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350
On the Need for Time Series Data Mining Benchmarks: A Survey and Empirical Demonstration
 SIGKDD'02
, 2002
"... ... mining time series data. Literally hundreds of papers have introduced new algorithms to index, classify, cluster and segment time series. In this work we make the following claim. Much of this work has very little utility because the contribution made (speed in the case of indexing, accuracy in ..."
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Cited by 325 (59 self)
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... mining time series data. Literally hundreds of papers have introduced new algorithms to index, classify, cluster and segment time series. In this work we make the following claim. Much of this work has very little utility because the contribution made (speed in the case of indexing, accuracy in the case of classification and clustering, model accuracy in the case of segmentation) offer an amount of "improvement" that would have been completely dwarfed by the variance that would have been observed by testing on many real world datasets, or the variance that would have been observed by changing minor (unstated) implementation details. To illustrate our point
Trajectory Clustering: A PartitionandGroup Framework
 In SIGMOD
, 2007
"... Existing trajectory clustering algorithms group similar trajectories as a whole, thus discovering common trajectories. Our key observation is that clustering trajectories as a whole could miss common subtrajectories. Discovering common subtrajectories is very useful in many applications, especiall ..."
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Cited by 168 (12 self)
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Existing trajectory clustering algorithms group similar trajectories as a whole, thus discovering common trajectories. Our key observation is that clustering trajectories as a whole could miss common subtrajectories. Discovering common subtrajectories is very useful in many applications, especially if we have regions of special interest for analysis. In this paper, we propose a new partitionandgroup framework for clustering trajectories, which partitions a trajectory into a set of line segments, and then, groups similar line segments together into a cluster. The primary advantage of this framework is to discover common subtrajectories from a trajectory database. Based on this partitionandgroup framework, we develop a trajectory clustering algorithm TRACLUS. Our algorithm consists of two phases: partitioning and grouping. For the first phase, we present a formal trajectory partitioning algorithm using the minimum description length (MDL) principle. For the second phase, we present a densitybased linesegment clustering algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that TRACLUS correctly discovers common subtrajectories from real trajectory data.
Robust and fast similarity search for moving object trajectories
 In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data
, 2005
"... An important consideration in similaritybased retrieval of moving object trajectories is the definition of a distance function. The existing distance functions are usually sensitive to noise, shifts and scaling of data that commonly occur due to sensor failures, errors in detection techniques, dis ..."
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Cited by 155 (14 self)
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An important consideration in similaritybased retrieval of moving object trajectories is the definition of a distance function. The existing distance functions are usually sensitive to noise, shifts and scaling of data that commonly occur due to sensor failures, errors in detection techniques, disturbance signals, and different sampling rates. Cleaning data to eliminate these is not always possible. In this paper, we introduce a novel distance function, Edit Distance on Real sequence (EDR) which is robust against these data imperfections. Analysis and comparison of EDR with other popular distance functions, such as Euclidean distance, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), Edit distance with Real Penalty (ERP), and Longest Common Subsequences (LCSS), indicate that EDR is more robust than Euclidean distance, DTW and ERP, and it is on average 50% more accurate than LCSS. We also develop three pruning techniques to improve the retrieval efficiency of EDR and show that these techniques can be combined effectively in a search, increasing the pruning power significantly. The experimental results confirm the superior efficiency of the combined methods. 1.
Patterns of temporal variation in online media
, 2010
"... Online content exhibits rich temporal dynamics, and diverse realtime user generated content further intensifies this process. However, temporal patterns by which online content grows and fades over time, and by which different pieces of content compete for attention remain largely unexplored. We stu ..."
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Cited by 144 (5 self)
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Online content exhibits rich temporal dynamics, and diverse realtime user generated content further intensifies this process. However, temporal patterns by which online content grows and fades over time, and by which different pieces of content compete for attention remain largely unexplored. We study temporal patterns associated with online content and how the content’s popularity grows and fades over time. The attention that content receives on the Web varies depending on many factors and occurs on very different time scales and at different resolutions. In order to uncover the temporal dynamics of online content we formulate a time series clustering problem using a similarity metric that is invariant to scaling and shifting. We develop the KSpectral Centroid (KSC) clustering algorithm that effectively finds cluster centroids with our similarity measure. By applying an adaptive waveletbased incremental approach to clustering, we scale KSC to large data sets. We demonstrate our approach on two massive datasets: a set of 580 million Tweets, and a set of 170 million blog posts and news media articles. We find that KSC outperforms the Kmeans clustering algorithm in finding distinct shapes of time series. Our analysis shows that there are six main temporal shapes of attention of online content. We also present a simple model that reliably predicts the shape of attention by using information about only a small number of participants. Our analyses offer insight into common temporal patterns of the content on the Web and broaden the understanding of the dynamics of human attention.
Querying and Mining of Time Series Data: Experimental Comparison of Representations and Distance Measures
"... The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growths of interests in applications that deal with querying and mining of time series data. Numerous representation methods for dimensionality reduction and similarity measures geared towards time series have been introduced. Each individual work introduci ..."
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Cited by 141 (24 self)
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The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growths of interests in applications that deal with querying and mining of time series data. Numerous representation methods for dimensionality reduction and similarity measures geared towards time series have been introduced. Each individual work introducing a particular method has made specific claims and, aside from the occasional theoretical justifications, provided quantitative experimental observations. However, for the most part, the comparative aspects of these experiments were too narrowly focused on demonstrating the benefits of the proposed methods over some of the previously introduced ones. In order to provide a comprehensive validation, we conducted an extensive set of time series experiments reimplementing 8 different representation methods and 9 similarity measures and their variants, and testing their effectiveness on 38 time series data sets from a wide variety of application domains. In this paper, we give an overview of these different techniques and present our comparative experimental findings regarding their effectiveness. Our experiments have provided both a unified validation of some of the existing achievements, and in some cases, suggested that certain claims in the literature may be unduly optimistic. 1.
Polyphonic Audio Matching and Alignment for Music Retrieval
 in Proc. IEEE WASPAA
, 2003
"... We describe a method that aligns polyphonic audio recordings of music to symbolic score information in standard MIDI files without the difficult process of polyphonic transcription. By using this method, we can search through the MIDI database to find the MIDI file corresponding to a polyphonic audi ..."
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Cited by 120 (10 self)
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We describe a method that aligns polyphonic audio recordings of music to symbolic score information in standard MIDI files without the difficult process of polyphonic transcription. By using this method, we can search through the MIDI database to find the MIDI file corresponding to a polyphonic audio recording. 1.
Clustering of Time Series Subsequences is Meaningless: Implications for Past and Future Research
 In Proc. of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
, 2003
"... Time series data is perhaps the most frequently encountered type of data examined by the data mining community. Clustering is perhaps the most frequently used data mining algorithm, being useful in it’s own right as an exploratory technique, and also as a subroutine in more complex data mining algor ..."
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Cited by 117 (18 self)
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Time series data is perhaps the most frequently encountered type of data examined by the data mining community. Clustering is perhaps the most frequently used data mining algorithm, being useful in it’s own right as an exploratory technique, and also as a subroutine in more complex data mining algorithms such as rule discovery, indexing, summarization, anomaly detection, and classification. Given these two facts, it is hardly surprising that time series clustering has attracted much attention. The data to be clustered can be in one of two formats: many individual time series, or a single time series, from which individual time series are extracted with a sliding window. Given the recent explosion of interest in streaming data and online algorithms, the latter case has received much attention. In this work we make a surprising claim. Clustering of streaming time series is completely meaningless. More concretely, clusters extracted from streaming time series are forced to obey a certain constraint that is pathologically unlikely to be satisfied by any dataset, and because of this, the clusters extracted by any clustering algorithm are essentially random. While this constraint can be intuitively demonstrated with a simple illustration and is simple to prove, it has never appeared in the literature. We can justify calling our claim surprising, since it invalidates the contribution of dozens of previously published papers. We will justify our claim with a theorem, illustrative examples, and a comprehensive set of experiments on reimplementations of previous work. Although the primary contribution of our work is to draw attention to the fact that an apparent solution to an important problem is incorrect and should no longer be used, we also introduce a novel method which, based on the concept of time series motifs, is able to meaningfully cluster some streaming time series datasets.
Efficient contentbased retrieval of motion capture data
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH
, 2005
"... The reuse of human motion capture data to create new, realistic motions by applying morphing and blending techniques has become an important issue in computer animation. This requires the identification and extraction of logically related motions scattered within some data set. Such contentbased r ..."
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Cited by 105 (10 self)
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The reuse of human motion capture data to create new, realistic motions by applying morphing and blending techniques has become an important issue in computer animation. This requires the identification and extraction of logically related motions scattered within some data set. Such contentbased retrieval of motion capture data, which is the topic of this paper, constitutes a difficult and timeconsuming problem due to significant spatiotemporal variations between logically related motions. In our approach, we introduce various kinds of qualitative features describing geometric relations between specified body points of a pose and show how these features induce a time segmentation of motion capture data streams. By incorporating spatiotemporal invariance into the geometric features and adaptive segments, we are able to adopt efficient indexing methods allowing for flexible and efficient contentbased retrieval and browsing in huge motion capture databases. Furthermore, we obtain an efficient preprocessing method substantially accelerating the costintensive classical dynamic time warping techniques for the time alignment of logically similar motion data streams. We present experimental results on a test data set of more than one million frames, corresponding to 180 minutes of motion. The linearity of our indexing algorithms guarantees the scalability of our results to much larger data sets.
On the Marriage of L_pnorms and Edit Distance
 IN VLDB
, 2004
"... Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lpnorms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category consists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shift ..."
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Cited by 101 (3 self)
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Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lpnorms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category consists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shifting but are nonmetric. The first
Indexing SpatioTemporal Trajectories with Chebyshev Polynomials
 Proc. 2004 SIGMOD, toappear
"... In this thesis, we investigate the subject of indexing large collections of spatiotemporal trajectories for similarity matching. Our proposed technique is to first mitigate the dimensionality curse problem by approximating each trajectory with a low order polynomiallike curve, and then incorporate ..."
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Cited by 83 (0 self)
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In this thesis, we investigate the subject of indexing large collections of spatiotemporal trajectories for similarity matching. Our proposed technique is to first mitigate the dimensionality curse problem by approximating each trajectory with a low order polynomiallike curve, and then incorporate a multidimensional index into the reduced space of polynomial coefficients. There are many possible ways to choose the polynomial, including Fourier transforms, splines, nonlinear regressions, etc. Some of these possibilities have indeed been studied before. We hypothesize that one of the best approaches is the polynomial that minimizes the maximum deviation from the true value, which is called the minimax polynomial. Minimax approximation is particularly meaningful for indexing because in a branchandbound search (i.e., for finding nearest neighbours), the smaller the maximum deviation, the more pruning opportunities there exist. In general, among all the polynomials of the same degree, the optimal minimax polynomial is very hard to compute. However, it has been shown that the Chebyshev approximation is almost identical to the optimal minimax polynomial, and is easy to compute [32]. Thus, we shall explore how to use