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428
Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible div ..."
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Cited by 502 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a new centrality measure that identifies those vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of realworld complex networks.
Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks
"... A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structur ..."
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Cited by 246 (14 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of such sets of nodes. We define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales, and we study over 70 large sparse realworld networks taken from a wide range of application domains. Our results suggest a significantly more refined picture of community structure in large realworld networks than has been appreciated previously. Our most striking finding is that in nearly every network dataset we examined, we observe tight but almost trivial communities at very small scales, and at larger size scales, the best possible communities gradually “blend in ” with the rest of the network and thus become less “communitylike.” This behavior is not explained, even at a qualitative level, by any of the commonlyused network generation models. Moreover, this behavior is exactly the opposite of what one would expect based on experience with and intuition from expander graphs, from graphs that are wellembeddable in a lowdimensional structure, and from small social networks that have served as testbeds of community detection algorithms. We have found, however, that a generative model, in which new edges are added via an iterative “forest fire” burning process, is able to produce graphs exhibiting a network community structure similar to our observations.
Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks
 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA
, 2007
"... We examine the communication patterns of millions of anonymized mobile phone users. Based on call records, we construct a communication network where vertices are subscribers and edge weights are defined as aggregated duration of calls, reflecting the strengths of social ties between callers. We obs ..."
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Cited by 239 (13 self)
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We examine the communication patterns of millions of anonymized mobile phone users. Based on call records, we construct a communication network where vertices are subscribers and edge weights are defined as aggregated duration of calls, reflecting the strengths of social ties between callers. We observe a coupling between tie strengths and network topology: at the ”local ” level, strong ties are associated with densely connected network neighbourhoods, providing the first largescale confirmation of the Granovetter hypothesis. Based on fragmentation analysis, weak ties are seen to play an important role at the network level, accounting for global connectivity. The observed coupling is shown to significantly slow down the spreading of random information, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities. 1.
Community structure in large networks: Natural cluster sizes and the absence of large welldefined clusters
, 2008
"... A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins wit ..."
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Cited by 208 (17 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins with the premise that a community or a cluster should be thought of as a set of nodes that has more and/or better connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we explore from a novel perspective several questions related to identifying meaningful communities in large social and information networks, and we come to several striking conclusions. Rather than defining a procedure to extract sets of nodes from a graph and then attempt to interpret these sets as a “real ” communities, we employ approximation algorithms for the graph partitioning problem to characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of partitions of graphs that could plausibly be interpreted as communities. In particular, we define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales. We study over 100 large realworld networks, ranging from traditional and online social networks, to technological and information networks and
Evolutionary games on graphs
, 2007
"... Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to ..."
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Cited by 152 (0 self)
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Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in nonequilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorialtype overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by nonmeanfieldtype social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the Rock–Scissors–Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.
Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and selforganization
 Chaos
, 2004
"... We give a comprehensive account of a complex systems approach to large blackouts caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics, dynamics and risk of series of blackouts with approximate global models. North American blackout data sugg ..."
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Cited by 88 (14 self)
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We give a comprehensive account of a complex systems approach to large blackouts caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics, dynamics and risk of series of blackouts with approximate global models. North American blackout data suggests that the frequency of large blackouts is governed by a power law. This result is consistent with the power system being a complex system designed and operated near criticality. The power law makes the risk of large blackouts consequential and implies the need for nonstandard risk analysis. Power system overall load relative to operating limits is a key factor affecting the risk of cascading failure. Blackout models and an abstract model of cascading failure show that there are critical transitions as load is increased. Power law behavior can be observed at these transitions. The critical loads at which blackout risk sharply increases are identifiable thresholds for cascading failure and we discuss approaches to computing the proximity to cascading failure using these thresholds. Approximating cascading failure as a branching process suggests ways to compute and monitor criticality by quantifying how much failures propagate. Inspired by concepts from selforganized criticality, we suggest that power system operating margins evolve slowly to near criticality and confirm this idea using a blackout model. Mitigation of blackout risk should take care to account for counterintuitive effects in complex selforganized critical systems. For example, suppressing small blackouts could lead the system to be operated closer to the edge and ultimately increase the risk of large blackouts. 1
Estimating and sampling graphs with multidimensional random walks
, 2010
"... Estimating characteristics of large graphs via sampling is a vital part of the study of complex networks. Current sampling methods such as (independent) random vertex and random walks are useful but have drawbacks. Random vertex sampling may require too many resources (time, bandwidth, or money). Ra ..."
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Cited by 68 (12 self)
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Estimating characteristics of large graphs via sampling is a vital part of the study of complex networks. Current sampling methods such as (independent) random vertex and random walks are useful but have drawbacks. Random vertex sampling may require too many resources (time, bandwidth, or money). Random walks, which normally require fewer resources per sample, can suffer from large estimation errors in the presence of disconnected or loosely connected graphs. In this work we propose a new mdimensional random walk that uses m dependent random walkers. We show that the proposed sampling method, which we call Frontier sampling, exhibits all of the nice sampling properties of a regular random walk. At the same time, our simulations over large real world graphs show that, in the presence of disconnected or loosely connected components, Frontier sampling exhibits lower estimation errors than regular random walks. We also show that Frontier sampling is more suitable than random vertex sampling to sample the tail of the degree distribution of the graph.
Networks formed from interdependent networks
 PHYS
, 2011
"... ... obtained by analysing isolated networks, many realworld networks do in fact interact with and depend on other networks. The set of extensive results for the limiting case of noninteracting networks holds only to the extent that ignoring the presence of other networks can be justified. Recently ..."
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Cited by 45 (6 self)
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... obtained by analysing isolated networks, many realworld networks do in fact interact with and depend on other networks. The set of extensive results for the limiting case of noninteracting networks holds only to the extent that ignoring the presence of other networks can be justified. Recently, an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been developed. Here we review this framework and the results obtained so far for connectivity properties of ‘networks of networks’ formed by interdependent random networks.
Multilayer networks
 TOOL FOR MULTILAYER ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION OF NETWORKS 17 OF 18
, 2014
"... In most natural and engineered systems, a set of entities interact with each other in complicated patterns that can encompass multiple types of relationships, change in time, and include other types of complications. Such systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and it is impo ..."
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Cited by 34 (7 self)
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In most natural and engineered systems, a set of entities interact with each other in complicated patterns that can encompass multiple types of relationships, change in time, and include other types of complications. Such systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and it is important to take such “multilayer” features into account to try to improve our understanding of complex systems. Consequently, it is necessary to generalize “traditional ” network theory by developing (and validating) a framework and associated tools to study multilayer systems in a comprehensive fashion. The origins of such efforts date back several decades and arose in multiple disciplines, and now the study of multilayer networks has become one of the most important directions in network science. In this paper, we discuss the history of multilayer networks (and related concepts) and review the exploding body of work on such networks. To unify the disparate terminology in the large body of recent work, we discuss a general framework for multilayer networks, construct a dictionary