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FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
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Cited by 542 (2 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that require on the order of 100 seconds to render typical data sets on a workstation. Algorithms with optimizations that exploit coherence in the data have reduced rendering times to the range of ten seconds but are still not fast enough for interactive visualization applications. In this thesis we present a family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray casting algorithms because the latter must perform analytic geometry calculations (e.g. intersecting rays with axisaligned boxes). The new scanlineorder algorithm simply streams through the volume and the image in storage order. We describe variants of the algorithm for both parallel and perspective projections and
Efficient ray tracing of volume data
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1990
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at ..."
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Cited by 392 (5 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at each point are derived from the data using local operators. Since all voxels participate in the generation of each image, rendering time grows linearly with the size of the dataset. This paper presents a fronttoback imageorder volumerendering algorithm and discusses two techniques for improving its performance. The first technique employs a pyramid of binary volumes to encode spatial coherence present in the data, and the second technique uses an opacity threshold to adaptively terminate ray tracing. Although the actual time saved depends on the data, speedups of an order of magnitude have been observed for datasets of useful size and complexity. Examples from two applications are given: medical imaging and molecular graphics.
Comprehensible Rendering of 3D Shapes
, 1990
"... We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatchin ..."
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Cited by 293 (0 self)
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We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can be efficiently combined with conventional surface rendering algorithms. Data about the geometric properties of the surfaces are preserved as Geometric Buffers (Gbuffers). Each Gbuffer contains one geometric property such as the depth or the normal vector of each pixel. By using Gbuffers as intermediate results, artificial enhancement processes are separated from geometric processes (projection and hidden surface removal) and physical processes (shading and texture mapping), and performed as postprocesses. This permits a user to rapidly examine various combinations of enhancement techniques without excessive recompntation, and easily obtain the most comprehensible image. Our method can be widely applied for various purposes. Several of these, edge enhancement, line drawing illustrations, topographical maps, medical imaging, and surface analysis, are presented in this paper.
Optical models for direct volume rendering.
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics,
, 1995
"... ..."
SemiAutomatic Generation of Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering
 In IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization
, 1998
"... Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function ..."
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Cited by 290 (7 self)
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Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function  the mapping from data values to renderable optical properties  is frequently a timeconsuming and unintuitive task. Ideally, the data being visualized should itself suggest an appropriate transfer function that brings out the features of interest without obscuring them with elements of little importance. We demonstrate that this is possible for a large class of scalar volume data, namely that where the regions of interest are the boundaries between different materials. A transfer function which makes boundaries readily visible can be generated from the relationship between three quantities: the data value and its first and second directional derivatives along the gradient direction. ...
A Polygonal Approximation to Direct Scalar Volume Rendering
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent ..."
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Cited by 250 (3 self)
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One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent triangles. This method produces results which are visually similar to more exact methods for scalar volume rendering, but is faster and has smaller memory requirements. The method is best suited for display of smoothlychanging data. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.0 [Computer Graphics]: General; I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling. Additional Key Words and Phrases: Volume rendering, scientific visualization. 1 Introduction Display of threedimensional scalar volumes has recently become an active area of research. A scalar volume is described by some function f(x; y; z) defined over some region R of threedimensional space. In many scientific ap...
The VolumePro RealTime RayCasting System
, 1999
"... This paper describes VolumePro, the world's first singlechip realtime volume rendering system for consumer PCs. VolumePro implements raycasting with parallel slicebyslice processing. Our discussion of the architecture focuses mainly on the rendering pipeline and the memory organization. Vol ..."
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Cited by 194 (10 self)
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This paper describes VolumePro, the world's first singlechip realtime volume rendering system for consumer PCs. VolumePro implements raycasting with parallel slicebyslice processing. Our discussion of the architecture focuses mainly on the rendering pipeline and the memory organization. VolumePro has hardware for gradient estimation, classification, and persample Phong illumination. The system does not perform any preprocessing and makes parameter adjustments and changes to the volume data immediately visible. We describe several advanced features of VolumePro, such as gradient magnitude modulation of opacity and illumination, supersampling, cropping and cut planes. The system renders 500 million interpolated, Phong illuminated, composited samples per second. This is sufficient to render volumes with up to 16 million voxels (e.g., 256 3 ) at 30 frames per second. CR Categories: B.4.2 [Hardware]: Input/Output and Data CommunicationsInput/Output DevicesImage display; C.3 [Com...
Curvaturebased transfer functions for direct volume rendering: Methods and applications
 In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization 2003
, 2003
"... Figure 1: Volume renderings of a 64 3 synthetic volume with four different curvature measures. Left to right: first principal curvature κ ..."
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Cited by 157 (11 self)
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Figure 1: Volume renderings of a 64 3 synthetic volume with four different curvature measures. Left to right: first principal curvature κ
Interactive Techniques for Implicit Modeling
, 1990
"... Recent research has demonstrated the usefulness of implicit surfaces for modeling geometric objects. The interactive design of such surfaces has not, however, received the same attention as has the design of parametric surfaces. Principally this is due to the difficulty of controlling the shape of i ..."
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Cited by 150 (13 self)
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Recent research has demonstrated the usefulness of implicit surfaces for modeling geometric objects. The interactive design of such surfaces has not, however, received the same attention as has the design of parametric surfaces. Principally this is due to the difficulty of controlling the shape of implicit surfaces while displaying the changes quickly enough for use within an interactive design environment. This paper describes progress towards interactive control of implicit surfaces and introduces new techniques useful to the designer.