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Determining Lyapunov Exponents from a Time Series
 Physica
, 1985
"... We present the first algorithms that allow the estimation of nonnegative Lyapunov exponents from an experimental time series. Lyapunov exponents, which provide a qualitative and quantitative characterization of dynamical behavior, are related to the exponentially fast divergence or convergence of n ..."
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Cited by 495 (1 self)
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We present the first algorithms that allow the estimation of nonnegative Lyapunov exponents from an experimental time series. Lyapunov exponents, which provide a qualitative and quantitative characterization of dynamical behavior, are related to the exponentially fast divergence or convergence of nearby orbits in phase space. A system with one or more positive Lyapunov exponents is defined to be chaotic. Our method is rooted conceptually in a previously developed technique that could only be applied to analytically defined model systems: we monitor the longterm growth rate of small volume elements in an attractor. The method is tested on model systems with known Lyapunov spectra, and applied to data for the BelousovZhabotinskii reaction and CouetteTaylor flow. Contents 1.
Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: Application to Financial Markets
 Journal of Finance
, 1991
"... After the stock market crash of October 19, 1987, interest in nonlinear dynamics, especially deterministic chaotic dynamics, has increased in both the financial press and the academic literature. This has come about because the frequency of large moves in stock markets is greater than would be expec ..."
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Cited by 195 (3 self)
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After the stock market crash of October 19, 1987, interest in nonlinear dynamics, especially deterministic chaotic dynamics, has increased in both the financial press and the academic literature. This has come about because the frequency of large moves in stock markets is greater than would be expected
A practical method for calculating largest Lyapunov exponents from small data sets
 PHYSICA D
, 1993
"... Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the largest Lyapunov exponent. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close statespace trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. We present a new m ..."
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Cited by 181 (0 self)
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Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the largest Lyapunov exponent. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close statespace trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. We present a new method for calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent from an experimental time series. The method follows directly from the definition of the largest Lyapunov exponent and is accurate because it takes advantage of all the available data. We show that the algorithm is fast, easy to implement, and robust to changes in the following quantities: embedding dimension, size of data set, reconstruction delay, and noise level. Furthermore, one may use the algorithm to calculate simultaneously the correlation dimension. Thus, one sequence of computations will yield an estimate of both the level of chaos and the system complexity.
Nonlinear Multivariate Analysis of Neurophysiological Signals
 Progress in Neurobiology
, 2005
"... Multivariate time series analysis is extensively used in neurophysiology with the aim of studying the relationship between simultaneously recorded signals. Recently, advances on information theory and nonlinear dynamical systems theory have allowed the study of various types of synchronization from ..."
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Cited by 107 (5 self)
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Multivariate time series analysis is extensively used in neurophysiology with the aim of studying the relationship between simultaneously recorded signals. Recently, advances on information theory and nonlinear dynamical systems theory have allowed the study of various types of synchronization from time series. In this work, we first describe the multivariate linear methods most commonly used in neurophysiology and show that they can be extended to assess the existence of nonlinear interdependences between signals. We then review the concepts of entropy and mutual information followed by a detailed description of nonlinear methods based on the concepts of phase synchronization, generalized synchronization and event synchronization. In all cases, we show how to apply these methods to study different kinds of neurophysiological data. Finally, we illustrate the use of multivariate surrogate data test for the assessment of the strength (strong or weak) and the type (linear or nonlinear) of interdependence between neurophysiological signals.
An observer looks at synchronization
 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst
, 1997
"... Abstract—In the literature on dynamical systems analysis and the control of systems with complex behavior, the topic of synchronization of the response of systems has received considerable attention. This concept is revisited in the light of the classical notion of observers from (non)linear control ..."
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Cited by 103 (11 self)
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Abstract—In the literature on dynamical systems analysis and the control of systems with complex behavior, the topic of synchronization of the response of systems has received considerable attention. This concept is revisited in the light of the classical notion of observers from (non)linear control theory. Index Terms—Detectability, dynamical systems, observers, reduced order observers, synchronization. I.
An Unsupervised Ensemble Learning Method for Nonlinear Dynamic StateSpace Models
 Neural Computation
, 2001
"... A Bayesian ensemble learning method is introduced for unsupervised extraction of dynamic processes from noisy data. The data are assumed to be generated by an unknown nonlinear mapping from unknown factors. The dynamics of the factors are modeled using a nonlinear statespace model. The nonlinear map ..."
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Cited by 91 (32 self)
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A Bayesian ensemble learning method is introduced for unsupervised extraction of dynamic processes from noisy data. The data are assumed to be generated by an unknown nonlinear mapping from unknown factors. The dynamics of the factors are modeled using a nonlinear statespace model. The nonlinear mappings in the model are represented using multilayer perceptron networks. The proposed method is computationally demanding, but it allows the use of higher dimensional nonlinear latent variable models than other existing approaches. Experiments with chaotic data show that the new method is able to blindly estimate the factors and the dynamic process which have generated the data. It clearly outperforms currently available nonlinear prediction techniques in this very di#cult test problem.
Interdisciplinary application of nonlinear time series methods
 Phys. Reports
, 1998
"... This paper reports on the application to field measurements of time series methods developed on the basis of the theory of deterministic chaos. The major difficulties are pointed out that arise when the data cannot be assumed to be purely deterministic and the potential that remains in this situatio ..."
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Cited by 88 (4 self)
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This paper reports on the application to field measurements of time series methods developed on the basis of the theory of deterministic chaos. The major difficulties are pointed out that arise when the data cannot be assumed to be purely deterministic and the potential that remains in this situation is discussed. For signals with weakly nonlinear structure, the presence of nonlinearity in a general sense has to be inferred statistically. The paper reviews the relevant methods and discusses the implications for deterministic modeling. Most field measurements yield nonstationary time series, which poses a severe problem for their analysis. Recent progress in the detection and understanding of nonstationarity is reported. If a clear signature of approximate determinism is found, the notions of phase space, attractors, invariant manifolds etc. provide a convenient framework for time series analysis. Although the results have to be interpreted with great care, superior performance can be achieved for typical signal processing tasks. In particular, prediction and filtering of signals are discussed, as well as the classification of system states by means of time series recordings.
Nonlinear dynamical analysis of EEG and MEG: Review of an emerging field
, 2005
"... Many complex and interesting phenomena in nature are due to nonlinear phenomena. The theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, also called ‘chaos theory’, has now progressed to a stage, where it becomes possible to study selforganization and pattern formation in the complex neuronal networks of the br ..."
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Cited by 82 (0 self)
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Many complex and interesting phenomena in nature are due to nonlinear phenomena. The theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, also called ‘chaos theory’, has now progressed to a stage, where it becomes possible to study selforganization and pattern formation in the complex neuronal networks of the brain. One approach to nonlinear time series analysis consists of reconstructing, from time series of EEG or MEG, an attractor of the underlying dynamical system, and characterizing it in terms of its dimension (an estimate of the degrees of freedom of the system), or its Lyapunov exponents and entropy (reflecting unpredictability of the dynamics due to the sensitive dependence on initial conditions). More recently developed nonlinear measures characterize other features of local brain dynamics (forecasting, time asymmetry, determinism) or the nonlinear synchronization between recordings from different brain regions. Nonlinear time series has been applied to EEG and MEG of healthy subjects during notask resting states, perceptual processing, performance of cognitive tasks and different sleep stages. Many pathologic states have been examined as well, ranging from toxic states, seizures, and psychiatric disorders to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Cre1utzfeldtJakob’s disease. Interpretation of these results in terms of ‘functional sources ’ and ‘functional networks ’ allows the identification of three basic patterns of brain dynamics: (i) normal, ongoing dynamics during a notask, resting state in healthy subjects; this state is characterized by a high dimensional complexity and a relatively low and fluctuating level of synchronization of the neuronal networks; (ii) hypersynchronous, highly nonlinear dynamics of epileptic seizures; (iii) dynamics of degenerative encephalopathies with an abnormally low level of between area synchronization. Only intermediate levels of rapidly fluctuating synchronization, possibly due to critical dynamics near a phase transition, are associated with normal information
Annealed Competition of Experts for a Segmentation and Classification of Switching Dynamics
, 1996
"... We present a method for the unsupervised segmentation of data streams originating from different unknown sources which alternate in time. We use an architecture consisting of competing neural networks. Memory is included in order to resolve ambiguities of inputoutput relations. In order to obtain m ..."
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Cited by 75 (22 self)
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We present a method for the unsupervised segmentation of data streams originating from different unknown sources which alternate in time. We use an architecture consisting of competing neural networks. Memory is included in order to resolve ambiguities of inputoutput relations. In order to obtain maximal specialization, the competition is adiabatically increased during training. Our method achieves almost perfect identification and segmentation in the case of switching chaotic dynamics where input manifolds overlap and inputoutput relations are ambiguous. Only a small dataset is needed for the training proceedure. Applications to time series from complex systems demonstrate the potential relevance of our approach for time series analysis and shortterm prediction. 1 Introduction Neural networks provide frameworks for the representation of relations present in data. Especially in the fields of classification and time series prediction, neural networks Corresponding author, email:k...