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136
Reachability Analysis of Pushdown Automata: Application to ModelChecking
, 1997
"... We apply the symbolic analysis principle to pushdown systems. We represent (possibly infinite) sets of configurations of such systems by means of finitestate automata. In order to reason in a uniform way about analysis problems involving both existential and universal path quantification (like mode ..."
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Cited by 376 (38 self)
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We apply the symbolic analysis principle to pushdown systems. We represent (possibly infinite) sets of configurations of such systems by means of finitestate automata. In order to reason in a uniform way about analysis problems involving both existential and universal path quantification (like modelchecking for branchingtime logics), we consider the more general class of alternating pushdown systems and use alternating finitestate automata as a representation structure for their sets of configurations. We give a simple and natural procedure to compute sets of predecessors for this representation structure. We apply this procedure and the automatatheoretic approach to modelchecking to define new modelchecking algorithms for pushdown systems and both linear and branchingtime properties. From these results we derive upper bounds for several modelchecking problems, and we also provide matching lower bounds, using reductions based on some techniques introduced by Walukiewicz.
Intrusion Detection via Static Analysis
, 2001
"... One of the primary challenges in intrusion detection is modelling typical application behavior, so that we can recognize attacks by their atypical effects without raising too many false alarms. We show how static analysis may be used to automatically derive a model of application behavior. The resul ..."
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Cited by 352 (1 self)
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One of the primary challenges in intrusion detection is modelling typical application behavior, so that we can recognize attacks by their atypical effects without raising too many false alarms. We show how static analysis may be used to automatically derive a model of application behavior. The result is a hostbased intrusion detection system with three advantages: a high degree of automation, protection against a broad class of attacks based on corrupted code, and the elimination of false alarms. We report on our experience with a prototype implementation of this technique. 1. Introduction Computer security has undergone a major renaissance in the last five years. Beginning with Sun's introduction of the Java language and its support of mobile code in 1995, programming languages have been a major focus of security research. Many papers have been published applying programming language theory to protection problems [25, 24], especially information flow [17]. Security, however, is a ma...
Bebop: A Symbolic Model Checker for Boolean Programs
, 2000
"... We present the design, implementation and empirical evaluation of Bebop  a symbolic model checker for boolean programs. Bebop represents control flow explicitly, and sets of states implicitly using BDDs. By harnessing the inherent modularity in procedural abstraction and exploiting the locality of ..."
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Cited by 255 (24 self)
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We present the design, implementation and empirical evaluation of Bebop  a symbolic model checker for boolean programs. Bebop represents control flow explicitly, and sets of states implicitly using BDDs. By harnessing the inherent modularity in procedural abstraction and exploiting the locality of variable scoping, Bebop is able to model check boolean programs with several thousand lines of code, hundreds of procedures, and several thousand variables in a few minutes.
Boolean and Cartesian Abstraction for Model Checking C Programs
, 2001
"... The problem of model checking a specification in form of a C program with recursive procedures and many thousands of lines of code has not been addressed before. In this paper, we show how we attack this problem using an abstraction that is formalized with the Cartesian abstraction. It is implemente ..."
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Cited by 194 (12 self)
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The problem of model checking a specification in form of a C program with recursive procedures and many thousands of lines of code has not been addressed before. In this paper, we show how we attack this problem using an abstraction that is formalized with the Cartesian abstraction. It is implemented through a sourcetosource transformation into a `Boolean' C program; we give an algorithm to compute the transformation with a cost that is exponential in its theoretical worstcase complexity but feasible in practice.
Efficient algorithms for model checking pushdown systems
 Proc. of CAV'2000
, 2000
"... We study model checking problems for pushdown systems and linear time logics. We show that the global model checking problem (computing the set of configurations, reachable or not, that violate the formula) can be solved in O(gP 3 ..."
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Cited by 185 (27 self)
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We study model checking problems for pushdown systems and linear time logics. We show that the global model checking problem (computing the set of configurations, reachable or not, that violate the formula) can be solved in O(gP 3
Regular Model Checking
, 2000
"... . We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving re ..."
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Cited by 164 (25 self)
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. We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving relation on strings. Major problems in the verification of parameterized and infinitestate systems are to compute the set of states that are reachable from some set of initial states, and to compute the transitive closure of the transition relation. We present two complementary techniques for these problems. One is a direct automatatheoretic construction, and the other is based on widening. Both techniques are incomplete in general, but we give sufficient conditions under which they work. We also present a method for verifying !regular properties of parameterized systems, by computation of the transitive closure of a transition relation. 1 Introduction This paper presents regular ...
Analysis of Recursive State Machines
 In Proceedings of CAV 2001
, 2001
"... . Recursive state machines (RSMs) enhance the power of ordinary state machines by allowing vertices to correspond either to ordinary states or to potentially recursive invocations of other state machines. RSMs can model the control flow in sequential imperative programs containing recursive proc ..."
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Cited by 140 (29 self)
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. Recursive state machines (RSMs) enhance the power of ordinary state machines by allowing vertices to correspond either to ordinary states or to potentially recursive invocations of other state machines. RSMs can model the control flow in sequential imperative programs containing recursive procedure calls. They can be viewed as a visual notation extending Statechartslike hierarchical state machines, where concurrency is disallowed but recursion is allowed. They are also related to various models of pushdown systems studied in the verification and program analysis communities. After introducing RSMs, we focus on whether statespace analysis can be performed efficiently for RSMs. We consider the two central problems for algorithmic analysis and model checking, namely, reachability (is a target state reachable from initial states) and cycle detection (is there a reachable cycle containing an accepting state). We show that both these problems can be solved in time O(n` 2 ) and space O(n`), where n is the size of the recursive machine and ` is the maximum, over all component state machines, of the minimum of the number of entries and the number of exits of each component. We also study the precise relationship between RSMs and closely related models. 1
WYSINWYX: What You See Is Not What You eXecute
, 2009
"... Over the last seven years, we have developed staticanalysis methods to recover a good approximation to the variables and dynamicallyallocated memory objects of a stripped executable, and to track the flow of values through them. The paper presents the algorithms that we developed, explains how the ..."
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Cited by 91 (12 self)
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Over the last seven years, we have developed staticanalysis methods to recover a good approximation to the variables and dynamicallyallocated memory objects of a stripped executable, and to track the flow of values through them. The paper presents the algorithms that we developed, explains how they are used to recover intermediate representations (IRs) from executables that are similar to the IRs that would be available if one started from source code, and describes their application in the context of program understanding and automated bug hunting. Unlike algorithms for analyzing executables that existed prior to our work, the ones presented in this paper provide useful information about memory accesses, even in the absence of debugging information. The ideas described in the paper are incorporated in a tool for analyzing Intel x86 executables, called CodeSurfer/x86. CodeSurfer/x86 builds a system dependence graph for the program, and provides a GUI for exploring the graph by (i) navigating its edges, and (ii) invoking operations, such as forward slicing, backward slicing, and chopping, to discover how parts of the program can impact other parts. To assess the usefulness of the IRs recovered by CodeSurfer/x86 in the context of automated bug hunting, we built a tool on top of CodeSurfer/x86, called DeviceDriver Analyzer for x86
ModelChecking LTL with Regular Valuations for Pushdown Systems
, 2002
"... Recent works have proposed... In this paper we consider LTL with regular valuations: the set of configurations satisfying an atomic proposition can be an arbitrary regular language. The modelchecking problem is solved via two different techniques, with an eye on efficiency. The resulting algorithms ..."
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Cited by 86 (8 self)
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Recent works have proposed... In this paper we consider LTL with regular valuations: the set of configurations satisfying an atomic proposition can be an arbitrary regular language. The modelchecking problem is solved via two different techniques, with an eye on efficiency. The resulting algorithms are polynomial in certain measures of the...