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Adaptive Sampling With the Ensemble Transform . . .
, 2001
"... A suboptimal Kalman filter called the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ET KF) is introduced. Like other Kalman filters, it provides a framework for assimilating observations and also for estimating the effect of observations on forecast error covariance. It differs from other ensemble Kalman filt ..."
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Cited by 321 (19 self)
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A suboptimal Kalman filter called the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ET KF) is introduced. Like other Kalman filters, it provides a framework for assimilating observations and also for estimating the effect of observations on forecast error covariance. It differs from other ensemble Kalman filters in that it uses ensemble transformation and a normalization to rapidly obtain the prediction error covariance matrix associated with a particular deployment of observational resources. This rapidity enables it to quickly assess the ability of a large number of future feasible sequences of observational networks to reduce forecast error variance. The ET KF was used by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction in the Winter Storm Reconnaissance missions of 1999 and 2000 to determine where aircraft should deploy dropwindsondes in order to improve 2472h forecasts over the continental United States. The ET KF may be applied to any wellconstructed set of ensemble perturbations. The ET KF
2004: Resilience of hybrid ensemble/3DVAR analysis schemes to model error and ensemble covariance error
 Mon. Wea. Rev
"... Previous idealized numerical experiments have shown that a straightforward augmentation of an isotropic error correlation matrix with an ensemblebased error correlation matrix yields an improved data assimilation scheme under certain conditions. Those conditions are (a) the forecast model is perfec ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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Previous idealized numerical experiments have shown that a straightforward augmentation of an isotropic error correlation matrix with an ensemblebased error correlation matrix yields an improved data assimilation scheme under certain conditions. Those conditions are (a) the forecast model is perfect and (b) the ensemble accurately samples the probability distribution function of forecast errors. Such schemes blend characteristics of ensemble Kalman filter analysis schemes with threedimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) analysis schemes and are called hybrid schemes. Here, we test the robustness of hybrid schemes to model error and ensemble inaccuracy in the context of a numerically simulated twodimensional turbulent flow. The turbulence is produced by a doubly periodic barotropic vorticity equation model that is constantly relaxing to a barotropically unstable state. The types of forecast models considered include a perfect model, a model with a resolution error, and a model with a parameterization error. The ensemble generation schemes considered include the breeding scheme, the singular vector scheme, the perturbed observations system simulation scheme, a gridpoint noise scheme, and a scheme based on the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF). For all combinations examined, it is found that the hybrid schemes outperform the 3DVAR scheme. In the presence of model error a perturbed observations hybrid and a singular vector hybrid perform best, though the ETKF ensemble is competitive. 1.
Assimilation of Standard and Targeted Observations within the Unstable Subspace of the ObservationAnalysisForecast Cycle System
 J. Atmos. Sci
"... In this paper it is shown that the flowdependent instabilities that develop within an observation–analysis– forecast (OAF) cycle and that are responsible for the background error can be exploited in a very simple way to assimilate observations. The basic idea is that, in order to minimize the analy ..."
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Cited by 16 (9 self)
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In this paper it is shown that the flowdependent instabilities that develop within an observation–analysis– forecast (OAF) cycle and that are responsible for the background error can be exploited in a very simple way to assimilate observations. The basic idea is that, in order to minimize the analysis and forecast errors, the analysis increment must be confined to the unstable subspace of the OAF cycle solution. The analysis solution here formally coincides with that of the classical threedimensional variational solution with the background error covariance matrix estimated in the unstable subspace. The unstable directions of the OAF system solution are obtained by breeding initially random perturbations of the analysis but letting the perturbed trajectories undergo the same process as the control solution, including assimilation of all the available observations. The unstable vectors are then used both to target observations and for the assimilation design. The approach is demonstrated in an idealized environment using a simple model, simulated standard observations over land with a single adaptive observation over the ocean. In the application a simplified form is adopted of the analysis solution and a single unstable vector at each analysis time whose amplitude is determined by means of the adaptive observation. The remarkable reduction of the analysis and forecast error obtained by