote a welldefined real number) if the involved LFT's are ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations (LFT's) to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. Recursive expressions built from LFT's are only convergent (i.e., denote a welldefined real number) if the involved LFT's are sufficiently contractive. In this paper, we define a notion of contractivity for LFT's. It is used for convergence theorems and for the analysis and improvement of algorithms for elementary functions. Keywords : Exact Real Arithmetic, Linear Fractional Transformations 1 Introduction Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's) provide an elegant approach to real number arithmetic [8, 17, 11, 14, 12, 6]. Onedimensional LFT's x 7! ax+c bx+d are used in the representation of real numbers and to implement basic unary functions, while twodimensional LFT's (x; y) 7! axy+cx+ey+g bxy+dx+fy+h provide binary operations such as addition and multiplication, and can be combined to obtain infinite expression trees ...
On the nonsequential nature of the intervaldomain model of realnumber computation
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
"... of realnumber computation ..."
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Lazy Computation with Exact Real Numbers
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ACM SIGPLAN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING (ICFP98), VOLUME 34, 1 OF ACM SIGPLAN NOTICES
, 1997
"... We extend the framework for exact real arithmetic using linear fractional transformations from the nonnegative numbers to the extended real line. We then present an extension of PCF with a real type which introduces an eventually breadthfirst strategy for lazy evaluation of exact real numbers. In ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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We extend the framework for exact real arithmetic using linear fractional transformations from the nonnegative numbers to the extended real line. We then present an extension of PCF with a real type which introduces an eventually breadthfirst strategy for lazy evaluation of exact real numbers. In this language, we present the constant redundant if, rif, for defining functions by cases which, in contrast to parallel if (pif), overcomes the problem of undecidability of comparison of real numbers in finite time. We use the upper space of the onepoint compactification of the real line to develop a denotational semantics for the lazy evaluation of real programs. Finally two adequacy results are proved, one for programs containing rif and one for those not containing it. Our adequacy results in particular provide the proof of correctness of algorithms for computation of singlevalued elementary functions.
Integration in real PCF
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... Real PCF is an extension of the programming language PCF with a data type for real numbers. Although a Real PCF definable real number cannot be computed in finitely many steps, it is possible to compute an arbitrarily small rational interval containing the real number in a sufficiently large number ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Real PCF is an extension of the programming language PCF with a data type for real numbers. Although a Real PCF definable real number cannot be computed in finitely many steps, it is possible to compute an arbitrarily small rational interval containing the real number in a sufficiently large number of steps. Based on a domaintheoretic approach to integration, we show how to define integration in Real PCF. We propose two approaches to integration in Real PCF. One consists in adding integration as primitive. The other consists in adding a primitive for function maximization and then recursively defining integration from maximization. In both cases we have a computational adequacy theorem for the corresponding extension of Real PCF. Moreover, based on previous work on Real PCF definability, we show that Real PCF extended with the maximization operator is universal. 1
The Appearance of Big Integers in Exact Real Arithmetic based on Linear Fractional Transformations
 In Proc. Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures (FoSSaCS '98), volume 1378 of LNCS
, 1997
"... . One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. In this paper, we show that the bit sizes of the (integer) parameters of nearly all transformations used in computations are proportional to the nu ..."
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. One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. In this paper, we show that the bit sizes of the (integer) parameters of nearly all transformations used in computations are proportional to the number of basic computational steps executed so far. Here, a basic step means consuming one digit of the argument(s) or producing one digit of the result. 1 Introduction Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's) provide an elegant approach to real number arithmetic [8, 16, 11, 14, 12, 6]. Onedimensional LFT's x 7! ax+c bx+d are used as digits and to implement basic functions, while twodimensional LFT's (x; y) 7! axy+cx+ey+g bxy+dx+fy+h provide binary operations such as addition and multiplication, and can be combined to infinite expression trees denoting transcendental functions. In Section 2, we present the details of the LFT approach. This provides the background for understanding the r...
Admissible Domain Representations of Topological Spaces
 DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, UPPSALA UNIVERSITY
, 2005
"... In this paper we consider admissible domain representations of topological spaces. A domain representation D of a space X is λadmissible if, in principle, all other λbased domain representations E of X can be reduced to D via a continuous function from E to D. We present a characterisation theorem ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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In this paper we consider admissible domain representations of topological spaces. A domain representation D of a space X is λadmissible if, in principle, all other λbased domain representations E of X can be reduced to D via a continuous function from E to D. We present a characterisation theorem of when a topological space has a λadmissible and κbased domain representation. We also prove that there is a natural cartesian closed category of countably based and countably admissible domain representations. These results are generalisations of [Sch02].
Comparing hierarchies of total functionals
 Logical Methods in Computer Science, Volume 1, Issue 2, Paper 4 (2005). RICH HIERARCHY 21
"... In this paper, we will address a problem raised by Bauer, Escardó and Simpson. We define two hierarchies of total, continuous functionals over the reals based on domain theory, one based on an “extensional ” representation of the reals and the other on an “intensional ” representation. The problem i ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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In this paper, we will address a problem raised by Bauer, Escardó and Simpson. We define two hierarchies of total, continuous functionals over the reals based on domain theory, one based on an “extensional ” representation of the reals and the other on an “intensional ” representation. The problem is if these two hierarchies coincide. We will show that this coincidence problem is equivalent to the statement that the topology on the KleeneKreisel continuous functionals of a fixed type induced by all continuous functions into the reals is zerodimensional for each type. As a tool of independent interest, we will construct topological embeddings of the KleeneKreisel functionals into both the extensional and the intensional hierarchy at each type. The embeddings will be hierarchy embeddings as well in the sense that they are the inclusion maps at type 0 and respect application at higher types. 1
RZ: A tool for bringing constructive and computable mathematics closer to programming practice
 CiE 2007: Computation and Logic in the Real World, volume 4497 of LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. Realizability theory can produce code interfaces for the data structure corresponding to a mathematical theory. Our tool, called RZ, serves as a bridge between constructive mathematics and programming by translating specifications in constructive logic into annotated interface code in Obje ..."
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Abstract. Realizability theory can produce code interfaces for the data structure corresponding to a mathematical theory. Our tool, called RZ, serves as a bridge between constructive mathematics and programming by translating specifications in constructive logic into annotated interface code in Objective Caml. The system supports a rich input language allowing descriptions of complex mathematical structures. RZ does not extract code from proofs, but allows any implementation method, from handwritten code to code extracted from proofs by other tools. 1