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On the post hoc power in testing mean differences
 Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics
, 2005
"... Retrospective or post hoc power analysis is recommended by reviewers and editors of many journals. Little literature has been found that gave a serious study of the post hoc power. When the sample size is large, the observed effect size is a good estimator of the true effect size. One would hope th ..."
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Retrospective or post hoc power analysis is recommended by reviewers and editors of many journals. Little literature has been found that gave a serious study of the post hoc power. When the sample size is large, the observed effect size is a good estimator of the true effect size. One would hope that the post hoc power is also a good estimator of the true power. This article studies whether such a power estimator provides valutble infonnation about the true power. Using analytical, numerical, and Monte Carlo approaches, our results show that the estimated power does not provide usefidl infonnation when the true power is small. It is almost always a biased estimator of the true power. The bias can be negative or positive. Large sample size alone does not guarantee the post hoc power to be a good estimator of the true power. Actually, when the population variance is known, the cumulative distribution function of the post hoc power is solely a function of the population power. This distribution is uniform when the true power equals 0.5 and highly skewed when the true power is near 0 or 1. When the population variance is unknown, the post hoc power behaves essentially the same as when the variance is known.
Stopping Rule Use During Information Search in Design Problems
, 2003
"... Information search is critical in most decisionmaking tasks. An important aspect of information search is the stopping rule used by the decision maker to terminate information acquisition. Decisionmaking problems may be usefully decomposed into design problems and choice problems. The distinction ..."
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Information search is critical in most decisionmaking tasks. An important aspect of information search is the stopping rule used by the decision maker to terminate information acquisition. Decisionmaking problems may be usefully decomposed into design problems and choice problems. The distinction is critical because the goals of stopping behavior in the two types of problems are quite different. In design problems, the focus is on the sufficiency of information obtained for problem structuring and generating alternatives, while choice problems focus on convergence toward a solution. While previous research has studied stopping behavior in choice problems, the present research is concerned with stopping rule use during information search in design problems. We presented 54 practicing systems analysts with an information search problem in a systems development context and asked them to gather information for a proposed system. Protocols of the search sessions were analyzed, and stopping rules used and information gathered by the analysts were identified. Results indicated that the use of certain stopping rules resulted in greater quantity and quality of information gathered, suggesting the prescriptive application of these rules. Additionally, stopping rule use differed between more experienced and less experienced analysts. Finally, stopping rule use, rather than analyst experience, accounted for the quantity and quality of information elicited. Implications for information search theory and practice are discussed.
anxiety and
, 2000
"... J. A. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory: tests of the joint subsystems hypothesis of ..."
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J. A. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory: tests of the joint subsystems hypothesis of
Phonotactics, Parsing and Productivity1
"... Affixes display massive variability in morphological productivity. Some affixes (such as Englishness) are highly productive, and regularly used to create new words. Other affixes are completely nonproductive (e.gth). Individual affixes can be differently productive with different kinds of bases ..."
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Affixes display massive variability in morphological productivity. Some affixes (such as Englishness) are highly productive, and regularly used to create new words. Other affixes are completely nonproductive (e.gth). Individual affixes can be differently productive with different kinds of bases (see, e.g. Baayen and Lieber 1991), and even across dif
MUSIC THERAPY FOR POST OPERATIVE CARDIAC PATIENTS
, 2008
"... Document Version Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record ..."
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