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FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
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Cited by 541 (2 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that require on the order of 100 seconds to render typical data sets on a workstation. Algorithms with optimizations that exploit coherence in the data have reduced rendering times to the range of ten seconds but are still not fast enough for interactive visualization applications. In this thesis we present a family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray casting algorithms because the latter must perform analytic geometry calculations (e.g. intersecting rays with axisaligned boxes). The new scanlineorder algorithm simply streams through the volume and the image in storage order. We describe variants of the algorithm for both parallel and perspective projections and
Volume Rendering
, 1988
"... A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The ..."
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Cited by 446 (2 self)
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A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The algorithms used are designed to avoid artifacts caused by aliasing and quantization and can be efficiently implemented on an image computer. Images from a variety of applications are shown.
A database and evaluation methodology for optical flow
 In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision
, 2007
"... The quantitative evaluation of optical flow algorithms by Barron et al. (1994) led to significant advances in performance. The challenges for optical flow algorithms today go beyond the datasets and evaluation methods proposed in that paper. Instead, they center on problems associated with complex n ..."
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Cited by 404 (21 self)
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The quantitative evaluation of optical flow algorithms by Barron et al. (1994) led to significant advances in performance. The challenges for optical flow algorithms today go beyond the datasets and evaluation methods proposed in that paper. Instead, they center on problems associated with complex natural scenes, including nonrigid motion, real sensor noise, and motion discontinuities. We propose a new set of benchmarks and evaluation methods for the next generation of optical flow algorithms. To that end, we contribute four types of data to test different aspects of optical flow algorithms: (1) sequences with nonrigid motion where the groundtruth flow is determined by tracking hidden fluorescent texture, (2) realistic synthetic sequences, (3) high framerate video used to study interpolation error, and (4) modified stereo sequences of static scenes. In addition to the average angular error used by Barron et al., we compute the absolute flow endpoint error, measures for frame interpolation error, improved statistics, and results at motion discontinuities and in textureless regions. In October 2007, we published the performance of several wellknown methods on a preliminary version of our data to establish the current state of the art. We also made the data freely available on the web at
Efficient ray tracing of volume data
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1990
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at ..."
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Cited by 390 (4 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at each point are derived from the data using local operators. Since all voxels participate in the generation of each image, rendering time grows linearly with the size of the dataset. This paper presents a fronttoback imageorder volumerendering algorithm and discusses two techniques for improving its performance. The first technique employs a pyramid of binary volumes to encode spatial coherence present in the data, and the second technique uses an opacity threshold to adaptively terminate ray tracing. Although the actual time saved depends on the data, speedups of an order of magnitude have been observed for datasets of useful size and complexity. Examples from two applications are given: medical imaging and molecular graphics.
Optical models for direct volume rendering
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1995
"... ..."
SemiAutomatic Generation of Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering
 In IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization
, 1998
"... Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function ..."
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Cited by 289 (7 self)
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Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function  the mapping from data values to renderable optical properties  is frequently a timeconsuming and unintuitive task. Ideally, the data being visualized should itself suggest an appropriate transfer function that brings out the features of interest without obscuring them with elements of little importance. We demonstrate that this is possible for a large class of scalar volume data, namely that where the regions of interest are the boundaries between different materials. A transfer function which makes boundaries readily visible can be generated from the relationship between three quantities: the data value and its first and second directional derivatives along the gradient direction. ...
A Polygonal Approximation to Direct Scalar Volume Rendering
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent ..."
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Cited by 255 (3 self)
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One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent triangles. This method produces results which are visually similar to more exact methods for scalar volume rendering, but is faster and has smaller memory requirements. The method is best suited for display of smoothlychanging data. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.0 [Computer Graphics]: General; I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling. Additional Key Words and Phrases: Volume rendering, scientific visualization. 1 Introduction Display of threedimensional scalar volumes has recently become an active area of research. A scalar volume is described by some function f(x; y; z) defined over some region R of threedimensional space. In many scientific ap...
MultiDimensional Transfer Functions for Volume Rendering
, 2004
"... Direct volumerendering has proven to be an effective and flexible visualization method for 3D scalar fields. Transfer functions are fundamental ..."
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Cited by 218 (18 self)
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Direct volumerendering has proven to be an effective and flexible visualization method for 3D scalar fields. Transfer functions are fundamental
Merging Virtual Objects with the Real World: Seeing Ultrasound Imagery within the Patient
, 1992
"... We describe initial results which show “live” ultrasound echography data visualized within a pregnant human subject. The visualization is achieved by using a small video camera mounted in front of a conventional headmounted display worn by an observer. The camera’s video images are composite with c ..."
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Cited by 203 (15 self)
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We describe initial results which show “live” ultrasound echography data visualized within a pregnant human subject. The visualization is achieved by using a small video camera mounted in front of a conventional headmounted display worn by an observer. The camera’s video images are composite with computergenerated ones that contain one or more 2D ultrasound images properly transformed to the observer’s current viewing position. As the observer walks around the subject. the ultrasound images appear stationary in 3space within the subject. This kind of enhancement of the observer’s vision may have many other applications, e.g., image guided surgical procedures and on location 3D interactive architecture preview.