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517
Efficient Capital Market: II” ,
 Journal of Finance, No
, 1991
"... SEQUELS ARE RARELY AS good as the originals, so I approach this review of the market efflciency literature with trepidation. The task is thornier than it was 20 years ago, when work on efficiency was rather new. The literature is now so large that a full review is impossible, and is not attempted h ..."
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Cited by 337 (0 self)
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SEQUELS ARE RARELY AS good as the originals, so I approach this review of the market efflciency literature with trepidation. The task is thornier than it was 20 years ago, when work on efficiency was rather new. The literature is now so large that a full review is impossible, and is not attempted here. Instead, I discuss the work that I find most interesting, and I offer my views on what we have learned from the research on market efficiency. I. The Theme I take the market efficiency hypothesis to be the simple statement that security prices fully reflect all available information. A precondition for this strong version of the hypothesis is that information and trading costs, the costs of getting prices to reflect information, are always 0 (Grossman and Stiglitz (1980)). A weaker and economically more sensible version of the efficiency hypothesis says that prices reflect information to the point where the marginal benefits of acting on information (the profits to be made) do not exceed the marginal costs (Jensen (1978)). Since there are surely positive information and trading costs, the extreme version of the market efficiency hypothesis is surely false. Its advantage, however, is that it is a clean benchmark that allows me to sidestep the messy problem of deciding what are reasonable information and trading costs. I can focus instead on the more interesting task of laying out the evidence on the adjustment of prices to various kinds of information. Each reader is then free to judge the scenarios where market efficiency is a good approximation (that is, deviations from the extreme version of the efficiency hypothesis are within information and trading costs) and those where some other model is a better simplifying view of the world. Ambiguity about information and trading costs is not, however, the main obstacle to inferences about market efficiency. The jointhypothesis problem is more serious. Thus, market efficiency per se is not testable. It must be
An Econometric Model of Serial Correlation and Illiquidity in Hedge Fund Returns
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 2004
"... The returns to hedge funds and other alternative investments are often highly serially correlated, in sharp contrast to the returns of more traditional investment vehicles such as longonly equity portfolios and mutual funds. In this paper, we explore several sources of such serial correlation and s ..."
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Cited by 226 (12 self)
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The returns to hedge funds and other alternative investments are often highly serially correlated, in sharp contrast to the returns of more traditional investment vehicles such as longonly equity portfolios and mutual funds. In this paper, we explore several sources of such serial correlation and show that the most likely explanation is illiquidity exposure, i.e., investments in securities that are not actively traded and for which market prices are not always readily available. For portfolios of illiquid securities, reported returns will tend to be smoother than true economic returns, which will understate volatility and increase riskadjusted performance measures such as the Sharpe ratio. We propose an econometric model of illiquidity exposure and develop estimators for the smoothing profile as well as a smoothingadjusted Sharpe ratio. For a sample of 908 hedge funds drawn from the TASS database, we show that our estimated smoothing coefficients vary considerably across hedgefund style categories and may be a useful proxy for quantifying illiquidity exposure.
Stock Prices and Volume
, 1990
"... We undertake a comprehensive investigation of price and volume comovement using daily New York Stock Exchange data from 1928 to 1987. We adjust the data to take into account wellknown calendar effects and longrun trends. To describt tbe process, we use a seminonparametric estimate of the joint de ..."
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Cited by 189 (12 self)
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We undertake a comprehensive investigation of price and volume comovement using daily New York Stock Exchange data from 1928 to 1987. We adjust the data to take into account wellknown calendar effects and longrun trends. To describt tbe process, we use a seminonparametric estimate of the joint density of current price change and volume conditional on past price changes and volume. Four empirical regularities are found: 1) positive correlation between conditional volatility and volume, 2) large price movements are followed by high volume, 3) conditioning on lagged volume substantially attenuates the "leverage " effect, and 4) after conditioning on lagged volume, there is a positive risk/return relation.
A Model of Intertemporal Asset Prices Under Asymmetric Information
, 1993
"... This paper presents a dynamic assetpricing model under asymmetric information. Investors have different information concerning the future growth rate of dividends. They rationally extract information from prices as well as dividends and maximize their expected utility. The model has a closedform s ..."
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Cited by 176 (13 self)
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This paper presents a dynamic assetpricing model under asymmetric information. Investors have different information concerning the future growth rate of dividends. They rationally extract information from prices as well as dividends and maximize their expected utility. The model has a closedform solution to the rational expectations equilibrium. We find that existence of uninformed investors increases the risk premium. Supply shocks can affect the risk premium only under asymmetric information. Information asymmetry among investors can increase price volatility and negative autocorrelation in returns. Lessinformed investors may rztionally behave like price chasers.
ShortRun Pain, LongRun Gain: The Effects of Financial Liberalization
, 2002
"... We examine the short and longrun effects of financial liberalization on capital markets. To do so, we construct a new comprehensive chronology of financial liberalization in 28 developed and emerging economies since 1973. We also construct an algorithm to identify booms and busts in stock market p ..."
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Cited by 152 (14 self)
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We examine the short and longrun effects of financial liberalization on capital markets. To do so, we construct a new comprehensive chronology of financial liberalization in 28 developed and emerging economies since 1973. We also construct an algorithm to identify booms and busts in stock market prices. Our results indicate that financial liberalization is followed by more pronounced boombust cycles in the short run. However, financial liberalization leads to more stable markets in the long run. Finally, we analyze the sequencing of liberalization and institutional reforms to understand the contrasting short and longrun effects of liberalization.
Nonlinear Dynamic Structures
 Econometrica
, 1993
"... We describe three methods for analyzing the dynamics of a nonlinear time series that is represented by a nonparametric estimate of its onestep ahead conditional density. These strategies are based on examination of conditional moment profiles corresponding to certain shocks; a conditional moment pr ..."
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Cited by 130 (10 self)
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We describe three methods for analyzing the dynamics of a nonlinear time series that is represented by a nonparametric estimate of its onestep ahead conditional density. These strategies are based on examination of conditional moment profiles corresponding to certain shocks; a conditional moment profile is the conditional expectation evaluated at time t of a time invariant function evaluated at time t + j regarded as a function of j. The first method, which compares conditional moment profiles to baseline profiles, is the nonlinear analog of conventional impulseresponse analysis. The second assesses the significance of a profile by comparing its supnorm confidence band to a null profile. The third examines profile bundles for evidence of damping or persistence. Experimental designs for choosing an appropriate set of shocks are discussed. These methods are applied to a bivariate series comprised of daily changes in the Standard and Poor's composite price index and daily NYSE transactions volume from 1928 to 1987. The findings from these data are: (i) The multistep ahead conditional volatility profile exhibits a symmetric response to both positive and negative price shocks. In contrast, the conditional volatility profile of the univariate price change process exhibits an asymmetric response. (ii) The onestep ahead response of volume to price shocks is different than the multistep ahead response. Price shocks produce an increase in volume onestep ahead but decrease it in subsequent steps. (iii) There is little evidence for longterm persistence in either the conditional mean or volatility of the bivariate process. o 1
Equilibrium Cross Section of Returns
"... We construct a dynamic general equilibrium production economy to explicitly link expected stock returns to firm characteristics such as firm size and the booktomarket ratio. Stock returns in the model are completely characterized by a conditional capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Size and bookt ..."
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Cited by 129 (30 self)
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We construct a dynamic general equilibrium production economy to explicitly link expected stock returns to firm characteristics such as firm size and the booktomarket ratio. Stock returns in the model are completely characterized by a conditional capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Size and booktomarket are correlated with the true conditional market beta and therefore appear to predict stock returns. The crosssectional relations between firm characteristics and returns can subsist even after one controls for typical empirical estimates of beta. These findings suggest that the empirical success of size and booktomarket can be consistent with a singlefactor conditional CAPM model. We gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments of Andy Abel, Jonathan Berk, Michael
From the bird’s eye to the microscope: A survey of new stylized facts of the intradaily foreign exchange markets
, 1997
"... ..."
Expected stock returns and variance risk premia, working paper
, 2008
"... Motivated by the implications from a stylized selfcontained general equilibrium model incorporating the effects of timevarying economic uncertainty, we show that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain a nontrivial fraction of the ti ..."
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Cited by 123 (9 self)
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Motivated by the implications from a stylized selfcontained general equilibrium model incorporating the effects of timevarying economic uncertainty, we show that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain a nontrivial fraction of the time series variation in post 1990 aggregate stock market returns, with high (low) premia predicting high (low) future returns. Our empirical results depend crucially on the use of “modelfree, ” as opposed to BlackScholes, options implied volatilities, along with accurate realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency intraday, as opposed to daily, data. The magnitude of the predictability is particularly striking at the intermediate quarterly return horizon, where it easily dominates that afforded by other popular predictor variables, like the P/E ratio, the default spread, and the consumptionwealth ratio (CAY).