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On the Complexity of Propositional Knowledge Base Revision, Updates, and Counterfactuals
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1992
"... We study the complexity of several recently proposed methods for updating or revising propositional knowledge bases. In particular, we derive complexity results for the following problem: given a knowledge base T , an update p, and a formula q, decide whether q is derivable from T p, the updated (or ..."
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Cited by 215 (11 self)
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We study the complexity of several recently proposed methods for updating or revising propositional knowledge bases. In particular, we derive complexity results for the following problem: given a knowledge base T , an update p, and a formula q, decide whether q is derivable from T p, the updated (or revised) knowledge base. This problem amounts to evaluating the counterfactual p > q over T . Besides the general case, also subcases are considered, in particular where T is a conjunction of Horn clauses, or where the size of p is bounded by a constant.
The Complexity of LogicBased Abduction
, 1993
"... Abduction is an important form of nonmonotonic reasoning allowing one to find explanations for certain symptoms or manifestations. When the application domain is described by a logical theory, we speak about logicbased abduction. Candidates for abductive explanations are usually subjected to minima ..."
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Cited by 195 (28 self)
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Abduction is an important form of nonmonotonic reasoning allowing one to find explanations for certain symptoms or manifestations. When the application domain is described by a logical theory, we speak about logicbased abduction. Candidates for abductive explanations are usually subjected to minimality criteria such as subsetminimality, minimal cardinality, minimal weight, or minimality under prioritization of individual hypotheses. This paper presents a comprehensive complexity analysis of relevant decision and search problems related to abduction on propositional theories. Our results indicate that abduction is harder than deduction. In particular, we show that with the most basic forms of abduction the relevant decision problems are complete for complexity classes at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy, while the use of prioritization raises the complexity to the third level in certain cases.
Computing Simulations on Finite and Infinite Graphs
, 1996
"... . We present algorithms for computing similarity relations of labeled graphs. Similarity relations have applications for the refinement and verification of reactive systems. For finite graphs, we present an O(mn) algorithm for computing the similarity relation of a graph with n vertices and m edges ..."
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Cited by 186 (6 self)
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. We present algorithms for computing similarity relations of labeled graphs. Similarity relations have applications for the refinement and verification of reactive systems. For finite graphs, we present an O(mn) algorithm for computing the similarity relation of a graph with n vertices and m edges (assuming m n). For effectively presented infinite graphs, we present a symbolic similaritychecking procedure that terminates if a finite similarity relation exists. We show that 2D rectangular automata, which model discrete reactive systems with continuous environments, define effectively presented infinite graphs with finite similarity relations. It follows that the refinement problem and the 8CTL modelchecking problem are decidable for 2D rectangular automata. 1 Introduction A labeled graph G = (V; E;A; hh\Deltaii) consist of a (possibly infinite) set V of vertices, a set E ` V 2 of edges, a set A of labels, and a function hh\Deltaii : V ! A that maps each vertex v to a label hh...
An Algorithm to Evaluate Quantified Boolean Formulae and its Experimental Evaluation
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1999
"... The high computational complexity of advanced reasoning tasks such as reasoning about knowledge and planning calls for efficient and reliable algorithms for reasoning problems harder than NP. In this paper we propose Evaluate, an algorithm for evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulae, a language that ..."
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Cited by 154 (4 self)
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The high computational complexity of advanced reasoning tasks such as reasoning about knowledge and planning calls for efficient and reliable algorithms for reasoning problems harder than NP. In this paper we propose Evaluate, an algorithm for evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulae, a language that extends propositional logic in a way such that many advanced forms of propositional reasoning, e.g., circumscription, can be easily formulated as evaluation of a QBF. Algorithms for evaluation of QBFs are suitable for the experimental analysis on a wide range of complexity classes, a property not easily found in other formalisms. Evaluate is based on a generalization of the DavisPutnam procedure for SAT, and is guaranteed to work in polynomial space. Before presenting the algorithm, we discuss several abstract properties of QBFs that we singled out to make it more efficient. We also discuss various options that were investigated about heuristics and data structures, and report the main res...
Finding Regular Simple Paths In Graph Databases
, 1989
"... We consider the following problem: given a labelled directed graph G and a regular expression R, find all pairs of nodes connected by a simple path such that the concatenation of the labels along the path satisfies R. The problem is motivated by the observation that many recursive queries in relatio ..."
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Cited by 144 (6 self)
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We consider the following problem: given a labelled directed graph G and a regular expression R, find all pairs of nodes connected by a simple path such that the concatenation of the labels along the path satisfies R. The problem is motivated by the observation that many recursive queries in relational databases can be expressed in this form, and by the implementation of a query language, G+ , based on this observation. We show that the problem is in general intractable, but present an algorithm than runs in polynomial time in the size of the graph when the regular expression and the graph are free of conflicts. We also present a class of languages whose expressions can always be evaluated in time polynomial in the size of both the graph and the expression, and characterize syntactically the expressions for such languages.
On the Computational Cost of Disjunctive Logic Programming: Propositional Case
, 1995
"... This paper addresses complexity issues for important problems arising with disjunctive logic programming. In particular, the complexity of deciding whether a disjunctive logic program is consistent is investigated for a variety of wellknown semantics, as well as the complexity of deciding whethe ..."
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Cited by 140 (26 self)
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This paper addresses complexity issues for important problems arising with disjunctive logic programming. In particular, the complexity of deciding whether a disjunctive logic program is consistent is investigated for a variety of wellknown semantics, as well as the complexity of deciding whether a propositional formula is satised by all models according to a given semantics. We concentrate on nite propositional disjunctive programs with as wells as without integrity constraints, i.e., clauses with empty heads; the problems are located in appropriate slots of the polynomial hierarchy. In particular, we show that the consistency check is P 2 complete for the disjunctive stable model semantics (in the total as well as partial version), the iterated closed world assumption, and the perfect model semantics, and we show that the inference problem for these semantics is P 2 complete; analogous results are derived for the an
Containment and equivalence for a fragment of XPath
 Journal of the ACM
, 2004
"... Abstract. XPath is a language for navigating an XML document and selecting a set of element nodes. XPath expressions are used to query XML data, describe key constraints, express transformations, and reference elements in remote documents. This article studies the containment and equivalence problem ..."
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Cited by 140 (0 self)
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Abstract. XPath is a language for navigating an XML document and selecting a set of element nodes. XPath expressions are used to query XML data, describe key constraints, express transformations, and reference elements in remote documents. This article studies the containment and equivalence problems for a fragment of the XPath query language, with applications in all these contexts. In particular, we study a class of XPath queries that contain branching, label wildcards and can express descendant relationships between nodes. Prior work has shown that languages that combine any two of these three features have efficient containment algorithms. However, we show that for the combination of features, containment is coNPcomplete. We provide a sound and complete algorithm for containment that runs in exponential time, and study parameterized PTIME special cases. While we identify one parameterized class of queries for which containment can be decided efficiently, we also show that even with some bounded parameters, containment remains coNPcomplete. In response to these negative results, we describe a sound algorithm that is efficient for all queries, but may return false negatives in some cases.
Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria
, 2002
"... Noncooperative game theory provides a normative framework for analyzing strategic interactions. ..."
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Cited by 134 (10 self)
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Noncooperative game theory provides a normative framework for analyzing strategic interactions.
Resolve and Expand
 In Proc. of SAT’04
, 2004
"... Abstract. We present a novel expansion based decision procedure for quantified boolean formulas (QBF) in conjunctive normal form (CNF). The basic idea is to resolve existentially quantified variables and eliminate universal variables by expansion. This process is continued until the formula becomes ..."
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Cited by 132 (18 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel expansion based decision procedure for quantified boolean formulas (QBF) in conjunctive normal form (CNF). The basic idea is to resolve existentially quantified variables and eliminate universal variables by expansion. This process is continued until the formula becomes propositional and can be solved by any SAT solver. On structured problems our implementation quantor is competitive with stateoftheart QBF solvers based on DPLL. It is orders of magnitude faster on certain hard to solve instances. 1