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Secure communication in stochastic wireless networks – Part II: Maximum rate and collusion
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens.Security
, 2012
"... Abstract—In Part I of this paper, we introduced the intrinsically secure communications graph (graph)—a random graph which describes the connections that can be established with strong secrecy over a largescale network, in the presence of eavesdroppers. We focused on the local connectivity of the ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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Abstract—In Part I of this paper, we introduced the intrinsically secure communications graph (graph)—a random graph which describes the connections that can be established with strong secrecy over a largescale network, in the presence of eavesdroppers. We focused on the local connectivity of thegraph, and proposed techniques to improve it. In this second part, we characterize the maximum secrecy rate (MSR) that can be achieved between a node and its neighbors. We then consider the scenario where the eavesdroppers are allowed to collude, i.e., exchange and combine information. We quantify exactly how eavesdropper collusion degrades the secrecy properties of the network, in comparison to a noncolluding scenario. Our analysis helps clarify how the presence of eavesdroppers can jeopardize the success of wireless physicallayer security. Index Terms—Colluding eavesdroppers, physicallayer security, secrecy capacity, stochastic geometry, wireless networks. I.
Secure Degrees of Freedom of the Gaussian Wiretap Channel with Helpers
"... Abstract — The secrecy capacity of the canonical Gaussian wiretap channel does not scale with the transmit power, and hence, the secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian wiretap channel with no helpers is zero. It has been known that a strictly positive secure d.o.f. can be obtained in the Gaussian wiretap cha ..."
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Cited by 22 (16 self)
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Abstract — The secrecy capacity of the canonical Gaussian wiretap channel does not scale with the transmit power, and hence, the secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian wiretap channel with no helpers is zero. It has been known that a strictly positive secure d.o.f. can be obtained in the Gaussian wiretap channel by using a helper which sends structured cooperative signals. We show that the exact secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian wiretap channel with a helper is 1. Our achievable scheme is based on 2 real interference alignment and cooperative jamming, which renders the message signal and the cooperative jamming signal separable at the legitimate receiver, but aligns them perfectly at the eavesdropper preventing any reliable decoding of the message signal. Our converse is based on two key lemmas. The first lemma quantifies the secrecy penalty by showing that the net effect of an eavesdropper on the system is that it eliminates one of the independent channel inputs. The second lemma quantifies the role of a helper by developing a direct relationship between the cooperative jamming signal of a helper and the message rate. We extend this result to the case of M helpers, and show that the exact secure d.o.f. in this case is M
Secure Degrees of Freedom of Onehop Wireless Networks
, 2012
"... We study the secure degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) of onehop wireless networks by considering four fundamental wireless network structures: Gaussian wiretap channel, Gaussian broadcast channel with confidential messages, Gaussian interference channel with confidential messages, and Gaussian multiple a ..."
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Cited by 19 (12 self)
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We study the secure degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) of onehop wireless networks by considering four fundamental wireless network structures: Gaussian wiretap channel, Gaussian broadcast channel with confidential messages, Gaussian interference channel with confidential messages, and Gaussian multiple access wiretap channel. The secrecy capacity of the canonical Gaussian wiretap channel does not scale with the transmit power, and hence, the secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian wiretap channel with no helpers is zero. It has been known that a strictly positive secure d.o.f. can be obtained in the Gaussian wiretap channel by using a helper which sends structured cooperative signals. We show that the exact secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian wiretap channel with a helper is 1 2. Our achievable scheme is based on real interference alignment and cooperative jamming, which renders the message signal and the cooperative jamming signal separable at the legitimate receiver, but aligns them perfectly at the eavesdropper preventing any reliable decoding of the message signal. Our converse is based on two key lemmas. The first lemma quantifies the secrecy penalty by showing that the net effect of an eavesdropper on the system is that it eliminates one of the independent channel inputs. The second lemma quantifies the role of a helper by developing a direct relationship between the cooperative jamming signal of a helper and the message rate. We extend this result to the case of M helpers, and show that the exact secure d.o.f. in this case is M M+1. We then generalize this approach to more general network structures with multiple messages. We show that the sum secure d.o.f. of the Gaussian broadcast channel with confidential messages and M helpers is 1, the sum secure d.o.f. of the twouser interference channel with confidential messages is 2 3, the sum secure d.o.f. of the twouser interference channel with confidential messages and M helpers is 1, and the sum secure d.o.f. of the Kuser multiple access wiretap channel is
Principles of Physical Layer Security in Multiuser Wireless Networks: A Survey
"... This paper provides a comprehensive review of the domain of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks. The essential premise of physical layer security is to enable the exchange of confidential messages over a wireless medium in the presence of unauthorized eavesdroppers, without rely ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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This paper provides a comprehensive review of the domain of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks. The essential premise of physical layer security is to enable the exchange of confidential messages over a wireless medium in the presence of unauthorized eavesdroppers, without relying on higherlayer encryption. This can be achieved primarily in two ways: without the need for a secret key by intelligently designing transmit coding strategies, or by exploiting the wireless communication medium to develop secret keys over public channels. The survey begins with an overview of the foundations dating back to the pioneering work of Shannon and Wyner on informationtheoretic security. We then describe the evolution of secure transmission strategies from pointtopoint channels to multipleantenna systems, followed by generalizations to multiuser broadcast, multipleaccess, interference, and relay networks. Secretkey generation and establishment protocols based on physical layer mechanisms are subsequently covered. Approaches for secrecy based on channel coding design are then examined, along with a description of interdisciplinary approaches based on game theory and stochastic geometry. The associated problem of physical layer message authentication is also briefly introduced. The survey concludes with observations on potential research directions in this area.
Secret Communication in Large Wireless Networks without Eavesdropper Location Information
"... Abstract—We present achievable scaling results on the pernode secure throughput that can be realized in a large random wireless network of n legitimate nodes in the presence of m eavesdroppers of unknown location. We consider both onedimensional and twodimensional networks. In the onedimensional ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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Abstract—We present achievable scaling results on the pernode secure throughput that can be realized in a large random wireless network of n legitimate nodes in the presence of m eavesdroppers of unknown location. We consider both onedimensional and twodimensional networks. In the onedimensional case, we show that a pernode secure throughput of order 1/n is achievable if the number of eavesdroppers satisfies m = o(n/log n). We obtain similar results for the twodimensional case, where a secure throughput of order 1 / √ n log n is achievable under the same condition. The number of eavesdroppers that can be tolerated is significantly higher than previous works that address the case of unknown eavesdropper locations. The key technique introduced in our construction to handle unknown eavesdropper locations forces adversaries to intercept a number of packets to be able to decode a single message. The whole network is divided into regions, where a certain subset of packets is protected from adversaries located in each region. In the onedimensional case, our construction makes use of artificial noise generation by legitimate nodes to degrade the signal quality at the potential locations of eavesdroppers. In the twodimensional case, the availability of many paths to reach a destination is utilized to handle collaborating eavesdroppers of unknown location. I.
Physical Layer Security from InterSession Interference in Large Wireless Networks
"... Abstract—Physical layer secrecy in wireless networks in the presence of eavesdroppers of unknown location is considered. In contrast to prior schemes, which have expended energy in the form of cooperative jamming to enable secrecy, we develop schemes where multiple transmitters send their signals in ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Abstract—Physical layer secrecy in wireless networks in the presence of eavesdroppers of unknown location is considered. In contrast to prior schemes, which have expended energy in the form of cooperative jamming to enable secrecy, we develop schemes where multiple transmitters send their signals in a cooperative fashion to confuse the eavesdroppers. Hence, power is not expended on “artificial noise”; rather, the signal of a given transmitter is protected by the aggregate interference produced by the other transmitters. We introduce a twohop strategy for the case of equal pathloss between all pairs of nodes, and then consider its embedding within a multihop approach for the general case of an extended network. In each case, we derive an achievable number of eavesdroppers that can be present in the region while secure communication between all sources and intended destinations is ensured. I.
Percolation and connectivity in the intrinsically secure communications graph
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2012
"... Abstract—The ability to exchange secret information is critical to many commercial, governmental, and military networks. The intrinsically secure communications graph (graph) is a random graph which describes the connections that can be securely established over a largescale network, by exploitin ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Abstract—The ability to exchange secret information is critical to many commercial, governmental, and military networks. The intrinsically secure communications graph (graph) is a random graph which describes the connections that can be securely established over a largescale network, by exploiting the physical properties of the wireless medium. This paper aims to characterize the global properties of the graph in terms of 1) percolation on the infinite plane, and 2) full connectivity on a finite region. First, for the Poisson graph defined on the infinite plane, the existence of a phase transition is proven, whereby an unbounded component of connected nodes suddenly arises as the density of legitimate nodes is increased. This shows that longrange secure communication is still possible in the presence of eavesdroppers. Second, full connectivity on a finite region of the Poisson graph is considered. The exact asymptotic behavior of full connectivity in the limit of a large density of legitimate nodes is characterized. Then, simple, explicit expressions are derived in order to closely approximate the probability of full connectivity for a finite density of legitimate nodes. These results help clarify how the presence of eavesdroppers can compromise longrange secure communication. Index Terms—Connectivity, percolation, physicallayer security, stochastic geometry, wireless networks.
Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Jamming Strategies in Secure Wireless Networks
"... Energy efficient secure communication in wireless networks in the presence of eavesdroppers is considered. For a secure transmission to the destination, a set of intermediate “jammer ” nodes are chosen to generate artificial noise that confuses the eavesdropper. We consider two jamming strategies: b ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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Energy efficient secure communication in wireless networks in the presence of eavesdroppers is considered. For a secure transmission to the destination, a set of intermediate “jammer ” nodes are chosen to generate artificial noise that confuses the eavesdropper. We consider two jamming strategies: beamforming and cooperative diversity. Previous research has focused largely on cooperative beamforming strategies, but we demonstrate a number of scenarios where a cooperative diversity strategy is desirable. This motivates approaches which selectively switch between the two strategies, from which significant energy savings can often be realized. In our simulations, energy savings of up to 60 % are observed in the simulated networks.
Distributed network secrecy
 IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun
, 2013
"... Abstract—Secrecy is essential for a variety of emerging wireless applications where distributed confidential information is communicated in a multilevel network from sources to destinations. Network secrecy can be accomplished by exploiting the intrinsic properties of multilevel wireless networks ( ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Abstract—Secrecy is essential for a variety of emerging wireless applications where distributed confidential information is communicated in a multilevel network from sources to destinations. Network secrecy can be accomplished by exploiting the intrinsic properties of multilevel wireless networks (MWNs). This paper introduces the concept of distributed network secrecy (DNS) and develops a framework for the design and analysis of secure, reliable, and efficient MWNs. Our framework accounts for node spatial distribution, multilevel cluster formation, propagation medium, communication protocol, and energy consumption. This research provides a foundation for DNS and offers a new perspective on the relationship between DNS and network lifetime. Index Terms—Distributed network secrecy, selforganizing wireless networks, stochastic geometry, energy consumption, fading channels, performance evaluation. I.
Network Coding for Facilitating Secrecy in Large Wireless Networks
"... Abstract—We study the wireless secrecy capacity scaling problem where the question of interest is how much information can be shared among n randomly located nodes such that the throughput is kept informationtheoretically secure from m eavesdroppers also present in the network. We present achievab ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract—We study the wireless secrecy capacity scaling problem where the question of interest is how much information can be shared among n randomly located nodes such that the throughput is kept informationtheoretically secure from m eavesdroppers also present in the network. We present achievable scaling results for both onedimensional and twodimensional networks. We show that in a 1D network, n nodes can share a pernode throughput that scales as 1=n which can be kept secure from m randomly located eavesdroppers of unknown location as long as m grows more slowly than n = logn. For a 2D network, the pernode secure throughput scales as 1= p n logn for any number of eavesdroppers of unknown location which could be arbitrarily located inside this network. These results provide a significant improvement over previous work which either assumed known eavesdropper locations or the number of eavesdroppers that could be tolerated were very limited. The key technique realizing these improvements is the application of simple network coding methods, which were known to help secrecy in a network but their extension to wireless physicallayer secrecy had been limited. I.