Results 1  10
of
74
Characterizing quantum theory in terms of informationtheoretic constraints
 Foundations of Physics
, 2003
"... We show that three fundamental informationtheoretic constraints—the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibil ..."
Abstract

Cited by 56 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We show that three fundamental informationtheoretic constraints—the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment—suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantummechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a remaining open question about nonlocality and bit commitment. KEY WORDS: quantum theory; informationtheoretic constraints. Of John Wheeler’s ‘‘Really Big Questions,’ ’ the one on which most progress has been made is It from Bit?—does information play a significant role at the foundations of physics? It is perhaps less ambitious than some of the other Questions, such as How Come Existence?, because it does not necessarily require a metaphysical answer. And unlike, say, Why the Quantum?, it does not require the discovery of new laws of nature: there was room for hope that it might be answered through a better understanding of the laws as we currently know them, particularly those of quantum physics. And this is what has happened: the better understanding is the quantum theory of information and computation. 1
Perfectly concealing quantum bit commitment from any quantum oneway permutation
, 2000
"... Abstract. We show that although unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible, it can be based upon any family of quantum oneway permutations. The resulting scheme is unconditionally concealing and computationally binding. Unlike the classical reduction of Naor, Ostrovski, Ventkatesen ..."
Abstract

Cited by 44 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Abstract. We show that although unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible, it can be based upon any family of quantum oneway permutations. The resulting scheme is unconditionally concealing and computationally binding. Unlike the classical reduction of Naor, Ostrovski, Ventkatesen and Young, our protocol is noninteractive and has communication complexity O(n) qubits for n a security parameter. 1
A new protocol and lower bounds for quantum coin flipping
 In Proceedings of the ThirtyThird Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2001
"... We present a new protocol and two lower bounds for quantum coin flipping. In our protocol, no dishonest party can achieve one outcome with probability more than 0.75. Then, we show that our protocol is optimal for a certain type of quantum protocols. For arbitrary quantum protocols, we show that if ..."
Abstract

Cited by 42 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We present a new protocol and two lower bounds for quantum coin flipping. In our protocol, no dishonest party can achieve one outcome with probability more than 0.75. Then, we show that our protocol is optimal for a certain type of quantum protocols. For arbitrary quantum protocols, we show that if a protocol achieves a bias of at most ǫ, it must use at least Ω(log log 1 ǫ) rounds of communication. This implies that the parallel repetition fails for quantum coin flipping. (The bias of a protocol cannot be arbitrarily decreased by running several copies of it in parallel.) 1
Unconditionally Secure Commitment and Oblivious Transfer Schemes Using Private Channels and a Trusted Initializer
, 1999
"... We present a new and very simple commitment scheme that does not depend on any assumptions about computational complexity; the Sender and Receiver may both be computationally unbounded. Instead, the scheme utilizes a "trusted initializer " who participates only in an initial setup ..."
Abstract

Cited by 42 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We present a new and very simple commitment scheme that does not depend on any assumptions about computational complexity; the Sender and Receiver may both be computationally unbounded. Instead, the scheme utilizes a &quot;trusted initializer &quot; who participates only in an initial setup phase. The scheme also utilizes private channels between each pair of parties. The Sender is able to easily commit to a large value; the scheme is not just a &quot;bitcommitment &quot; scheme. We also observe that 1outofn oblivious transfer is easily handled in the same model, using a simple OT protocol due to Bennett et al.[2].
Alexandria digital library
 Communications of the ACM
, 1995
"... We investigate definitions of and protocols for multiparty quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum informationtheoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of veri ..."
Abstract

Cited by 36 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We investigate definitions of and protocols for multiparty quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum informationtheoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multiparty quantum computation can be securely performed as long as the number of dishonest players is less than n/6.
Cryptography In the Bounded QuantumStorage Model
 IN 46TH ANNUAL IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (FOCS
, 2005
"... We initiate the study of twoparty cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary’s quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory, w ..."
Abstract

Cited by 36 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We initiate the study of twoparty cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary’s quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory, whereas an adversarial player needs quantum memory of size at least n/2 in order to break the protocol, where n is the number of qubits transmitted. This is in sharp contrast to the classical boundedmemory model, where we can only tolerate adversaries with memory of size quadratic in honest players’ memory size. Our protocols are efficient, noninteractive and can be implemented using today’s technology. On the technical side, a new entropic uncertainty relation involving minentropy is established.
Insecurity of Quantum Secure Computations
, 1998
"... It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in for example the socalled twoparty secure computation. If this were the case, quantum smartcards could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (Personal Identification Number) ..."
Abstract

Cited by 27 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in for example the socalled twoparty secure computation. If this were the case, quantum smartcards could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (Personal Identification Number) from the customers' input. Although such optimism has been challenged by the recent surprising discovery of the insecurity of the socalled quantum bit commitment, the security of quantum twoparty computation itself remains unaddressed. Here I answer this question directly by showing that all onesided twoparty computations (which allow only one of the two parties to learn the result) are necessarily insecure. As corollaries to my results, quantum oneway oblivious password identification and the socalled quantum oneoutoftwo oblivious transfer are impossible. I also construct a class of functions that cannot be computed securely in any twosided twopar...
Unfair Noisy Channels and Oblivious Transfer, full version of this paper, BRICS report nr. RS0336, (2003) available from www.brics.dk/RS/03/36
"... show various positive and negative results on constructing Bit Com ..."
Abstract

Cited by 27 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
show various positive and negative results on constructing Bit Com
Why the Quantum?
, 2004
"... This paper is a commentary on the foundational significance of the CliftonBubHalvorson theorem characterizing quantum theory in terms of three informationtheoretic constraints. I argue that: (1) a quantum theory is best understood as a theory about the possibilities and impossibilities of informa ..."
Abstract

Cited by 25 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper is a commentary on the foundational significance of the CliftonBubHalvorson theorem characterizing quantum theory in terms of three informationtheoretic constraints. I argue that: (1) a quantum theory is best understood as a theory about the possibilities and impossibilities of information transfer, as opposed to a theory about the mechanics of nonclassical waves or particles, (2) given the informationtheoretic constraints, any mechanical theory of quantum phenomena that includes an account of the measuring instruments that reveal these phenomena must be empirically equivalent to a quantum theory, and (3) assuming the informationtheoretic constraints are in fact satisfied in our world, no mechanical theory of quantum phenomena that includes an account of measurement interactions can be acceptable, and the appropriate aim of physics at the fundamental level then becomes the representation and manipulation of information.
Unconditional security from noisy quantum storage
, 2009
"... We consider the implementation of twoparty cryptographic primitives based on the sole assumption that no largescale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. We construct novel protocols for oblivious transfer and bit commitment, and prove that realistic noise levels provide sec ..."
Abstract

Cited by 18 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We consider the implementation of twoparty cryptographic primitives based on the sole assumption that no largescale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. We construct novel protocols for oblivious transfer and bit commitment, and prove that realistic noise levels provide security even against the most general attack. Such unconditional results were previously only known in the socalled boundedstorage model which is a special case of our setting. Our protocols can be implemented with presentday hardware used for quantum key distribution. In particular, no quantum storage is required for the honest parties.