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551
An Efficient Solution to the FivePoint Relative Pose Problem
, 2004
"... An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degre ..."
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Cited by 475 (12 self)
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An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degree polynomial in closed form and subsequently finding its roots. It is the first algorithm well suited for numerical implementation that also corresponds to the inherent complexity of the problem. We investigate the numerical precision of the algorithm. We also study its performance under noise in minimal as well as overdetermined cases. The performance is compared to that of the well known 8 and 7point methods and a 6point scheme. The algorithm is used in a robust hypothesizeandtest framework to estimate structure and motion in realtime with low delay. The realtime system uses solely visual input and has been demonstrated at major conferences.
Recognising Panoramas
, 2003
"... The problem considered in this paper is the fully automatic construction of panoramas. Fundamentally, this problem requires recognition, as we need to know which parts of the panorama join up. Previous approaches have used human input or restrictions on the image sequence for the matching step. In t ..."
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Cited by 290 (2 self)
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The problem considered in this paper is the fully automatic construction of panoramas. Fundamentally, this problem requires recognition, as we need to know which parts of the panorama join up. Previous approaches have used human input or restrictions on the image sequence for the matching step. In this work we use object recognition techniques based on invariant local features to select matching images, and a probabilistic model for verification. Because of this our method is insensitive to the ordering, orientation, scale and illumination of the images. It is also insensitive to `noise' images which are not part of the panorama at all, that is, it recognises panoramas. This suggests a useful application for photographers: the system takes as input the images on an entire flash card or film, recognises images that form part of a panorama, and stitches them with no user input whatsoever.
Building Rome in a Day
"... We present a system that can match and reconstruct 3D scenes from extremely large collections of photographs such as those found by searching for a given city (e.g., Rome) on Internet photo sharing sites. Our system uses a collection of novel parallel distributed matching and reconstruction algorith ..."
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Cited by 281 (30 self)
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We present a system that can match and reconstruct 3D scenes from extremely large collections of photographs such as those found by searching for a given city (e.g., Rome) on Internet photo sharing sites. Our system uses a collection of novel parallel distributed matching and reconstruction algorithms, designed to maximize parallelism at each stage in the pipeline and minimize serialization bottlenecks. It is designed to scale gracefully with both the size of the problem and the amount of available computation. We have experimented with a variety of alternative algorithms at each stage of the pipeline and report on which ones work best in a parallel computing environment. Our experimental results demonstrate that it is now possible to reconstruct cities consisting of 150K images in less than a day on a cluster with 500 compute cores. 1.
Robust Registration of 2D and 3D Point Sets
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a new method of registering point sets. The registration error is directly minimized using generalpurpose nonlinear optimization (the LevenbergMarquardt algorithm). The surprising conclusion of the paper is that this technique is comparable in speed to the specialpurpose ICP ..."
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Cited by 145 (0 self)
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This paper introduces a new method of registering point sets. The registration error is directly minimized using generalpurpose nonlinear optimization (the LevenbergMarquardt algorithm). The surprising conclusion of the paper is that this technique is comparable in speed to the specialpurpose ICP algorithm which is most commonly used for this task. Because the routine directly minimizes an energy function, it is easy to extend it to incorporate robust estimation via a Huber kernel, yielding a basin of convergence that is many times wider than existing techniques. Finally we introduce a data structure for the minimization based on the chamfer distance transform which yields an algorithm which is both faster and more robust than previously described methods.
Square Root SAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping via square root information smoothing
 International Journal of Robotics Reasearch
, 2006
"... Solving the SLAM problem is one way to enable a robot to explore, map, and navigate in a previously unknown environment. We investigate smoothing approaches as a viable alternative to extended Kalman filterbased solutions to the problem. In particular, we look at approaches that factorize either th ..."
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Cited by 144 (39 self)
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Solving the SLAM problem is one way to enable a robot to explore, map, and navigate in a previously unknown environment. We investigate smoothing approaches as a viable alternative to extended Kalman filterbased solutions to the problem. In particular, we look at approaches that factorize either the associated information matrix or the measurement Jacobian into square root form. Such techniques have several significant advantages over the EKF: they are faster yet exact, they can be used in either batch or incremental mode, are better equipped to deal with nonlinear process and measurement models, and yield the entire robot trajectory, at lower cost for a large class of SLAM problems. In addition, in an indirect but dramatic way, column ordering heuristics automatically exploit the locality inherent in the geographic nature of the SLAM problem. In this paper we present the theory underlying these methods, along with an interpretation of factorization in terms of the graphical model associated with the SLAM problem. We present both simulation results and actual SLAM experiments in largescale environments that underscore the potential of these methods as an alternative to EKFbased approaches. 1
Simultaneous Linear Estimation of Multiple View Geometry and Lens Distortion
, 2001
"... A bugbear of uncalibrated stereo reconstruction is that cameras which deviate from the pinhole model have to be precalibrated in order to correct for nonlinear lens distortion. If they are not, and point correspondence is attempted using the uncorrected images, the matching constraints provided by ..."
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Cited by 128 (1 self)
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A bugbear of uncalibrated stereo reconstruction is that cameras which deviate from the pinhole model have to be precalibrated in order to correct for nonlinear lens distortion. If they are not, and point correspondence is attempted using the uncorrected images, the matching constraints provided by the fundamental matrix must be set so loose that point matching is significantly hampered. This paper shows how linear estimation of the fundamental matrix from twoview point correspondences may be augmented to include one term of radial lens distortion. This is achieved by (1) changing from the standard radiallens model to another which (as we show) has equivalent power, but which takes a simpler form in homogeneous coordinates, and (2) expressing fundamental matrix estimation as a Quadratic Eigenvalue Problem (QEP), for which efficient algorithms are well known. I derive the new estimator, and compare its performance against bundleadjusted calibrationgrid data. The new estimator is fast enough to be included in a RANSACbased matching loop, and we show cases of matching being rendered possible by its use. I show how the same lens can be calibrated in a natural scene where the lack of straight lines precludes most previous techniques. The modification when the multiview relation is a planar homography or trifocal tensor is described. 1.
Estimating Articulated Human Motion With Covariance Scaled Sampling
 International Journal of Robotics Research
, 2003
"... We present a method for recovering 3D human body motion from monocular video sequences based on a robust image matching metric, incorporation of joint limits and nonselfintersection constraints, and a new sampleandrefine search strategy guided by rescaled costfunction covariances. Monocular 3D ..."
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Cited by 125 (10 self)
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We present a method for recovering 3D human body motion from monocular video sequences based on a robust image matching metric, incorporation of joint limits and nonselfintersection constraints, and a new sampleandrefine search strategy guided by rescaled costfunction covariances. Monocular 3D body tracking is challenging: besides the difficulty of matching an imperfect, highly flexible, selfoccluding model to cluttered image features, realistic body models have at least 30 joint parameters subject to highly nonlinear physical constraints, and at least a third of these degrees of freedom are nearly unobservable in any given monocular image. For image matching we use a carefully designed robust cost metric combining robust optical flow, edge energy, and motion boundaries. The nonlinearities and matching ambiguities make the parameterspace cost surface multimodal, illconditioned and highly nonlinear, so searching it is difficult. We discuss the limitations of CONDENSATIONlike samplers, and describe a novel hybrid search algorithm that combines inflatedcovariancescaled sampling and robust continuous optimization subject to physical constraints and model priors. Our experiments on challenging monocular sequences show that robust cost modeling, joint and selfintersection constraints, and informed sampling are all essential for reliable monocular 3D motion estimation.
3D Object modeling and recognition using local affineinvariant image descriptors and multiview spatial constraints
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2006
"... Abstract. This article introduces a novel representation for threedimensional (3D) objects in terms of local affineinvariant descriptors of their images and the spatial relationships between the corresponding surface patches. Geometric constraints associated with different views of the same patche ..."
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Cited by 118 (14 self)
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Abstract. This article introduces a novel representation for threedimensional (3D) objects in terms of local affineinvariant descriptors of their images and the spatial relationships between the corresponding surface patches. Geometric constraints associated with different views of the same patches under affine projection are combined with a normalized representation of their appearance to guide matching and reconstruction, allowing the acquisition of true 3D affine and Euclidean models from multiple unregistered images, as well as their recognition in photographs taken from arbitrary viewpoints. The proposed approach does not require a separate segmentation stage, and it is applicable to highly cluttered scenes. Modeling and recognition results are presented.