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Randomized kinodynamic planning
 THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBOTICS RESEARCH 2001; 20; 378
, 2001
"... This paper presents the first randomized approach to kinodynamic planning (also known as trajectory planning or trajectory design). The task is to determine control inputs to drive a robot from an initial configuration and velocity to a goal configuration and velocity while obeying physically based ..."
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Cited by 626 (35 self)
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This paper presents the first randomized approach to kinodynamic planning (also known as trajectory planning or trajectory design). The task is to determine control inputs to drive a robot from an initial configuration and velocity to a goal configuration and velocity while obeying physically based dynamical models and avoiding obstacles in the robot’s environment. The authors consider generic systems that express the nonlinear dynamics of a robot in terms of the robot’s highdimensional configuration space. Kinodynamic planning is treated as a motionplanning problem in a higher dimensional state space that has both firstorder differential constraints and obstaclebased global constraints. The state space serves the same role as the configuration space for basic path planning; however, standard randomized pathplanning techniques do not directly apply to planning trajectories in the state space. The authors have developed a randomized
Flatness and defect of nonlinear systems: Introductory theory and examples
 International Journal of Control
, 1995
"... We introduce flat systems, which are equivalent to linear ones via a special type of feedback called endogenous. Their physical properties are subsumed by a linearizing output and they might be regarded as providing another nonlinear extension of Kalman’s controllability. The distance to flatness is ..."
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Cited by 346 (23 self)
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We introduce flat systems, which are equivalent to linear ones via a special type of feedback called endogenous. Their physical properties are subsumed by a linearizing output and they might be regarded as providing another nonlinear extension of Kalman’s controllability. The distance to flatness is measured by a nonnegative integer, the defect. We utilize differential algebra which suits well to the fact that, in accordance with Willems ’ standpoint, flatness and defect are best defined without distinguishing between input, state, output and other variables. Many realistic classes of examples are flat. We treat two popular ones: the crane and the car with n trailers, the motion planning of which is obtained via elementary properties of planar curves. The three nonflat examples, the simple, double and variable length pendulums, are borrowed from nonlinear physics. A high frequency control strategy is proposed such that the averaged systems become flat. ∗This work was partially supported by the G.R. “Automatique ” of the CNRS and by the D.R.E.D. of the “Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale”. 1 1
RapidlyExploring Random Trees: Progress and Prospects
 Algorithmic and Computational Robotics: New Directions
, 2000
"... this paper, which presents randomized, algorithmic techniques for path planning that are particular suited for problems that involve dierential constraints. ..."
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Cited by 333 (20 self)
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this paper, which presents randomized, algorithmic techniques for path planning that are particular suited for problems that involve dierential constraints.
Configuration Controllability of Simple Mechanical Control Systems
 SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization
, 1995
"... In this paper we present a definition of "configuration controllability" for mechanical systems whose Lagrangian is kinetic energy with respect to a Riemannian metric minus potential energy. A computable test for this new version of controllability is also derived. ..."
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Cited by 97 (18 self)
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In this paper we present a definition of "configuration controllability" for mechanical systems whose Lagrangian is kinetic energy with respect to a Riemannian metric minus potential energy. A computable test for this new version of controllability is also derived.
Exponential Stabilization of Driftless Nonlinear Control Systems
, 1995
"... This dissertation lays the foundation for practical exponential stabilization of driftless control systems. Driftless systems have the form, x = X 1 (x)u 1 + \Delta \Delta \Delta + Xm (x)um ; x 2 R n : Such systems arise when modeling mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints. In engineer ..."
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Cited by 89 (4 self)
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This dissertation lays the foundation for practical exponential stabilization of driftless control systems. Driftless systems have the form, x = X 1 (x)u 1 + \Delta \Delta \Delta + Xm (x)um ; x 2 R n : Such systems arise when modeling mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints. In engineering applications it is often required to maintain the mechanical system around a desired configuration. This task is treated as a stabilization problem where the desired configuration is made an asymptotically stable equilibrium point. The control design is carried out on an approximate system. The approximation process yields a nilpotent set of input vector fields which, in a special coordinate system, are homogeneous with respect to a nonstandard dilation. Even though the approximation can be given a coordinatefree interpretation, the homogeneous structure is useful to exploit: the feedbacks are required to be homogeneous functions and thus preserve the homogeneous structure in the close...
Geometric Phases And Robotic Locomotion
, 1994
"... . Robotic locomotion is based in a variety of instances upon cyclic changes in the shape of a robot mechanism. Certain variations in shape exploit the constrained nature of a robot's interaction with its environment to generate net motion. This is true for legged robots, snakelike robots, and w ..."
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Cited by 82 (4 self)
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. Robotic locomotion is based in a variety of instances upon cyclic changes in the shape of a robot mechanism. Certain variations in shape exploit the constrained nature of a robot's interaction with its environment to generate net motion. This is true for legged robots, snakelike robots, and wheeled mobile robots undertaking maneuvers such as parallel parking. In this paper we explore the use of tools from differential geometry to model and analyze this class of locomotion mechanisms in a unified way. In particular, we describe locomotion in terms of the geometric phase associated with a connection on a principal bundle, and address issues such as controllability and choice of gait. We also provide an introduction to the basic mathematical concepts which we require and apply the theory to numerous example systems. 1. Introduction The term "locomotion" refers to autonomous movement from place to place. Robotic locomotion employs a variety of mechanisms. Though most of today's mobile r...
Nonholonomic mechanics and locomotion: The snakeboard example,” Robotics and Automation, Proceedings.,
 IEEE International Conference on,
, 1994
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Motion Control of DriftFree, LeftInvariant Systems on Lie Groups
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 1995
"... In this paper we address the constructive controllability problem for driftfree, leftinvariant systems on finitedimensional Lie groups with fewer controls than state dimension. We consider small (ffl) amplitude, lowfrequency, periodically timevarying controls and derive average solutions for sys ..."
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Cited by 79 (10 self)
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In this paper we address the constructive controllability problem for driftfree, leftinvariant systems on finitedimensional Lie groups with fewer controls than state dimension. We consider small (ffl) amplitude, lowfrequency, periodically timevarying controls and derive average solutions for system behavior. We show how the pthorder average formula can be used to construct openloop controls for pointtopoint maneuvering of systems that require up to (p \Gamma 1) iterations of Lie brackets to satisfy the Lie algebra controllability rank condition. In the cases p = 2; 3, we give algorithms for constructing these controls as a function of structure constants that define the control authority, i.e., the actuator capability, of the system. The algorithms are based on a geometric interpretation of the average formulas and produce sinusoidal controls that solve the constructive controllability problem with O(ffl ) accuracy in general (exactly if the Lie algebra is nilpotent). The methodology is applicable to a variety of control problems and is illustrated for the motion control problem of an autonomous underwater vehicle with as few as three control inputs.