Results 1  10
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50
Tensor decompositions for learning latent variable models
, 2014
"... This work considers a computationally and statistically efficient parameter estimation method for a wide class of latent variable models—including Gaussian mixture models, hidden Markov models, and latent Dirichlet allocation—which exploits a certain tensor structure in their loworder observable mo ..."
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Cited by 72 (5 self)
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This work considers a computationally and statistically efficient parameter estimation method for a wide class of latent variable models—including Gaussian mixture models, hidden Markov models, and latent Dirichlet allocation—which exploits a certain tensor structure in their loworder observable moments (typically, of second and thirdorder). Specifically, parameter estimation is reduced to the problem of extracting a certain (orthogonal) decomposition of a symmetric tensor derived from the moments; this decomposition can be viewed as a natural generalization of the singular value decomposition for matrices. Although tensor decompositions are generally intractable to compute, the decomposition of these specially structured tensors can be efficiently obtained by a variety of approaches, including power iterations and maximization approaches (similar to the case of matrices). A detailed analysis of a robust tensor power method is provided, establishing an analogue of Wedin’s perturbation theorem for the singular vectors of matrices. This implies a robust and computationally tractable estimation approach for several popular latent variable models.
Reducedrank hidden markov models
, 2009
"... Hsu et al. (2009) recently proposed an efficient, accurate spectral learning algorithm for Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). In this paper we relax their assumptions and prove a tighter finitesample error bound for the case of ReducedRank HMMs, i.e., HMMs with lowrank transition matrices. Since rankk ..."
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Cited by 34 (9 self)
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Hsu et al. (2009) recently proposed an efficient, accurate spectral learning algorithm for Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). In this paper we relax their assumptions and prove a tighter finitesample error bound for the case of ReducedRank HMMs, i.e., HMMs with lowrank transition matrices. Since rankk RRHMMs are a larger class of models than kstate HMMs while being equally efficient to work with, this relaxation greatly increases the learning algorithm’s scope. In addition, we generalize the algorithm and bounds to models where multiple observations are needed to disambiguate state, and to models that emit multivariate realvalued observations. Finally we prove consistency for learning Predictive State Representations, an even larger class of models. Experiments on synthetic data and a toy video, as well as on difficult robot vision data, yield accurate models that compare favorably with alternatives in simulation quality and prediction accuracy. 1 Introduction and Related Work Models of stochastic discretetime dynamical systems have important applications in a wide range of fields.
Learning to Control a LowCost Manipulator using DataEfficient Reinforcement Learning
"... Abstract—Over the last years, there has been substantial progress in robust manipulation in unstructured environments. The longterm goal of our work is to get away from precise, but very expensive robotic systems and to develop affordable, potentially imprecise, selfadaptive manipulator systems th ..."
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Cited by 31 (14 self)
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Abstract—Over the last years, there has been substantial progress in robust manipulation in unstructured environments. The longterm goal of our work is to get away from precise, but very expensive robotic systems and to develop affordable, potentially imprecise, selfadaptive manipulator systems that can interactively perform tasks such as playing with children. In this paper, we demonstrate how a lowcost offtheshelf robotic system can learn closedloop policies for a stacking task in only a handful of trials—from scratch. Our manipulator is inaccurate and provides no pose feedback. For learning a controller in the work space of a Kinectstyle depth camera, we use a modelbased reinforcement learning technique. Our learning method is data efficient, reduces model bias, and deals with several noise sources in a principled way during longterm planning. We present a way of incorporating statespace constraints into the learning process and analyze the learning gain by exploiting the sequential structure of the stacking task. I.
Predictive state temporal difference learning
"... We propose a new approach to value function approximation which combines linear temporal difference reinforcement learning with subspace identification. In practical applications, reinforcement learning (RL) is complicated by the fact that state is either highdimensional or partially observable. Th ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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We propose a new approach to value function approximation which combines linear temporal difference reinforcement learning with subspace identification. In practical applications, reinforcement learning (RL) is complicated by the fact that state is either highdimensional or partially observable. Therefore, RL methods are designed to work with features of state rather than state itself, and the success or failure of learning is often determined by the suitability of the selected features. By comparison, subspace identification (SSID) methods are designed to select a feature set which preserves as much information as possible about state. In this paper we connect the two approaches, looking at the problem of reinforcement learning with a large set of features, each of which may only be marginally useful for value function approximation. We introduce a new algorithm for this situation, called Predictive State Temporal Difference (PSTD) learning. As in SSID for predictive state representations, PSTD finds a linear compression operator that projects a large set of features down to a small set that preserves the maximum amount of predictive information. As in RL, PSTD then uses a Bellman recursion to estimate a value function. We discuss the connection between PSTD and prior approaches in RL and SSID. We prove that PSTD is statistically consistent, perform several experiments that illustrate its properties, and demonstrate its potential on a difficult optimal stopping problem. 1
Model Learning for Robot Control: A Survey
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE
"... Models are among the most essential tools in robotics, such as kinematics and dynamics models of the robot’s own body and controllable external objects. It is widely believed that intelligent mammals also rely on internal models in order to generate their actions. However, while classical robotics ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Models are among the most essential tools in robotics, such as kinematics and dynamics models of the robot’s own body and controllable external objects. It is widely believed that intelligent mammals also rely on internal models in order to generate their actions. However, while classical robotics relies on manually generated models that are based on human insights into physics, future autonomous, cognitive robots need to be able to automatically generate models that are based on information which is extracted from the data streams accessible to the robot. In this paper, we survey the progress in model learning with a strong focus on robot control on a kinematic as well as dynamical level. Here, a model describes essential information about the behavior of the environment and the influence of an agent on this environment. In the context of model based learning control, we view the model from three different perspectives. First, we need to study the different possible model learning architectures for robotics. Second, we discuss what kind of problems these architecture and the domain of robotics imply for the applicable learning methods. From this discussion, we deduce future directions of realtime learning algorithms. Third, we show where these scenarios have been used successfully in several case studies.
Hilbert Space Embeddings of Predictive State Representations
"... Predictive State Representations (PSRs) are an expressive class of models for controlled stochastic processes. PSRs represent state as a set of predictions of future observable events. Because PSRs are defined entirely in terms of observable data, statistically consistent estimates of PSR parameters ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Predictive State Representations (PSRs) are an expressive class of models for controlled stochastic processes. PSRs represent state as a set of predictions of future observable events. Because PSRs are defined entirely in terms of observable data, statistically consistent estimates of PSR parameters can be learned efficiently by manipulating moments of observed training data. Most learning algorithms for PSRs have assumed that actions and observations are finite with low cardinality. In this paper, we generalize PSRs to infinite sets of observations and actions, using the recent concept of Hilbert space embeddings of distributions. The essence is to represent the state as one or more nonparametric conditional embedding operators in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) and leverage recent work in kernel methods to estimate, predict, and update the representation. We show that these Hilbert space embeddings of PSRs are able to gracefully handle continuous actions and observations, and that our learned models outperform competing system identification algorithms on several prediction benchmarks. 1
Modelling Sparse Dynamical Systems with Compressed Predictive State Representations
"... Efficiently learning accurate models of dynamical systems is of central importance for developing rational agents that can succeed in a wide range of challenging domains. The difficulty of this learning problem is particularly acute in settings with large observation spaces and partial observability ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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Efficiently learning accurate models of dynamical systems is of central importance for developing rational agents that can succeed in a wide range of challenging domains. The difficulty of this learning problem is particularly acute in settings with large observation spaces and partial observability. We present a new algorithm, called Compressed Predictive State Representation (CPSR), for learning models of highdimensional partially observable uncontrolled dynamical systems from small sample sets. The algorithm exploits a particular sparse structure present in many domains. This sparse structure is used to compress information during learning, allowing for an increase in both the efficiency and predictive power. The compression technique also relieves the burden of domain specific feature selection. We present empirical results showing that the algorithm is able to build accurate models more efficiently than its uncompressed counterparts, and we provide theoretical results on the accuracy of the learned compressed model. 1.
A Spectral Learning Approach to RangeOnly SLAM
"... In rangeonly Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), we are given a sequence of range measurements from a robot to fixed landmarks. We then attempt to simultaneously estimate the ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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In rangeonly Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), we are given a sequence of range measurements from a robot to fixed landmarks. We then attempt to simultaneously estimate the
A Spectral Learning Approach to Knowledge Tracing
"... Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) is a common way of determining student knowledge of skills in adaptive educational systems and cognitive tutors. The basic BKT is a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) that models student knowledge based on five parameters: prior, learn rate, forget, guess, and slip. Expectati ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) is a common way of determining student knowledge of skills in adaptive educational systems and cognitive tutors. The basic BKT is a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) that models student knowledge based on five parameters: prior, learn rate, forget, guess, and slip. Expectation Maximization (EM) is often used to learn these parameters from training data. However, EM is a timeconsuming process, and is prone to converging to erroneous, implausible local optima depending on the initial values of the BKT parameters. In this paper we address these two problems by using spectral learning to learn a Predictive State Representation (PSR) that represents the BKT HMM. We then use a heuristic to extract the BKT parameters from the learned PSR using basic matrix operations. The spectral learning method is based on an approximate factorization of the estimated covariance of windows from students ’ sequences of correct and incorrect responses; it is fast, localoptimumfree, and statistically consistent. In the past few years, spectral techniques have been used on realworld problems involving latent variables in dynamical systems, computer vision, and natural language processing. Our results suggest that the parameters learned by the spectral algorithm can replace the parameters learned by EM; the results of our study show that the spectral algorithm can improve knowledge tracing parameterfitting time significantly while maintaining the same prediction accuracy, or help to improve accuracy while still keeping parameterfitting time equivalent to EM.