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Consensus and cooperation in networked multiagent systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
"... This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of ..."
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Cited by 772 (2 self)
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This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in smallworld networks, Markov processes and gossipbased algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with latticetype nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of smallworld effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations.
Flocking for MultiAgent Dynamic Systems: Algorithms and Theory
, 2006
"... In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A compre ..."
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Cited by 412 (2 self)
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In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A comprehensive analysis of the first two algorithms is provided. We demonstrate the first algorithm embodies all three rules of Reynolds. This is a formal approach to extraction of interaction rules that lead to the emergence of collective behavior. We show that the first algorithm generically leads to regular fragmentation, whereas the second and third algorithms both lead to flocking. A systematic method is provided for construction of cost functions (or collective potentials) for flocking. These collective potentials penalize deviation from a class of latticeshape objects called αlattices. We use a multispecies framework for construction of collective potentials that consist of flockmembers, or αagents, and virtual agents associated with αagents called β and γagents. We show that migration of flocks can be performed using a peertopeer network of agents, i.e. “flocks need no leaders.” A “universal” definition of flocking for particle systems with similarities to Lyapunov stability is given. Several simulation results are provided that demonstrate performing 2D and 3D flocking, split/rejoin maneuver, and squeezing maneuver for hundreds of agents using the proposed algorithms.
A scheme for robust distributed sensor fusion based on average consensus
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SENSOR NETWORKS (IPSN
, 2005
"... We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximumlikelihoo ..."
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Cited by 250 (3 self)
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We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximumlikelihood estimate of the parameters. This scheme doesn’t involve explicit pointtopoint message passing or routing; instead, it diffuses information across the network by updating each node’s data with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ data (they maintain the same data structure). At each step, every node can compute a local weighted leastsquares estimate, which converges to the global maximumlikelihood solution. This scheme is robust to unreliable communication links. We show that it works in a network with dynamically changing topology, provided that the infinitely occurring communication graphs are jointly connected.
Information Consensus in Multivehicle Cooperative Control
, 2007
"... The abundance of embedded computational resources in autonomous vehicles enables enhanced operational effectiveness through cooperative teamwork in civilian and military applications. Compared to autonomous vehicles that perform solo missions, greater efficiency and operational capability can be rea ..."
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Cited by 228 (23 self)
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The abundance of embedded computational resources in autonomous vehicles enables enhanced operational effectiveness through cooperative teamwork in civilian and military applications. Compared to autonomous vehicles that perform solo missions, greater efficiency and operational capability can be realized from teams of autonomous vehicles operating in a coordinated fashion. Potential applications for multivehicle systems include spacebased interferometers, combat, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems, hazardous material handling, and distributed reconfigurable sensor networks. To enable these applications, various cooperative control capabilities need to be developed, including formation control, rendezvous, attitude alignment, flocking, foraging, task and role assign
Distributed average consensus with leastmeansquare deviation
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2005
"... We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted averag ..."
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Cited by 201 (5 self)
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We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ values, and each new value is corrupted by an additive noise with zero mean. The quality of consensus can be measured by the total meansquare deviation of the individual variables from their average, which converges to a steadystate value. We consider the problem of finding the (symmetric) edge weights that result in the least meansquare deviation in steady state. We show that this problem can be cast as a convex optimization problem, so the global solution can be found efficiently. We describe some computational methods for solving this problem, and compare the weights and the meansquare deviations obtained by this method and several other weight design methods.
A Survey of Consensus Problems in Multiagent Coordination
, 2005
"... As a distributed solution to multiagent coordination, consensus or agreement problems have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper provides a survey of consensus problems in multiagent cooperative control with the goal of promoting research in this area. Theoretical results regard ..."
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Cited by 148 (3 self)
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As a distributed solution to multiagent coordination, consensus or agreement problems have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper provides a survey of consensus problems in multiagent cooperative control with the goal of promoting research in this area. Theoretical results regarding consensus seeking under both timeinvariant and dynamically changing information exchange topologies are summarized. Applications of consensus protocols to multiagent coordination are investigated. Future research directions and open problems are also proposed.
Broadcast gossip algorithms for consensus
 IEEE Trans. Signal Process
, 2009
"... Abstract—Motivated by applications to wireless sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed broadcasting algorithms for exchanging information and computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. Specifically, we study a broadcastingbased gossiping algorithm to compute th ..."
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Cited by 95 (6 self)
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Abstract—Motivated by applications to wireless sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed broadcasting algorithms for exchanging information and computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. Specifically, we study a broadcastingbased gossiping algorithm to compute the (possibly weighted) average of the initial measurements of the nodes at every node in the network. We show that the broadcast gossip algorithm converges almost surely to a consensus. We prove that the random consensus value is, in expectation, the average of initial node measurements and that it can be made arbitrarily close to this value in mean squared error sense, under a balanced connectivity model and by trading off convergence speed with accuracy of the computation. We provide theoretical and numerical results on the mean square error performance, on the convergence rate and study the effect of the “mixing parameter ” on the convergence rate of the broadcast gossip algorithm. The results indicate that the mean squared error strictly decreases through iterations until the consensus is achieved. Finally, we assess and compare the communication cost of the broadcast gossip algorithm to achieve a given distance to consensus through theoretical and numerical results. Index Terms—Broadcasting, distributed average consensus, gossip algorithms, sensor networks. I.
Reaching a consensus in a dynamically changing environment { a graphical approach
 SIAM J. on Control and Optimization
"... This paper uses recently established properties of compositions of directed graphs together with results from the theory of nonhomogeneous Markov chains to derive worst case convergence rates for the headings of a group of mobile autonomous agents which arise in connection with the widely studied ..."
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Cited by 92 (9 self)
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This paper uses recently established properties of compositions of directed graphs together with results from the theory of nonhomogeneous Markov chains to derive worst case convergence rates for the headings of a group of mobile autonomous agents which arise in connection with the widely studied Vicsek consensus problem. The paper also uses graph theoretic constructions to solve modi¯ed versions of the Vicsek problem in which there are measurement delays, asynchronous events, or a group leader. In all three cases the conditions under which consensus is achieved prove to be almost the same as the conditions under which consensus is achieved in the synchronous, delayfree, leaderless case. 1
Communication Constraints in the Average Consensus Problem
, 2007
"... The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We cons ..."
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Cited by 82 (20 self)
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The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We consider as instance of coordination the consensus problem. The aim of the paper is to characterize the relationship between the amount of information exchanged by the agents and the rate of convergence to the consensus. We show that timeinvariant communication networks with circulant symmetries yield slow convergence if the amount of information exchanged by the agents does not scale well with their number. On the other hand, we show that randomly timevarying communication networks allow very fast convergence rates. We also show that, by adding logarithmic quantized data links to timeinvariant networks with symmetries, control performance significantly improves with little growth of the required communication effort.