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Evolutionary Computing
, 2005
"... Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main compone ..."
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Cited by 600 (35 self)
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Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main components all evolutionary algorithms (EA), sketch the differences between different types of EAs and survey application areas ranging from optimization, modeling and simulation to entertainment.
Completely Derandomized SelfAdaptation in Evolution Strategies
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2001
"... This paper puts forward two useful methods for selfadaptation of the mutation distribution  the concepts of derandomization and cumulation. Principle shortcomings of the concept of mutative strategy parameter control and two levels of derandomization are reviewed. Basic demands on the selfadapta ..."
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Cited by 529 (58 self)
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This paper puts forward two useful methods for selfadaptation of the mutation distribution  the concepts of derandomization and cumulation. Principle shortcomings of the concept of mutative strategy parameter control and two levels of derandomization are reviewed. Basic demands on the selfadaptation of arbitrary (normal) mutation distributions are developed. Applying arbitrary, normal mutation distributions is equivalent to applying a general, linear problem encoding.
Ant algorithms for discrete optimization
 ARTIFICIAL LIFE
, 1999
"... This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic ..."
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Cited by 474 (41 self)
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This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic biological findings on real ants are reviewed and their artificial counterparts as well as the ACO metaheuristic are defined. In the second part of the article a number of applications of ACO algorithms to combinatorial optimization and routing in communications networks are described. We conclude with a discussion of related work and of some of the most important aspects of the ACO metaheuristic.
Differential Evolution  A simple and efficient adaptive scheme for global optimization over continuous spaces
, 1995
"... A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed, which includes the De Jong functions, it will be demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than Adaptive Simula ..."
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Cited by 409 (5 self)
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A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed, which includes the De Jong functions, it will be demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than Adaptive Simulated Annealing as well as the Annealed Nelder&Mead approach, both of which have a reputation for being very powerful. The new method requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use and lends itself very well to parallel computation. ________________________________________ 1) International Computer Science Institute, 1947 Center Street, Berkeley, CA 947041198, Suite 600, Fax: 5106437684. Email: storn@icsi.berkeley.edu. On leave from Siemens AG, ZFE T SN 2, OttoHahn Ring 6, D81739 Muenchen, Germany. Fax: 0114963644577, Email: rainer.storn@zfe.siemens.de. 2) 836 Owl Circle, Vacaville, CA 95687, kprice@solano.community.net. Introduction Problems which involve global optimiz...
Predictive Models for the Breeder Genetic Algorithm  I. Continuous Parameter Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict t ..."
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Cited by 393 (25 self)
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In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict the behavior of the BGA for simple test functions. Different mutation schemes are compared by computing the expected progress to the solution. The numerical performance of the BGA is demonstrated on a test suite of multimodal functions. The number of function evaluations needed to locate the optimum scales only as n ln(n) where n is the number of parameters. Results up to n = 1000 are reported.
Traffic and related selfdriven manyparticle systems
, 2000
"... Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ‘‘phantom traffic jams’ ’ even though drivers all like to drive fast? ..."
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Cited by 334 (38 self)
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Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ‘‘phantom traffic jams’ ’ even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stopandgo traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ‘‘freeze by heating’’? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to selfdriven manyparticle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particlebased), mesoscopic (gaskinetic), and macroscopic (fluiddynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micromacro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for selfdriven manyparticle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socioeconomic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.
A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial
 Statistics and Computing
, 1994
"... This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorit ..."
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Cited by 319 (5 self)
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This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms are reviewed, include the schema theorem as well as recently developed exact models of the canonical genetic algorithm.
Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 295 (16 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Evolutionary computation: Comments on the history and current state
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1997
"... Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and ..."
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Cited by 274 (0 self)
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Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and the working principles of different approaches, including genetic algorithms (GA) [with links to genetic programming (GP) and classifier systems (CS)], evolution strategies (ES), and evolutionary programming (EP) by analysis and comparison of their most important constituents (i.e., representations, variation operators, reproduction, and selection mechanism). Finally, we give a brief overview on the manifold of application domains, although this necessarily must remain incomplete.
A Survey of Evolution Strategies
 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1991
"... Similar to Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies (ESs) are algorithms which imitate the principles of natural evolution as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. The development of Evolution Strategies from the first mutationselection scheme to the refined (¯,)ES including the gen ..."
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Cited by 261 (3 self)
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Similar to Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies (ESs) are algorithms which imitate the principles of natural evolution as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. The development of Evolution Strategies from the first mutationselection scheme to the refined (¯,)ES including the general concept of selfadaptation of the strategy parameters for the mutation variances as well as their covariances are described. 1 Introduction The idea to use principles of organic evolution processes as rules for optimum seeking procedures emerged independently on both sides of the Atlantic ocean more than two decades ago. Both approaches rely upon imitating the collective learning paradigm of natural populations, based upon Darwin's observations and the modern synthetic theory of evolution. In the USA Holland introduced Genetic Algorithms in the 60ies, embedded into the general framework of adaptation [Hol75]. He also mentioned the applicability to parameter optimization which was fir...